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Shubham Kothari et al. Int. Journal of Engineering Research and Applications www.ijera.com ISSN: 2248-9622, Vol. 6, Issue 2, (Part - 2) February 2016, pp.20-30 www.ijera.com 20 | Page Effective utilization of crusher dust in sustainable concrete Shubham Kothari*, Trilok Gupta** and Dr. Ravi Kr. Sharma*** *(M.Tech student, Department of Civil Engineering, College of Technology and Engineering, MPUAT, Udaipur) **(Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, College of Technology and Engineering, MPUAT, Udaipur) ***(Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, College of Technology and Engineering, MPUAT, Udaipur) ABSTRACT In the today’s era with the growing expenses, abundant waste material is generated through processing units of stone industry, there is a need to increase awareness by utilizing economical substitutes to solve the problem of these waste. The utilization of crusher dust as fine aggregate for concrete has achieved more attention in recent year due to scary of natural river sand. Today continues efforts are made towards finding the substitute of natural resources. Research is therefore needed to least the environmental damages and to obtain sustainable construction. This review deals with how crusher dust would be utilized to deliver new items as additive for sustainable concrete. This study professed latest research on using crusher dust as replacement of sand in concrete. Effect on fresh and hardened properties of concrete with crusher dust is discussed in this paper. Keywords - Acid attack, crusher dust, durability properties, environmental benefits, modulus of elasticity, water permeability I. INTRODUCTION Day by day more modern techniques and innovations are being developed in view, that of rapid industrial growth. Production of materials and items through these procedures is prompting generation of gigantic amounts of solid and unsafe waste by means of products. Waste can be used to produce new products so that natural sources are used more efficiently and the environment is protected from waste deposits [1]. This is relevant because dimension stone industry presents an annual output of 68 million tons of processed product [2]. Stone has played an enormous position in human endeavors due to the fact earliest recorded history and its utilization has advanced from back age-old time. As far as stone nature, the dimension stones segment essentially contains of two principle classes of rocks: "Calcareous material" or "Marble" and "Siliceous material" or "Rock" [3]. Crushing stone industry has developed essentially in the most recent decades. The focus of a good national development is to look inwards with intent to mobilize all natural resources for economic purposes [4]. Concrete is a composite material composed of coarse granular material (the aggregate or filler) embedded in a hard matrix of material (the cement or binder) that fills the space between the aggregate particles and glues them together. The use of concrete, worldwide, is twice as much as steel, wood, plastics, and aluminum combined. The economy, efficiency, durability, rigidity of reinforced concrete make it an attractive material for a wide range of structural applications [5], continues research efforts have made to established green and sustainable concrete as a flexible material for huge development, because the entire materials of concrete are of natural/geological origin [6]. Its yearly overall production is around 3.8 billion m 3 - roughly i.e. 1.5 tons for each capita, as per information acquired from Portland Cement Association [7]. Indian construction industry is additionally leaning toward utilization of concrete with compressive strength of 6085 Mpa [8]. High strength concrete are influenced by the properties of the aggregate and w/c ratio [9]. Additives are also used in producing concrete, these substances added to concrete that do not fall under the headings of binding agents and aggregates [10]. Today we need concrete which should be stronger and durable for a balance of the w/c ratio [5]. Accelerated productivity of concrete result as a multiple use of automation and more effective equipments [11]. In the construction industry, fine aggregate is use as an important building material, and the overall consumption of fine aggregate in concrete generation alone is around 1000 million tonnes per year, making it scarce and limited [12]. This scarcity of fine aggregate forces us to find the suitable substitute. The cheapest and the easiest way of getting substitute for fine aggregate is by using crushed natural stone to get artificial sand of desired size and grade which would be free from all impurities [13]. In the past years, the escalation in cost of fine aggregate due to administrative restrictions in India, demanded comparatively greater cost at around two to three times the cost of crusher dust even in places where RESEARCH ARTICLE OPEN ACCESS
Transcript

Shubham Kothari et al. Int. Journal of Engineering Research and Applications www.ijera.com

ISSN: 2248-9622, Vol. 6, Issue 2, (Part - 2) February 2016, pp.20-30

www.ijera.com 20 | P a g e

Effective utilization of crusher dust in sustainable concrete

Shubham Kothari*, Trilok Gupta** and Dr. Ravi Kr. Sharma*** *(M.Tech student, Department of Civil Engineering, College of Technology and Engineering, MPUAT,

Udaipur)

**(Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, College of Technology and Engineering, MPUAT,

Udaipur)

***(Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, College of Technology and Engineering, MPUAT, Udaipur)

ABSTRACT In the today’s era with the growing expenses, abundant waste material is generated through processing units of

stone industry, there is a need to increase awareness by utilizing economical substitutes to solve the problem of

these waste. The utilization of crusher dust as fine aggregate for concrete has achieved more attention in recent

year due to scary of natural river sand. Today continues efforts are made towards finding the substitute of

natural resources. Research is therefore needed to least the environmental damages and to obtain sustainable

construction. This review deals with how crusher dust would be utilized to deliver new items as additive for

sustainable concrete. This study professed latest research on using crusher dust as replacement of sand in

concrete. Effect on fresh and hardened properties of concrete with crusher dust is discussed in this paper.

Keywords - Acid attack, crusher dust, durability properties, environmental benefits, modulus of elasticity,

water permeability

I. INTRODUCTION Day by day more modern techniques and

innovations are being developed in view, that of rapid

industrial growth. Production of materials and items

through these procedures is prompting generation of

gigantic amounts of solid and unsafe waste by means

of products. Waste can be used to produce new

products so that natural sources are used more

efficiently and the environment is protected from

waste deposits [1]. This is relevant because

dimension stone industry presents an annual output of

68 million tons of processed product [2]. Stone has

played an enormous position in human endeavors due

to the fact earliest recorded history and its utilization

has advanced from back age-old time. As far as stone

nature, the dimension stones segment essentially

contains of two principle classes of rocks:

"Calcareous material" or "Marble" and "Siliceous

material" or "Rock" [3]. Crushing stone industry has

developed essentially in the most recent decades. The

focus of a good national development is to look

inwards with intent to mobilize all natural resources

for economic purposes [4].

Concrete is a composite material composed of

coarse granular material (the aggregate or filler)

embedded in a hard matrix of material (the cement or

binder) that fills the space between the aggregate

particles and glues them together. The use of

concrete, worldwide, is twice as much as steel, wood,

plastics, and aluminum combined. The economy,

efficiency, durability, rigidity of reinforced concrete

make it an attractive material for a wide range of

structural applications [5], continues research efforts

have made to established green and sustainable

concrete as a flexible material for huge development,

because the entire materials of concrete are of

natural/geological origin [6]. Its yearly overall

production is around 3.8 billion m3 - roughly i.e. 1.5

tons for each capita, as per information acquired from

Portland Cement Association [7]. Indian construction

industry is additionally leaning toward utilization of

concrete with compressive strength of 60–85 Mpa

[8]. High strength concrete are influenced by the

properties of the aggregate and w/c ratio [9].

Additives are also used in producing concrete, these

substances added to concrete that do not fall under

the headings of binding agents and aggregates [10].

Today we need concrete which should be stronger

and durable for a balance of the w/c ratio [5].

Accelerated productivity of concrete result as a

multiple use of automation and more effective

equipments [11].

In the construction industry, fine aggregate is use

as an important building material, and the overall

consumption of fine aggregate in concrete generation

alone is around 1000 million tonnes per year, making

it scarce and limited [12]. This scarcity of fine

aggregate forces us to find the suitable substitute. The

cheapest and the easiest way of getting substitute for

fine aggregate is by using crushed natural stone to get

artificial sand of desired size and grade which would

be free from all impurities [13]. In the past years, the

escalation in cost of fine aggregate due to

administrative restrictions in India, demanded

comparatively greater cost at around two to three

times the cost of crusher dust even in places where

RESEARCH ARTICLE OPEN ACCESS

Shubham Kothari et al. Int. Journal of Engineering Research and Applications www.ijera.com

ISSN: 2248-9622, Vol. 6, Issue 2, (Part - 2) February 2016, pp.20-30

www.ijera.com 21 | P a g e

fine aggregate is available nearby [14-15]. The

volume of the crusher dust (high-volume, low-value

commodity) produced is increasing day by day [16].

The owners finding difficulty to clear the dust from

the crusher units [14].

The use of crusher dust in concrete is desirable

because of its benefits such as useful disposal of by-

products, reduction of fine aggregate consumption as

well as increasing the strength parameters and

increasing the workability of concrete [17]. The

construction industries have identified some waste

materials like flyash, slag, limestone powder and

siliceous stone powder and crusher dust for use in

traditional concrete [18-19]. Crusher plants produces

large quantity of crusher dust as it is kept in

abundance [19-20], which has landfill disposal

problems, health and environmental hazards [21]. In

India, there are over 12,000 stone crusher units and

this number is expected to increase further with the

development of the country. Crusher dust is a main

by-product of this industry generally represents less

than 1% of aggregate production [22-23].

The use of crusher dust as fine aggregate in

concrete mixtures will reduce not only the demand

for fine aggregate, but also the environmental burden

[24]. Studies are done on the influence of crusher dust

(finer than 75 microns) on the performance of fresh

and hardened properties of concrete [4]. The presence

of crusher dust as fine aggregate increases the water

demand and so the filler effect [25]. Natural

aggregate is one of the main ingredients in concrete

production accounts for about 75% of any concrete

mix. The strength of the concrete produced depends

on the properties of aggregate used [26].

Transportation is a major factor in the delivered

price of crusher dust. The cost of moving crusher dust

from the plant to the market often equals or exceeds

the sale price of the product at the plant. Because of

the high cost of transportation and the large quantities

of bulk material that have to be shipped, crusher dust

is usually marketed locally [16]. Crusher dust is well

appropriate in terms of strength and economy over

fine aggregate for medium grade concrete [27]. The

use of the replacement materials offer cost reduction,

energy savings, comparably better product and fewer

hazards in the environment [28]. It was observed that

40% fine aggregate can be effectively replaced with

crusher dust [29]. The present study is an attempt to

demonstrate the use of crusher dust to replace the fine

aggregate in concrete.

1.1 Waste generation and environmental problem

Following are the major environmental problems

associated with the crusher dust:

• Affect climate

• Air pollution[30-31]

• Noise pollution [7]

• Vegetation [30]

• Human health[32]

II. FRESH CRUSHER DUST

CONCRETE PROPERTIES Various findings are given by the researchers as

an outcome of conducting tests on crusher dust is

summarized below.

2.1 Workability

The property of fresh concrete which is indicated

by the amount of useful internal work required to

fully compact the concrete without bleeding or

segregation in the finished product [33]. Kapgate and

Satone [6] measured slump values and compaction

factor of quarry dust for a constant w/c ratio 0.44 for

0%, 20%, 25%, 30% and 35% replacement of fine

aggregate by quarry dust respectively. It was

observed that the slump value decreased and

compaction factor increased (Fig. 1), with an increase

in the percentage replacement of fine aggregate by

quarry dust due to the high fines of quarry dust,

requires greater amount of water.

Lohani et al. [34] reported the slump and

compaction factor of concrete made with quarry dust

for a w/c ratio 0.55. The slump and compaction factor

was measured for replacement of fine aggregate by

quarry dust at 0%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50%

respectively. It was observed that the slump value and

compaction factor decreased with increase in

percentage replacement of fine aggregate by quarry

dust was due to extra fineness of quarry dust, requires

large amount of water for ingredients to get closer

packing.

Fig. 1. Compaction factor of quarry dust concrete [6]

Shaman and Srivastava [35] reported that the

workability of concrete decreases rapidly with an

increment of stone dust in concrete. At the higher

percentage level of stone dust, the slump was zero

(i.e., no slump) due to the more water absorption

capacity of stone dust.

Singh et al. [36] investigated the slump in

concrete for replacement of fine aggregate by stone

dust (0% - 100%) in 10% incremental order, with a

constant dose of superplasticizer. Results in decrease

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in slump with increase in replacement level due to

increase in water requirement for angular stone dust.

Karthick et al. [37] measured slump values of

ordinary and quarry rock dust replaced concrete with

w/c ratio 0.5 such as 0%, 20%,40% and 60%

replacement respectively. Result indicates that the

slump value increased with the increase in the

percentage replacement of fine aggregate by quarry

rock dust due to flaky particle shape of quarry dust.

The increased slump value was shown in Fig. 2.

Fig. 2. Slump of quarry dust concrete [37]

III. HARDENED CONCRETE

PROPERTIES 3.1 Compressive Strength

Compressive strength is the key property of

concrete [38]. The Compressive strength of crusher

dust concrete mixes evaluated by the several

researches. Pofale and Quadri [5] reported that

compressive strength increased by 22% and 16% with

the use of crusher dust at 40% replacement of fine

aggregate. The compressive strength of all mixes i.e.,

a partial replacement of fine aggregate with crusher

dust at the levels of 30%, 40%, 50% and 60% showed

an increase in compressive strength by 8.3%, 22.3%,

18.5% and 4.9% for M25 respectively and 5.2%,

16%, 12.5% and 8.9% for M30 respectively.

Kapgate and Satone [6] observed that the

compressive strength of concrete cubes replacing fine

aggregate by quarry dust at 28 days for 0% quarry

dust was 36.3 MPa. Quarry dust content increases to

20%, compressive strength increased to 38.2 MPa

and for 25% quarry dust content the compressive

strength increased to 39.2 MPa. For further increased

in quarry dust, compressive strength was decresed

(Fig. 3).

Sakthivel et al. [14] carried out compressive

strength test for 10%, 20%, 30% and 40%

replacement of fine aggregate with quarry dust at 28

days. It was reported that the compressive strength of

controlled concrete was 42.2 N/mm2. Further on, with

the increase in replacement of fine aggregate by 10%

quarry dust, compressive strength increased and at

20%, 30% and 40% replacement level, there was a

drastic reduction of compressive strength about 30%

to 35%. The reduction may be due to the voids

present in quarry dust concrete.

Fig. 3. Compressive strength of quarry dust concrete

[6]

Shamim et al. [20] carried out an experimental

study to find out the compressive strength of concrete

for 0%, 50%, 60% and 70% replacement of fine

aggregate by stone dust and 0% and 10% replacement

of coarse aggregate by recycled aggregate. The 7 and

28 days compressive strength for 60% replacement of

fine aggregate by stone dust and 10% replacement of

coarse aggregate was observed 23.5 N/mm2 and 36.8

N/mm2 respectively. The stone dust concrete

compressive strength is 10% higher than nominal

concrete for 28 days. The increase in strength may be

due to the sharp edge recycled aggregate, forms a

strong bond in concrete production.

Sooraj and Narayan [22] analyzed compressive

strength test for M20 and M25 grade concrete mix

with replacement of fine aggregate by crusher dust at

20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100% respectively. For

instance, 7 and 28 day compressive strength of M20

grade was 12.4 and 20.7 MPa, respectively and

increased to 14.3 and 23.7 MPa, respectively for 40%

replacement of fine aggregate by crusher dust.

Crusher dust containing very fine particles which fill

the voids of fine aggregate and this was the reason for

increase in compressive strength. Lohani et al. [34]

observed the compressive strength of concrete with

fine aggregate replaced by quarry dust. Result shows

that compressive strength increased till 30%

replacement of fine aggrgegate by quary dust as

shown in Fig. 4-5 for 53 and 33 grade of concrete.

Suman and Srivastava [35] observed that the

maximum strength obtained at 30% replacement of

fine aggregate by stone dust in 7 days and variation of

strength within 18% throughout the replacement level

of fine aggregate. The 28 days compressive strength

was more than the designed value throughout the

replacement level and maximum strength was

obtained at 60% replacement of fine aggregate by

stone dust, which was 17% more than concrete with

zero percent stone dust. Result shows there was 5-

12% increase in strength due to the silica substance

present in the stone dust.

Karthick et al. [37] observed that the

compressive strength of cubes at 28 days for

controlled concrete was 23.3N/mm2. Compressive

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strength for 20% and 40% replacement of fine

aggregate with quarry rock dust was increased to 27.7

N/mm2 31.5 N/mm

2 respectively. At 60%

replacement of fine aggregate by quarry dust strength

was decreased due to the flaky particles present in

quarry dust which requires more water forms a

unsettled concrete.

Fig. 4. Compressive strength of 53 grade of quarry

dust concrete [34]

Fig. 5. Compressive strength of 33 grade of quarry

dust concrete [34]

Balamurugan and Perumal [39] investigated

compressive strength at the end of 7 days and 28 days

for M20 and M25 grade of concrete (Fig. 8-9). The

maximum strength was achieved at 50% replacement

of fine aggregates by quarry dust, which is 13% to

16% higher as compare to nominal concrete. The

higher strength may be due to the silicious substance

present in the crusher dust.

Fig. 6. Compressive strength of 7 days quarry dust

concrete [39]

Fig. 7. Compressive strength of 28 days quarry dust

concrete by [39]

Hameed

and Sekar [40] carried out compressive

strength test of M20 grade of concrete for 7 days and

28 days. Green concrete was having compressive

strength of 6.5% and 9.5% higher than controlled

concrete for 7 and 28 days respectively. The result

shows that a slight decrease in strength of concrete at

an early age, in some cases otherwise, it was

beneficial to the durability of the concrete.

Thushar and Rao [41] studied compressive

strength for 7 and 28 days for M20 and M25 grade of

concrete. Quarry dust of fineness modulus 1.77 and 3

was taken for M20 and M25 grade of concrete

respectively. Results shows the decrease in

compressive strength about 33% - 36% for 100%

replacement of fine aggregate by quarry dust.

Kumar and Singh [42] carried out experimental

study, to replace fine aggregate in concrete with

crushed stone dust and the compressive strength of

concrete for M25 and M30 grade was tested. It has

been observed that the strength increased upto 11.8%

at 20% and 10% at 50% replacement of fine

aggregate by stone dust, due to the fineness of stone

dust fills the gap in the concrete.

Sivakumar and Prakash [43] investigated

compressive strength of concrete cube of 100%

replacement of fine aggregate with quarry dust. The

compressive strength was observed at 100%

replacement of fine aggregate by quarry dust for 0.6,

0.7 and 0.8 fine to coarse aggregate ratio to be 29.9

MPa, 33.6 MPa and 26.1 MPa respectively at 56

days.

Singh et al. [44] observed that up to 30%

replacement of fine aggregate with stone dust, the

compressive strength was decreased at 7 and 28 days

(Fig. 8). Compressive strength for 40% replacement,

the strength was increased for 28 days while it was

decreased for 7 days. The compressive strength

shows both behavior due to the presence of stone dust

increases the water demand and so the filler effect,

i.e. decreased by 4.6% in 7 days and increased by

4.8% in 28 days as compared to the referral concrete.

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Fig. 8. Compressive strength of stone dust concrete

reported by [44]

Sachan et al. [45] carried out an experimental

study to find out the compressive strength of concrete

for 0%, 50%, 60% and 70% replacement of coarse

aggregate by recycled aggregate and 0% and 10%

replacement of fine aggregate by stone dust. The 7

and 28 days compressive strength for 60%

replacement of coarse aggregate by stone dust and

10% replacement of fine aggregate was observed 22

N/mm2 and 36.1 N/mm

2 respectively. The increase in

compressive strength was due to the sharp edges of

stone providing stronger bond with cement compared

to the rounded shape of ordinary fine aggregate. The

variation in strength as shown in Fig. 9.

Fig. 9. Compressive strength of stone dust concrete

[45]

3.2 Flexural Strength

It is also known as modulus of rupture, defined

as the stress in a material just before it yields in a

flexure test [46] and it represents the highest stress at

its moment of rupture. Kapgate and Satone [6]

showed that the flexural strength of concrete mix

decreases with increase in quarry dust percentage

replacement of fine aggregate (Fig. 10). The

replacement of fine aggregate at 0%, 20%, 25%, 30%

and 35% for quarry dust shows reduction in flexural

strength for 7, 14 and 28 days. The reduction in

flexural strength may be due to presence of flaky,

badly graded and uneven textured particles result in

mess concrete for given design parameters.

Fig. 10. Flexural strength of stone dust concrete [6]

Prakash et al. [8] observed that there is a slight

reduction in flexural strength with addition of 60%

stone dust as fine aggregate for w/c ratio 0.3 and 0.4.

The percentage reduction in flexural strength for the

mixes with stone dust compared to the normal

concrete mix was less at the age of 7 days. The results

were comparable at the age of 28 days. The

maximum variation at the age of 28 days was about

9.9%. The variation in strength was due to the flaky

particles present in stone dust which requires more

water forms a unsettled concrete.

Sakthivel et al. [14] observed that at 10% and

20% replacement of fine aggregate by quarry dust,

the flexural strength was increased to 11.2 N/mm2

and 10.6 N/mm2 compared to control specimens of

10.0 N/mm2. For concrete with 30% and 40%

replacement of fine aggregate by quarry dust, the

flexural strength was reduced to 9.4 N/mm2 and 9.2

N/mm2 respectively (Fig. 11). This may be due to the

voids present in quarry dust concrete.

Shamim et al. [20] investigated the behaviour of

concrete with partial replacement of fine aggregate by

stone dust (50%, 60% and 70%) and 10%

replacement of coarse aggregate with recycled

aggregate. Flexural strength increased by 4.3%,

12.0% and 31.2% respectively at 28 days for 50%,

60% and 70% replacement level.

Fig. 11. Flexural Strength of quarry dust concrete

[14]

Lohani et al. [34] carried out flexural strength

test for replacement of fine aggregate by quarry dust

at 0%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50%. The decrease in

flexural strength was due to quarry dust particles

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amount was not enough to fill all the voids between

cement paste and aggregate particles, for both grades

of cement (53 grade and 33 grade).

Karthick et al. [37] determined the flexural

strength at 28 days with M20 grade of concrete for

20%, 40% and 60% replacement of fine aggregate by

quarry rock dust. The result shows flexural strength

increased at 20% and 40% and maximum at 20%

(16% higher) compared with nominal concrete.

Balamurugan and Perumal [39] determined the

flexural strength for 7 and 28 days of concrete casted

by replacement of fine aggregate by quarry dust 0 to

100% in 10% incremental order. The result (Fig. 12)

shows maximum flexure strength was achived at 50%

replacement level. Which was 10% and 15% higher

at 7 and 28 days respectively as compare to nominal

concrete. The reason behind this was the silicious

substance present in the quarry dust.

Fig. 12. Flexural strength of quarry dust concrete [39]

Kumar and Singh [42] carried out experimental

studies to replace the fine aggregate in concrete with

crushed stone dust. The flexural strength of concrete

for M25 and M30 grade of concrete obtained by

replacing 0%, 20%, 50% and 100% fine aggregate

with crushed stone dust. Result shows increase in

strength about 10% and 11% at replacement level

20% and 50% respectively due to the fineness of

stone dust fills the gap in the concrete.

Singh et al. [44] observed that the flexural

strength increased significantly with replacement

(0%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60% and 70%) of fine

aggregate by stone dust as compared to the normal

concrete due to the presence of stone dust increased

the water demand and so the filler effect. The

variation in flexural strength as shown in Fig. 13.

Fig. 13. Flexural strength of stone dust concrete [44]

3.3 Split Tensile Strength

Tensile strength is significantly used for plain

concrete structures such as dam under earthquake

excitations. Other structures which are designed

based on bending strength, for e.g. pavement slabs

and airfield runways, are subjected to tensile stresses

[47, 48].

Prakash et al. [8] observed that the specimens of

concrete with 60% of fine aggregate by stone dust

and that without stone dust have similar tensile

strength characteristics. This was due to the flaky

particles which increased the water demand in

concrete.

Sakthivel et al. [14] observed tensile strength test

for 0%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% replacement of fine

aggregate by quarry dust. Result indicated (Fig. 14)

that 10% addition of quarry dust in concrete replacing

fine aggregate gives higher strength, when compared

to the control specimens. This was due to particle

shape change from smooth and rounded to rough and

angular in the case of quarry dust.

Fig. 14. Split tensile strength of quarry dust concrete

[14]

Lohani et al. [34] carried out tensile strength test

for replacement (0%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50%) of

fine aggregate by quarry dust. The maximum of

tensile strength at 20% replacement was 3.5 Mpa for

53 grades and 3.5 Mpa for 33 grades at 91 days. The

split tensile strength decreased as fine aggregate

replacement increased due to the flaky quarry dust

particles not able to fill the voids between aggregate

and cement paste.

Karthick et al. [37] observed that the split tensile

strength at 28 days curing for controlled concrete was

1.7 N/mm2. For 20% and 40% replacement by quarry

rock dust, tensile strength was increased to 2.7

N/mm2, 3.1 N/mm

2 repectively due to the fineness of

quarry dust. For 60% replacement by quarry rock

dust, strength decreased to 1.9 N/mm2. The variation

in split tnsile strength as shown in Fig. 15.

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Fig. 15. Split tensile strength of quarry rock dust

concrete [37]

Sivakumar and Prakash [43] investigated split

tensile strength of concrete cube of 100%

replacement of fine aggregate with quarry dust. The

split tensile strength was observed at 100%

replacement of fine aggregate by quarry dust for 0.6,

0.7 and 0.8 fine to coarse aggregate ratio. The

maximum split tensile strength of 3.15 MPa was

observed at 56 days.

Sachan et al. [45] investigated the split tensile

strength for 0%, 50%, 60% and 70% replacement of

coarse aggregate by recycled aggregate and 0% and

10% replacement of fine aggregate by stone dust. The

split tensile strength of replaced concrete was

increased by 40% due to the sharp edged recycled

aggregate and silicious substance present in stone

dust at the age of 28 days.

3.4 Modulus of Elasticity

It is an important mechanical parameter, defined

as the ratio between normal stress to strain below the

proportional limit of a material, and it is used to

calculate the material's capability to distort

elastically[49, 50]. Lohani et al. [34] concluded that

the modulus of elasticity at 28 days for nominal

concrete mix was achieved 32617 Mpa and 31000

Mpa respectively for 53 and 33 grade cement. For

replacement of fine aggregate by quarry dust i.e.

20%, 30%, 40% and 50% shows a reduction in

modulus of elasticity by 1.7%, 5.2%, 8.4%, 13.7%,

respectively in comparison with nominal concrete

mix for 53 grade. For replacement of fine aggregate

by quarry dust i.e. 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% shows

reduction in modulus of elasticity by 2.7%, 3.7%,

6.6%, 11.2%, respectively in comparison with

nominal concrete mix for 33 grade. This reduction in

ductile behavior of quarry dust concrete mix as

compared to that of conventional concrete was due to

reduced difference between modulus of aggregate and

hydrated cement paste.

Sivakumar and Prakash [43] observed effects of

quarry dust on elastic modulus at 100% replacement

of fine aggregate and 0.6, 0.7 and 0.8 fine to coarse

aggregate ratio had showed 15% higher elasticity

than controlled concrete specimens. The effects of

quarry dust on the elastic modulus property was

found to be consistent with conventional concrete.

IV. DURABILITY PROPERTIES The durability of cement concrete is outlined as

its potential to withstand environmental actions,

chemical attack and abrasion. The durability of

concrete is the important factor as it directly affects

the service life of the structure [51]. Durable concrete

may be defined as concrete that retains its original

form, quality, and serviceability when exposed to its

environment [52].

4.1 Water Permeability

Property of a material that lets fluids to diffuse

through it to another medium without being

chemically or physically affected.[53] High

permeability will allow fluids to move rapidly

through rocks. Permeability is also defined ability to

resist weathering action, chemical attack, abrasion, or

any process of deterioration.[52]

Hameed

and Sekar [3] observed minimum and

maximum penetration depths of two mixes. This was

due to the pozzolanic and filling effects of quarry

rock dust. There was more cementitious material

formed with dense structure, therefore, it was easy to

prepare a high impermeable concrete.

Ilangovana et al. [54] carried out an experimental

study to find greater penetration depth of the two

mixes (Fig. 16). Result shows that natural concrete

has more penetration depth because the size of

capillary pores in aggregate was much larger and high

fineness of quarry rock dust.

Balamurugan [56] experimented the water

permeability test and found co-efficient of

permeability for concrete as replacement of fine

aggregate by quarry dust from 0% - 100% in 10%

incremental order for M20 and M25 grade of

concrete. Results shows the decreased co-efficient of

permeability at 50% replacement of fine aggregate by

quarry dust. This was due to the sharp edges of

particles in quarry dust provides better bond with

cement then rounded particles.

Fig. 16. Depth of water penetration between quarry

rock dust concrete (QRDC) and natural sand concrete

(NSC) [54]

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4.2 Acid Resistance Test

A measurement of a surface's ability to resist the

corrosive effect of acids. Concrete uncovered to

acidic environment require prior capabilities of the

affect of sulphate and HCL on the crusher dust.

Concrete properties changes mainly due to the acid

attack on the specimen, deterioration occurs in terms

of reduction in strength and appearance [55].

Prakash et al. [8] observed that the percentage

loss in weight of concrete cubes after 45 days

immersion in 1% sulphuric acid solution and 3%

sodium chloride solution. The loss in weight was

negligible in the case of 60% replacement of fine

aggregate by stone dust and that without stone dust.

For both concrete mixes, the specimens of 60%

replacement of fine aggregate by stone dust and that

without stone dust are attacked by acid was more or

less in the same manner. This was due to that the

active SiO2 in stone dust can react with the Ca (OH)2

in concrete to form secondary calcium silicate

hydrate and make it chemically stable and structurally

dense.

Lohani et al. [34] investigated the durability of

the concrete formed by 50% replacement of fine

aggregate by quarry dust. The effect on concrete

cubes on immersion in 5% solution of magnesium

sulphate, 5% solution of sodium chloride and 2N

hydrochloric acid solution on compressive strength

and weight was observed at 28 days and 91 days (Fig.

17-18).

There was no loss of strength for immersion in

MgSO4 and NaCl solution in comparison with

immersion in normal water and the strength gain

continue on almost all the specimens with no loss in

weight.

In case of HCl solution, loss of strength and

weight in comparison with immersion in normal

water was observed. The loss in strength increased

with increase in days of immersion in HCl solution

observed for all concrete mix.

Fig. 17. Compressive strength in immersion with

different solutions for 53 grade of quarry dust

concrete [34]

Fig. 18. Compressive strength in immersion with

different solutions for 33 grade of quarry dust

concrete [34]

Ilangovana et al. [54] carried out experimental

study to evaluate the degree of deterioration of two

concrete mixes against accelerated magnesium

sulphate and hydrochloric acid. Standard prism

specimens were immersed in testing baths (one

containing 7.5% MgSO4

and 7.5% Na2SO

4 by weight

of water and other containing H2SO

4 of pH value 2).

Result shows that durability of quarry rock dust

concrete under sulphate and acid action was higher to

that of natural sand concrete (Fig. 19).

Fig. 19. Percentage weight loss between Quarry Rock

Dust Concrete (QRDC) and Natural Sand Concrete

(NSC) [54]

4.3 Rapid Chloride Permeability

The test method is according to ASTM C 1202-

97. One of the main characteristics influencing the

durability of concrete was its permeability to the

entrance of chloride [57]. The chloride ion present in

the concrete can have harmful affect on concrete as

well as on the reinforcement. Singh [57] investigated

the chloride ion permeability of M20 and M25 grade

of concrete formed by replacement of fine aggregate

by waste foundry sand for 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%

replacement. RCPT for 28, 91 an 365 days curing,

result shows the chloride ion permeability decreased

with the increase in WFS. Which indicates that

concrete became more dense due to reduction in

voids.

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V. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS The use of crusher dust as a partial replacement

of fine aggregate in concrete has been broadly

investigated in recent years. This review paper has

presented aspects on crusher dust and its usage in

concrete, which could be summarized and concluded

as:

1. According to prior test studies, it refers that

utilization of crusher dust had a good prospective

in partial replacement of natural river sand.

2. Crusher dust has control on the workability

property of concrete. The slump value and the

compaction factor decreased with the increase in

crusher dust due to high fineness and flaky

particles of crusher dust, requires greater amount

of water.

3. According to the study, crusher dust has high

fineness which provides sensible cohesiveness of

the mix and increases the water demand.

4. As per the study, it demonstrates an increment in

strength and quality when crusher dust replaces

fine aggregate up to certain rate.

5. Concrete produced by using crusher dust has

durability properties comparable to or superior

than, proportional control mixes.

6. Utilization of crusher dust demonstrates efficient

micro filling ability.

7. Use of crusher dust waste in concrete mix proved

exceptionally helpful to produce green

sustainable concrete.

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