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Sahar Soltani. Int. Journal of Engineering Research and Application www.ijera.com ISSN : 2248-9622, Vol. 6, Issue 7, ( Part -3) July 2016, pp.28-37 www.ijera.com 28|Page Analysing Legibility of Space in Office Buildings: Case Studies in Kerman, Iran. Sahar Soltani 1 , Azadeh Khaki Ghasr 2 1 Master of Architecture, Dept. Of Art and Architecture, Yazd University, Yazd, Iran. 2 Ph.D. Assistant Professor, Dept. Of Architecture and Urban Planning, Shahid beheshti University Of Tehran, Tehran, Iran. ABSTRACT Most people spend a substantial amount of time at work. Despite this significant role, office buildings incur some functional and environmental problems for users, one of the most critical of which is to access and move easily through them regarding their mostly complicated spatial configuration. The aim of this study is to understand the relationship between legibility and different building typology in addition to achieving some design patterns by comparing them. In this connection, the role of physical context and different design typology of some office buildings in Kerman have been investigated with the aim of analyzing interior legibility and way finding. Accordingly, observation and interviews were conducted to complete the evidences found from VGA results of the space syntax software along with self - administered questionnaires of employees and clients. The results based on the analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of these office buildings in terms of legibility and way finding suggest some recommendations and guidelines so that they can contribute to promoting the future of office buildings design. Keywords: Office Buildings, Legibility, Way finding, Space Syntax, Spatial Configuration I. INTRODUCTION In today’s modern world, people spend an integral part of their life in workspaces. Accordingly, the quality of the built environment by which they are surrounded can have a direct influence on their quality of life, one of the most indispensible of which in is way finding and accessibility. Movement circulatory system in office buildings is one of the basic principles of functional attributes. A successful circulation in such buildings can improve the way finding of users, and reduce user confusion in the building (Slone, Burles, Robinson, Levy, & Iaria, 2014; Mazumdar & Geis, 2003). Legibility of space can make the audience a memorable journey through the building, and can provide good information about the layout and spatial arrangement of the building (Kolb, 2008 ). People who recourse an office building due to the urgency of their work need a quick comprehension of their location and spatial organization of setting. Remembering the space and creating a strong, cohesive mental image of space also help the users diminish the sense of confusion. The question addressed in this research is to understand the impact of physical attributes on space understanding, and legibility in office buildings in conjunction with achieving some patterns and approaches that can provide office environment more efficient and legible. Kevin Lynch proposed legibility as the ability of environment to organize and build a coherent mental pattern(Lynch, 1960). Thus, the degree of legibility depends on the ability of space to form a clear mental image. He also introduced legibility as the character of a space that can create cohesive cognitive maps; consequently, it helps people’s way finding(Herzog & Leverich, 2003). Legibility is important at two levels: the physical forms and the activity patterns. To take full advantages of the potential of a space, the awareness of the physical forms and activity patterns should complete each other. This is particularly important for outsiders because they require the environment to be apprehensible quickly (Bentley, 1985).Two main factors that affect the perception and understanding of space are: space attributes and user characteristics. Users perceive and understand space through the psycho- cognitive processes in the human mind and user characteristics affect both the information and its process. Therefore, legibility of space is affected by the type and arrangement of spaces in plan, its complexity and the amount of the three- dimensional elements in the environment (Hunt, 1984; Koseoglu & Erinsel Onder, 2001; O'Neill, 1991) II. LITERATURE REVIEW Architectural way finding focuses on finding the way and orientation in the built environment and urban settings, and its strategies in a natural outdoor settings are different (Hillier & RESEARCH ARTICLE OPEN ACCESS
Transcript

Sahar Soltani. Int. Journal of Engineering Research and Application www.ijera.com

ISSN : 2248-9622, Vol. 6, Issue 7, ( Part -3) July 2016, pp.28-37

www.ijera.com 28|P a g e

Analysing Legibility of Space in Office Buildings: Case Studies in

Kerman, Iran.

Sahar Soltani1, Azadeh Khaki Ghasr

2

1Master of Architecture, Dept. Of Art and Architecture, Yazd University, Yazd, Iran.

2Ph.D. Assistant Professor, Dept. Of Architecture and Urban Planning, Shahid beheshti University Of Tehran,

Tehran, Iran.

ABSTRACT

Most people spend a substantial amount of time at work. Despite this significant role, office buildings incur

some functional and environmental problems for users, one of the most critical of which is to access and move

easily through them regarding their mostly complicated spatial configuration. The aim of this study is to

understand the relationship between legibility and different building typology in addition to achieving some

design patterns by comparing them. In this connection, the role of physical context and different design

typology of some office buildings in Kerman have been investigated with the aim of analyzing interior legibility

and way finding. Accordingly, observation and interviews were conducted to complete the evidences found

from VGA results of the space syntax software along with self - administered questionnaires of employees and

clients. The results based on the analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of these office buildings in terms of

legibility and way finding suggest some recommendations and guidelines so that they can contribute to

promoting the future of office buildings design.

Keywords: Office Buildings, Legibility, Way finding, Space Syntax, Spatial Configuration

I. INTRODUCTION

In today’s modern world, people spend an

integral part of their life in workspaces.

Accordingly, the quality of the built environment

by which they are surrounded can have a direct

influence on their quality of life, one of the most

indispensible of which in is way finding and

accessibility. Movement circulatory system in

office buildings is one of the basic principles of

functional attributes. A successful circulation in

such buildings can improve the way finding of

users, and reduce user confusion in the building

(Slone, Burles, Robinson, Levy, & Iaria, 2014;

Mazumdar & Geis, 2003). Legibility of space can

make the audience a memorable journey through

the building, and can provide good information

about the layout and spatial arrangement of the

building (Kolb, 2008 ). People who recourse an

office building due to the urgency of their work

need a quick comprehension of their location and

spatial organization of setting. Remembering the

space and creating a strong, cohesive mental image

of space also help the users diminish the sense of

confusion. The question addressed in this research

is to understand the impact of physical attributes on

space understanding, and legibility in office

buildings in conjunction with achieving some

patterns and approaches that can provide office

environment more efficient and legible.

Kevin Lynch proposed legibility as the

ability of environment to organize and build a

coherent mental pattern(Lynch, 1960). Thus, the

degree of legibility depends on the ability of space

to form a clear mental image. He also introduced

legibility as the character of a space that can create

cohesive cognitive maps; consequently, it helps

people’s way finding(Herzog & Leverich, 2003).

Legibility is important at two levels: the physical

forms and the activity patterns. To take full

advantages of the potential of a space, the

awareness of the physical forms and activity

patterns should complete each other. This is

particularly important for outsiders because they

require the environment to be apprehensible

quickly (Bentley, 1985).Two main factors that

affect the perception and understanding of space

are: space attributes and user characteristics. Users

perceive and understand space through the psycho-

cognitive processes in the human mind and user

characteristics affect both the information and its

process. Therefore, legibility of space is affected by

the type and arrangement of spaces in plan, its

complexity and the amount of the three-

dimensional elements in the environment (Hunt,

1984; Koseoglu & Erinsel Onder, 2001; O'Neill,

1991)

II. LITERATURE REVIEW Architectural way finding focuses on

finding the way and orientation in the built

environment and urban settings, and its strategies

in a natural outdoor settings are different (Hillier &

RESEARCH ARTICLE OPEN ACCESS

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Hanson, 1984; Loomis, Klatzky, Golledge, &

Philbeck, 1998).Carpman and Grant define way

finding as a multistage trip from one’s home to the

facility’s reception area. Multiple factors and

various solutions have been introduced to facilitate

orientation and legibility in the interior space.

Weisman emphasizes the indispensible role of

spatial configuration of way finding(Weisman,

1981). Based on passini’s studies buildings with

central open spaces are usually more

comprehensible, and create clear cognitive maps in

people’s mind. This space makes it possible to

provide a general understanding of the building or

at least areas forming around it. Understanding the

spatial organization plays an important role in

spatial orientation; when people can read the

principles of spatial organization of a building, they

can have a clearer mental map; consequently, they

have a more coherent cognitive map, so the result

will be more accurate way finding(Carpman &

Grant, 1995; Downs & Stea, 1973). Garling studied

visual access in a building. He showed that if any

part of the building is visible from other parts, it

facilitates way finding. According to this study,

depending on the distribution of spaces in a

building and decreasing or increasing people’s

optimum way finding the quality of legibility can

be defined(Gärling, Lindberg, & Mäntylä, 1983).

Other elements of the environment that influence

way finding are the edges and boundaries of a

context. Lack of coherent boundaries of a building

with its spatial organization, encounters the mental

imaging process with more problems. Spatial

continuity is another factor influences the

understanding of a setting, and thus way finding.

The environment from which people receive

information to create the cognitive maps enables

them to reach their desired destination. To achieve

this goal, the cognitive map should represent a

sequential spatial system. However, sometimes

features of the environment do not let the cognitive

maps provide appropriate information (Passini,

1992).For instance, when there is no continuity

between the environments’ indicators, partial

cognitive maps are made with no associated images

that integrate the setting as a whole, so it becomes

difficult to detect the way.When it is difficult to

understand the relationship between different

spaces, lack of continuity can be observed in the

building (P Ortega, Jimenez, & Estrada, 2005).

There are many other attributes on which impact

way finding performance such as ambiguous

circulation patterns, repetitive architectural

features, contradictory articulation of interior and

exterior spaces, and numerous entrance sun

distinguished from one another (Passini, 1992).

Space Syntax: Integration in relation to Way

finding

Space syntax, developed in the late 70s

and early 80s by stead man in London, is a theory

and a tool for the analyzing architecture and urban

contexts (Hillier, 1996; Hillier & Hanson, 1984;

Montello, 2007; Steadman, 1983). Space syntax

provides an assortment of tools to analyze and

describe the spatial configuration of settings (John

Peponis & Wineman, 2002). This provides

another level of architectural discourser effecting

on the sociology of buildings and how the spatial

configuration affects accessibility and way

finding(Batty, 2004; Hillier, 2003; Ratti,

2004).Through the evolutionary process of the

theory, the mathematical techniques were

established in order to generate results in graphic

manifestations and correlations (Hillier & Hanson,

1986). The parameters of the space syntax are

connectivity, global and local integration, and

control value(Jiang & Claramunt, 2002).Studies

have explored whether the different measures that

space syntax provides can be related to way

finding. One way to measure spatial relations is

through the integration measure. Integration

quantifies the level in which spaces are related

directly or indirectly among each other. When few

spaces are crossed to get from one place to

another, a connection between two spaces is

direct, or shallow (Penn & Turner, 2003). Several

studies have shown that being familiar with the

building, people tend to pass through more

integrated spaces, and places with a desirable

range of visibility from the others(Haq, 1999; j.

Peponis, Zimring, & Choi, 1990). As the

reviewed studies have showed, researchers are

able, by the integration value, to link the spatial

characteristics of settings to way finding

performance (P Ortega et al., 2005).

III. METHODOLOGY In this study, both qualitative and

quantitative methods were considered for analysis

the final results so as to extract guidelines for

design by evaluating the weaknesses and strengths

of the case studies in terms of legibility. Four case

studies were selected to analyze through

description, software simulation and comparative

analysis with regarding to their differences in

morphology, size and circulation system. These

cases were visited for field data collection.

Following, two separate questionnaires were

developed for both employees and clients. A

number of questionnaires were collected in each

case, and the results were compared in all of them.

Subsequently, the plan layouts of each building

were analyzed by UCL Depth map software in

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order to deliberate the influence of way finding and

legibility. In the process of space syntax software

simulation two methods were used: VGA (visual

graph analysis) and agent-based analysis (Table

1).In the final analysis, the results extracted from

the field studies, which addressed the study’s

question from users’ points of views, compared

with the results of space syntax analysis so as to

verify both groups of results.

[Table 1]

[Study steps. Source: Authors]

Visibility graph analysis approach

examines the analysis of the main indicators of

space syntax approach. This map creates a colored

graph and illustrates successfully connected areas.

Warm tones represent easily accessible or

integrated (shallow) areas, and cold tones (deep)

signify segregated or less connected areas. Agent-

based analysis anticipates movement within the

plan based on two main assumptive simulations.

Avatars have proper information of the

environment, and the movement is purposeful.

Behaviors are planned according to stopping for

conversation, looking around, and also crowding

(Penn & Turner, 2003).

IV. RESULTS Case 1: Road and Urban Development

Organization building of Kerman

The four-storey office building of Road

and the Urban Development Organization is

located in Kerman, and its area is 4110 square

meters. Its clients are mostly companies and other

related agencies.

Radially organized circulation of the

building has made the various parts accessible

through the central void. Stairways and elevator are

also accessible and visible from the central space,

especially upon entering the building. Different

departments of this office have been organized in

cellular system arrangement and each separate

room has been designed for working groups of up

to three persons.

[Figure 1]

[Road and Urban Development Organization building of Kerman- Interior Space- source: Authors (2014)]

Observation and Questionnaires

The exterior of the building has the

necessary coordination with internal organization

and circulation system which creates an appropriate

image for the audience. The main route from the

entrance to the staircase is a strong and legible

direction, which provides a good all-around

visibility. The central open space has led to the

creation of less corridors. The two-side corridors

have been designed in a fracture shape; cutting the

visual accessibility with the end of the corridor has

reduced intelligibility. The central open space, with

a large proportion in height, maintains the visual

access to the upper levels of the building, but

formation of rooms on both sides of the corridors

has made it difficult to identify the boundaries of

the building (Figure 1).

The results of the employee questionnaires

show that most of the ground floor employees are

satisfied with way finding and legibility qualities.

The lowest levels of satisfaction were reported

from the employees who work at a higher level of

the building and at the end of corridors (located

after the fracture of the aisles). Most employees

found it easier to get out of the building than to

enter it, and this is due to the recognition of the

direction of arrival. There is less satisfaction in

sections and rooms with little visual access to other

parts. These people found it difficult to address

others to achieve their work station.

This argument is somewhat different from

the client's perspective. A large number of clients

reported confusion at the first referral as one of the

most important problems in this building. Next,

directions to the desired rooms and departments

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were selected as major problems. This question

was confirmed in the following questions by

reporting the lack of follow-up guidance and the

absence of symptoms and help signs. According to

the clients, the entrance, the exit, the stairs and the

elevator are the most recognizable parts of the

building, and next parking and restrooms, and at

last the management department and employees

welfare parts were chosen.

Space Syntax Analysis

Based on the VGA graphs (Table 2), as

also found in field research, the most integrated

areas are stairways and elevator. The route between

the entrance to the staircase is strong in terms of

connectivity and integration. The central open

space in the buildings appears as shallow and can

therefore be interpreted as promoting ease of way

finding. The end parts of the corridors are placed in

the blue areas, which mean less legibility for way

finding. Other levels of the building have the same

interpretation and analysis because they are similar

and symmetrical. However, arrangement of

different departments does not accommodate with

this potential of hierarchy. The VGA graphs of

other levels of the building show two red zones at

the joint between the corridors and central space,

and two other red areas at the intersection of two

corridors with main axes, which means a strong

integration and connectivity although these areas

do not have an appropriate functional usage.

Agent-based analysis also confirmed this by

showing high rate of movement. These maps show

less movement congestion at the central joint of

two corridors, so they have become less inviting;

however, there is some resort department located

there, which reduced the legibility and makes it

difficult for way finding. Escape stairs are also

located in the area with appropriate connectivity

and movement. However, in the interior, because

of their width and transparency, escape stairs are

not seen clearly from another part of the building,

so they are not recognized well.

[Table 2]

[Space Syntax analysis for Road and Urban Development Organization building of Kerman- Interior Space-

source: Authors (2014)]

Case 2: Cultural Heritage Organization building

of Kerman

The function of this 2180 square-meter-

area building, located in Kerman, has been changed

in 2004 to the Cultural Heritage Organization. The

main building was built in the first Pahlavi period,

and has changed in the interior and the facades, and

also some new parts were added to it. Most of this

organization’s clients are students, researchers, and

other related organizations. Old pattern and

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structure of the building are important distinctions in comparison to other samples (Figure 2).

[Figure 2]

[Cultural Heritage Organization building of Kerman, Source: Authors (2014)]

Observation and Questionnaires

This building consists of three separate

buildings. The Entrance porch guides people to the

main building entrance. The buildings are shaped

around three sides of a central courtyard. The open

hall of basic structure has been divided into some

private parts, which are separated by partitions and

panels. Using partitions of the same shape and

color has made it difficult to distinguish between

the various sectors. Two other buildings in front of

south and north side of the courtyard have been

assigned to the parts with less references; thus,

there is a relative hierarchy. Linear circulation and

organization of different parts of the building have

increased corridors and porches. Most of the

employees of the southern building evaluated it

difficult to get to their work space. The employees

of the additional sections of the building on the east

side reported it difficult to address to other people

for getting to their workplace. Most of the clients

were also dissatisfied with confusion in this part of

the building. Since most of the clients of the

eastern building and the next southern and northern

buildings are strangers, so regarding the references

the arrangement and configuration of various parts

could be based on it.

Space Syntax Analysis

VGA results for the four lateral sides of

the central courtyard are quite strong; however,

from observation, it appears not to be crowded and,

there is no correlation in western areas because of

the location of entrances. These results support

stronger integration in main entrance route and the

eastern building. Different tones of red color in

various parts of this graph demonstrates the

hierarchical structure type of the building. The

agent-based analysis show an equal pattern of

movement in four central routes at interior space of

a main building, and this was not reflected in the

observations; clients were also usually confused in

choosing their way (Table 3).

[Table 3]

[Space Syntax analysis for the Cultural Heritage Organization building of Kerman, Source: Authors (2014)]

Case 3: Jahad-e- Nasr Office Building of Sirjan

Jahad-e-Nasr of Sirjan office building, as

many examples of offices in Iran, originally was a

residential building, which after changes in interior

space, has become an office building. This building

has only one floor, and its area is 1035 square

meters. This sample is substantially different from

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the previous cases in area, size, method of circulation system, and recourses (Figure 3).

[Figure 3]

[ Jahad-e- Nasr Office Building of Sirjan – Interior Space – Source: Authors (2014)]

Observation and Questionnaires

Due to the small size of the building, less

complexity, and location of all parts on one floor,

there is no complicated way finding and legibility

challenges, but studying this sample for

comparison with other more complex samples can

be helpful to understand various aspects of the

issue. Based on field research, clients who refer to

this office for the first time have the most way

finding problems with the building. The similar

shape of the rooms and the doors along with the

same material and colors used in interior have

caused confusion of clients. In this building,

especially at the beginning, there are no signs of

wards guide. A large percentage of clients pointed

out the lack of follow-up work, which matches with

the observation, so it has led to lack of clear

hierarchy. Besides, the entrance is not clear neither

from exterior nor from interior.

Space Syntax Analysis

According to the space syntax analyses,

congestion in movement patterns are in the central

space from which most of rooms are accessible.

However, the location of the skylight greenhouse in

this area has low mobility patterns of users due to

the less visual access. In the original design,

furniture and waiting space are located in the red

zone (high traffic) of the agent-based graph, but in

fact, as the agent-based analysis confirms, this

place due to frequent movement is not a suitable

place for repose. Later, the waiting area located in a

place, which is specified by dark blue color (low

traffic).This can emphasis on the use of graphic

maps in space decorating. The waiting area and the

entrance of the auditorium are in a strong

connectivity area, so they are more accessible and

intelligible. Location of the resting areas in the blue

parts of the map shows providing greater privacy

for employees. Although, the VGA graph shows a

medium connectivity and integration at the main

entrance, this area was reported as low legible and

low integrated (Table 4).

[Table 4]

[Space Syntax analysis Jahad-e- Nasr Office Building of Sirjan, Source: Authors (2014)]

Case 4: City Hall building of Sirjan

The newly constructed building of city

hall, sited in the town of Sirjan, is a three-storey

building with an area of 1820 square meters. The

main difference between this case and other cases

is the high number of public references. The overall

shape of the building is visible from the main

roadway. The entrance was designed to be readable

and inviting although location of the stairs in this

area has reduced permeability and accessibility.

Placement of the building on the site has not

defined appropriate entering hierarchy.The

organization of the building form is composed of

two main rectangular elements, which are

connected by a circular joint. Accessibility of

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different sections and levels of the building also are provided through this joint (Figure 4).

[Figure 4]

[City Hall building of Sirjan – Interior Space – Source: Authors (2014)]

Observation and Questionnaires

Regarding the large size of the work

stations, and using the combination system in

interior arrangement, combining both cellular and

open plan office (Offices, 2005), the employees of

each level, especially those on the ground floor,

reported the ease of getting to their workplace from

the central joint. However, Giving instructions to

another person in order to find their workplace is

considered complicated. Most clients who came to

the ground floor evaluated way finding easier, and

those in upper levels evaluated this difficult. A

substantial amount of clients mentioned confusion

on the first referral to the building as one of the

most important problems. This could be due to lack

of proper guidance signs and architectural

elements. The entrance lobby does not seem

appropriate to the number of clients and their

density at a concurrent time (Figure 4).

The problem of overcrowding and

congestion also was reported in the client

questionnaires. Besides, the lack of significant

entrance space also has a negative effect on

satisfaction and way finding. For clients the most

recognizable parts of the building in order for

choosing are the stairs, the entrance, the exit, the

information station, and the following services, as

welfare of employees, management and parking.

Space Syntax Analyses

Based on Space Syntax analyses the

ground floor, especially the entrance is one of the

most integrated areas, but field observations did not

verify this because the location of the elevator has

divided the entrance space and made it smaller.

Strong color tone in this sector can be due to the

open staircase. In fact, despite the strong

connection of external intelligibility of the

entrance, it has had no effect on legibility or

internal intelligibility. The path to the left of the

stairs has also a strong integration; which due to the

placement of the most visited departments on the

left, and low visited departments on the right (the

blue parts), better legibility and effective hierarchy

is created. Placing the welfare part in the blue areas

of the map shows the proper function of way

finding, which controls unnecessary trips to the

sector. Agent-based analysis shows an equal

movement between two path sides of the stairs on

the first floor; however, in the building the

recognition of right way is more difficult than the

left way. Right side of the map is more integrated

and connected than the left side, and has created a

proper hierarchy because of locating the

departments with more reference in the right side,

and management department and most private parts

in the left side (Table 5).

[Table 5]

[Space Syntax analysis for City Hall building of Sirjan, Source: Authors (2014)]

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The overall results of both clients and employees’ questionnaires are provided in the following tables

(table 6, table7).

[Table 6]

Case 1 Case 2 Case 3 Case 4

Ease of getting to one’s workplace 53 35 66.7 55.9

Ease of addressing their workplace

to other people

23 65.5 78.5 43.7

Work station connection with other

parts of the building

68.7 42 36 30

Visibility of workplace 25 40.7 76 35

Ease of getting out of the workplace 82.5 78 87 82.5

Accessibility of other people to the

workplace

51 42 52 56

Ease of moving through the building

in order to reach the workplace

74 70.8 87 80.6

[Comparing the results of the employees’ questionnaires- these questionnaires codified based on: (P Ortega et

al., 2005)]

[Table 7]

Case 1 Case 2 Case 3 Case4

Comprehension of way finding in the

first referral of the building

25.5 53 19.6 34.9

Synchronization of the environment

facilities with work proceeding

33 18 62 40

Clarity of the work flow 43.5 34 43.5 24

Necessity of asking someone to find

the way

73 84 87.5 68.5

Ease of getting to the sightly parts 69 54 80.7 73

Exiting of the building 91 87 91 87

Recognition of different parts of the

building

19 12 83.5 29.7

Ease of addressing the sightly part to

the others

29.7 21 92.7 37.5

[Comparing the results of the clients’ questionnaires- these questionnaires codified based on: (P Ortega et al.,

2005)]

V. DISCUSSION

The results of this study show a strong

correlation between spatial configuration of office

buildings and way finding. The studied spatial

elements such as spatial configuration, visual

access, central open space, boundaries, and spatial

continuous have generally significant role in

improving legibility of space and way finding.

Regarding to the specific characteristics of

each case and comparison of their differences in

form, spatial organizations, and circulation system

in addition to the results derived from Table 6 and

7, the following approaches can be interpreted as

the most important lessons to advance the legibility

of office spaces in future designs:

Using elements and landmarks that are able to

build a coherent and clear mental image

facilitates understanding of spatial

organization

Visual, semantic and structural salience of a

building and its entrance have an important

role in creating more intelligible space in order

to memorize them more efficiently.

Linear circulation that provides access through

the monotonous corridor leads to more

confusion.

Visibility of stairs and elevators should be

considered to be suitable to the need of

movement and communicate with different

levels of the building.

Using spaces with different restriction, spatial

proportions, dimensions and different spatial

qualities can be helpful to create an integrated

mental image.

In large-scale buildings in which arranging the

linear circulation is inevitable, use of signs on

the main routes can be helpful, especially for

clients who reference building for the first

time.

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ISSN : 2248-9622, Vol. 6, Issue 7, ( Part -3) July 2016, pp.28-37

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Considering more attention to the natural light

can contribute to creating spaces with greater

clarity and legibility.

Making a recognizable difference in buildings

with symmetrical plan layouts or typed ones in

interior design by using various colors and

elements is very essential in people’s mental

images.

Spatial elements and physical factors have

a direct influence on legibility, and partially way

finding. But there are some layers and dimensions

of legibility that should be considered in each

specific context. In office buildings, legibility

should also be evaluated from the perspective of

both employees and clients. These issues can be

summarized as follows.

Clients have a short-term presence in the

building, and usually their work procedure is

associated with emergency. It is essential to attend

to these followings:

Having a welcoming perspective at the first

moment can have an positive effect on their

mental images, and consequently their

judgment of the building.

Using semantic elements that induce them to

recall memories or specific images.

Using familiar patterns and clear hierarchy that

can help the clients guess some events or

activities, and reduce their sense of alienation

and missing.

Regarding the occurring events, activity

patterns and how to design and arrange them

can manage the consequences of creating

mental images.

For Employees, being familiar with the

building, and spend a substantial amount of time in

it decreases the challenges of way finding and

orientation. One of important attributes for them is

to make that place a familiar place which evokes

home condition for them(Soltani, NaserAlavi, &

Ghasr, 2015). These are some solutions that can be

discussed about them:

The existence of some qualities that make the

workspace a familiar environment and increase

a sense of belonging to them.

The existence of affordances for personalizing;

thus, their work space will be more legible by

being specific.

Familiar Elements and patterns that employees

can make deeper relation with them.

Propriety of work space, visibility with the

work type and privacy needs of clients.

Differing each section from other sections.

(Using same shaped partitions makes it

difficult to have an effective relationship with

the environment and reduces its legibility).

VI. CONCLUSION The results confirmed the way finding

strategies and factors affecting legibility, which

were studied in the literature review. Moreover,

these solutions should be considered for two

separate office space users: employees and clients.

Since the collision, need, and relation to the

building for them are different and the level of

satisfaction of these buildings can be increased by

providing different qualities of legibility, it is

important to note that legibility is a scaled quality,

and should be followed according to the required

situation. For employees, semantic aspects of

legibility related to a sense of belonging, identity

and memorable attributes become more necessary.

However, for clients, in addition to semantic

aspects, physical dimensions and spatial

mechanisms are of great importance. By

considering the different needs of these two groups,

more effective approaches for legibility and

orientation can be provided.

The space syntax approach can be

modified during controlling design. It can be an

important hand software for designers. In this

study, space syntax method was used as a parallel

measurement to complete the understanding of

correlations and integrations of the studied

buildings. These analyses provide desirable

information about the legibility, way finding, and

accessibility, which are used for evaluation of the

extracted results.

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Sahar Soltani. Int. Journal of Engineering Research and Application www.ijera.com

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www.ijera.com 37|P a g e

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