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NF-POGO Alumni E-NewsleƩer Volume 15, October 2018 NF-POGO Alumni E-NewsleƩer – Volume 15 October 2018 Fighting plastic pollution
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NF-POGO Alumni E-Newsle er – Volume 15,, October 2018NF-POGO Alumni E-Newsle er – Volume 15 October 2018

Fighting plastic pollution

NF-POGO Alumni E-Newsle er – Volume 15, October 2018This issue:

From the Editorial Board ....................................................................................................................NF-POGO CofE NF-POGO Centre of Excellence in Observa onal Oceanography ........................................... 2017-2018 CofE Scholars individual projects .........................................................................4th GEO Blue Planet Symposium ....................................................................................................... Presenta on on Ocean Literacy in Bangladesh at the 4th GEO Blue Planet Symposium .......NANO Research Projects Caribbean project ..................................................................................................................NANO Alumni in ac on: Capacity building Dr. Fernanda Giannini.............................................................................................................. Ngozi Oguguah and Dr. Edem Mahu ......................................................................................Plas c Pollu on Pavanee Annasawmy ............................................................................................................. Arnaud Nicolas and Khishma Modoosoodun-Nicolas ............................................................ Zerihun Senbeto .................................................................................................................... Dr. Mohammad Muslem Uddin ............................................................................................. Mehrshad Taheri, Mohammad Ali Hamzeh, Samad Hamzei, Maziar Khosravi and Maryam Yazdani Foshtomi ................................................................................................................... La Daana Kanhai ..................................................................................................................... Seán Lynch .............................................................................................................................NANO Alumni in ac on: Research communica ons Dr. Fernanda Giannini ............................................................................................................ Dr. Forough Fendereski .......................................................................................................... Stella Patricia Betancur-Turizo ............................................................................................... Dr. Lilian Krug .........................................................................................................................Opportuni es announcements .........................................................................................................

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Cover page “Plas c Bag” courtesy of Mr. João Rodrigues and Chimera VisualsNatural history and conserva on photojournalist, João Rodrigues, was born in Torres Novas, Portugal. Amazed by the natural world, he moved to Faro at the age of 17 to study Biology and fulfi ll his aspira on to live closer to the ocean. João Rodrigues graduated with a BSc degree in Biology from the University of Algarve, Portugal, as well as with an MSc in Marine Bi-odiversity and Conserva on from the University of Ghent, Belgium. As a Biologist and professional diver for near over a decade, João Rodrigues has been very ac ve in exploring and studying the ma-rine and aqua c environments. Since 2010, he has been working in several marine and aqua c environments as well as challenging underwater scenarios such as: freshwater caves, deep seamounts in the Mid-Atlan c Ridge, frozen waters from the Nordic Seas, Shipwrecks in the Bal c sea, marine

caves, estuarine lagoons, reefs, rivers, lakes etc.The passion and experience in natural history imagery grew while João Rodrigues was living in the Azores archipelago. During the years of 2015 and 2016, he worked as a guide, safety diver and assistant of acclaimed underwater photographers and fi lmmakers. He has par cipated in several photography campaigns for interna onal diving magazines and gave his contribu on in documentaries such as “Europe´s Wild Islands” from Na- onal Geographic Channel, “Blue Planet 2” from BBC, “Oásis-Azores Islands, North Atlan c Ocean“ from NHK channel, “+ ou – 5mètres” from Arte

channel, and “Life at the Extreme-Deep/Azores” from iTV channel etc. João Rodrigues believes that photography is one of the most powerful tools for Nature conserva on. Current-ly, he is a collaborator of the Na onal Geographic Portugal magazine and is working on projects to promote the underwater natural heritage of Portugal as well as collabora ng with research groups from portuguese universi es.Combining an in-depth academic knowledge of wild environments (especially marine and aqua c) with a unique perspec ve for capturing images, his aim is to educate and impassion people about nature through his images.

Patrons: Sophie Seeyave / Chief Execu ve Offi cer - POGO Shubha Sathyendranath and Trevor Pla / Former Execu ve Directors - POGO Fiona Beckman / Communica ons Offi cer - POGO Takehiro Umemura / Mari me Aff airs Department, Nippon Founda on

Editorial Board: Pavanee Annasawmy, Forough Fendereski, Marwa Baloza, Ousmane Diankha, Lilian Krug, Fiona Beckman, Sophie Seeyave.NANO News layout design editor: Lilian Krug

From the Editorial Board

The 15th issue of NANO News is presented here with great pride and honour. Since the NANO news debut in 2011, NANO members across the globe have been sharing their par cipa on in lectures and conferences, their projects and ideas, and have communicated about their research. NANO has been ac ng as a pla orm for its members working in various scien fi c fi elds, from satellite to physical, chemical and biological oceanography, along the coast or in the deep ocean.

This issue is a refl ec on of the diverse backgrounds and research interests of the NANO net-work. We will travel to Toulouse, France for the 4th GEO Blue Planet Symposium; to Villefrance-sur-Mer, France, where we meet some of the young researchers who took part in the IOCCG summer lecture series; to Germany to meet the CofE scholars and read about their various research projects; to the Coastal Ocean Environment Summer School organised at the Univer-sity of Ghana; to Venezuela to learn about the invasive lionfi sh and about the outreach ac vi- es carried out to bring awareness to the general public; to the West coast of Canada to learn

how satellite and in situ data can help us to understand the ecosystem and salmon migra on routes; and we will learn how ins tu onal agreements can lead to joint research in detec ng long-term changes in marine ecosystems around the Americas. We will also read about the fi rst a empt to validate remotely sensed Chl-a data in the Caspian Sea region and about the use of satellite remote sensing and ocean surface par on techniques to assess environmen-tal variability along the Southwest Iberian Peninsula.

Finally, since the Earth Day Network declared that the 2018 Earth Day theme would be to “End Plas c Pollu on”, we have collated some specifi c ar cles on this topic. We will learn about microplas cs in the ocean, plas c pollu on along Banbar Abbas Coastline in Iran and about beach clean-up ac vi es carried out in Mauri us and Bangladesh. We will also learn about an innova ve applica on called OpenLi erMap that can track and hence help to reduce li er; about global plas c misuse, its eff ects on environmental and human health, and about alterna- ves to single use plas c items in our daily lives.

On behalf of the editorial board, I wish to express my sincere gra tude to all the contributors that have made this issue special by taking me off their various research projects and con-tributed in sharing their knowledge with other NANO members. Special thanks go to Sophie Seeyave and Lilian Krug for their support and guidance in the prepara on of this issue.

On behalf of the editorial team,With our very best wishes,

Pavanee AnnasawmyEditor-in-chief

2Contact us: [email protected], [email protected], [email protected] website: www.nf-pogo-alumni.org

NF-POGO CofE

The NF-POGO Centre of Excellence in Observa onal Oceanography at the Alfred Wegener Ins -tute (AWI) is currently concluding its second phase (2013-2018). The ten scholars from the 2017-

18 cohort successfully completed the training and graduated on 24th July in Berlin. They gave their individual research project presenta ons to an audience composed of representa ves of POGO, the Nippon Founda on and the Helmholtz Associa on, as well as CofE staff and faculty. They were awarded their cer fi cates by Prof. Karen Wiltshire, Director of the NF-POGO Centre of Excellence at AWI and Chair of POGO, and Mr. Takehiro Ume-mura from the Nippon Founda on.

The third phase of the programme, to begin in September 2018, will con nue to provide training to interna onal scholars in the well-equipped AWI facili es on the islands of Sylt and Helgoland, Germany. This 10-month programme includes three major components: shipboard training, theore cal and laboratory modules related to shelf/basin interac ons and open ocean sciences, and independent research projects.

A team of eight evaluators from AWI and POGO analyzed and ranked a total of 63 eligible applica ons, from 26 countries. The highest-scored candidates were interviewed via Skype and, from these, ten successful candidates were selected and no fi ed. The future new scholars will be introduced in the next issue of NANO News, when all ten have successfully ob-tained their visas and travelled to Germany.

The NF-POGO CofE (Year 9) at Gradua on day (le ; AWI) and in Helgoland; Gay Amabelle Go).

Dr. Sophie SeeyavePOGO Chief Execu ve Offi cer

NF-POGO Centre of Excellence in Observa onal Oceanography

As part of the CofE training, the scholars must propose, conduct and present individual re-

search projects under the supervision of CofE faculty and collaborators.

Next, the 2017-2018 CofE scholars present the abstracts of their individual projects.

2017-2018 CofE Scholars individual projects

3Contact us: [email protected], [email protected], [email protected] website: www.nf-pogo-alumni.org

Ajin Ambika Madhavan+, Dr. Harald Asmus, Dr. Ragnild Asmus, Dr. Sabine Horn, Pe-tra Kadel*Alumnus profi le: h ps://nf-pogo-alumni.org/profi le/Ajin+Madhavan/

Studying the eff ect of elevated temperature on the benthic communi es associated with seagrass ecosystems

During the past century, increased human ac vi es such as the burning of fossil fuels have been changing the Earth’s climate at an accelerated rate. This can lead to local

and global changes in the ocean’s temperature, pH and produc vity and can result in sea level rise. Ocean warming, one of the major concerns over the global oceans, can cause serious damage to many sensi ve marine ecosystems, even with a small increase in temperature. The present study inves gates the eff ect of ocean warming on the benthic communi es associated with the seagrass (Zostera nol i) ecosystems of the Wadden Sea, Sylt. A unique mesocosm experimental setup was built at the AWI Wadden Sea Sta on, Sylt for this purpose. Twelve tanks, holding diff erent physical and chemical con-di ons, were set up for the experiments. A 4 ̊C warming was simulated in the tanks from the natural regime apart from the controls. Ini al samplings of micro- and macro- benthic communi es were performed from the fi eld sediments and the samples were studied to inves gate the abundance and percentage coverage of the animals. Each mesocosm was equipped with four 20x20 cm (400 cm²) boxes, with each box containing a sediment core, seagrass and the associated macrofauna, represen ng a sec on of the natural seagrass community. Boxes were incubated for a four-week period. A er the incuba on period, one box of the total set was sampled for measuring the necessary parameters. Sediments were fi ltered using 1 mm sieve to collect macro-benthic organisms. Animals were sorted out under the microscope using proper iden fi ca on keys and preserved for further analyses such as dry weight, ash free dry weight and carbon content to determine the biomass. Our results indicated a higher biomass (86034 mg C m-2) in the warmer tanks within a short me than in the ambient treatment (19744 mg C m-2). Biomass of Cerastoderma edule (74865 mg C m-2) was consider-

ably higher in the warmer tanks than in the ambient tanks, where the biomass was very low (3920 mg C m-2). Limecola balthica (bivalve), which prefers cold-water temperatures, showed a slight decrease in biomass in the warmer tank (4081 mg C m-2). However, their biomass was approximately the same as in that of the ambient condi on (4537 mg C m-2). Polychaetes such as Eteone longa, Hediste diversicolor and Arenicola marina showed an increase in their biomass in the warm treatments. Decreased biomass of gastropods such as Peringia ulvae, Li orina li orea and crustacean Corophium volutator were also observed in the warmer tanks. In general, animals subject to the warmer treatment showed higher abundance and considerable increase in biomass, with Ceratosderma edulis, an ac ve fi lter-feeding bivalve, presen ng the highest biomass. The elevated growth in this warm condi on may have been favoured by a high produc on and high-er algal growth in the tank, and, for some species, a diverse feeding behaviour. Single species dominance can aff ect the biodiversity of an ecosystem by elimina ng animals, which have slower growth rate and specifi c feeding behavior. Further analysis has to be done in order to understand whether the system follows the same trend in biomass and abundance.

Keywords: seagrass, benthic communi es, mesocosm, experiment, climate change, Zostera nol i

Shahasrakiranna Sambodjo*, Jannis Landmann*Alumnus profi le: h ps://nf-pogo-alumni.org/profi le/skiranna/

Designing and tes ng a dampened mooring system under laboratory condi ons

The mooring systems of off shore aquaculture farms endure high-energy condi ons. Such mooring systems thus require a precise design and analysis of characteris cs, such as a acking and restoring forces on moorings. The research presented here is part of a pre-test on the prototype of a single-moored aquaculture system using a 3D-

wave-basin. A six-axis force-transducer (ME-Messsysteme K6D110), which can accommodate forces up to 500 N, and 100 Hz of sampling frequency were used, with accurate measurements in the vicinity of 0.1 kN. Four scenarios on mooring type were tested, with four types of intermediate waves. Results indicated that the use of two springs (at the top and bo om of the mooring) can reduce the force up to 94% compared to single-string mooring, in a non-current system. Fur-thermore, the dampened force seemed more eff ec ve in a higher wave and frequency and was not changed dras cally even though other parameters such as currents and wave direc on were altered.

Keywords: single-moored aquaculture system, laboratory experiments

4Contact us: [email protected], [email protected], [email protected] website: www.nf-pogo-alumni.org

Josselyn Contreras*, Rene Friedland*Alumnus profi le: h ps://nf-pogo-alumni.org/profi le/JContreras/

Distribu on pa erns and impacted areas of mussel farm wastes in Greifswald Bay

Mussel farming can infl uence the surrounding environment due to the deposi on of faeces and pseudo-faeces produced by the mussels. Numerical models predic ng the distribu on and se ling on the sediments of aquaculture wastes around farms could help assess the impact of mussel farms on the surrounding environment. It can also support the planning prior to the construc on of a farm. In the current work, a 3D

Eulerian hydrodynamic General Estuarine Transport Model (GETM) was coupled with a simplifi ed version of the Leibniz Ins tute for Bal c Sea Research ecosystem model (ERGOM) to simulate and evaluate the spa al extent of the waste pro-duced by mussel farming. The ecosystem model was tailor-made and includes the temporal evolu on of mussel faeces in the water column and sediments. The model was applied to fi ve diff erent loca ons inside Greifswald Bay, an embay-ment located in the southwestern Bal c Sea, which currently holds one test mussel farm. Given the hydrodynamic condi- ons of the area, mussels do not grow to commercial size. This situa on complicates the possibility of using parameters

previously developed for other commercial mussel farms. This uncertainty in the behaviour of small mussel faeces was analyzed with suitable study parameters. A series of sensi vity analyses was performed to evaluate the importance of the environmental condi ons, the loca on of the farm and mussel size over the distribu on of faeces in the sediments and in the water column. Results showed that under low current condi ons, most of the biodeposits tend to sink and fall into the sediment directly under the mussel farms and gather in areas ranging between 0.1 and 0.7 km2 around the emis-sion points. Nevertheless, under turbulent condi ons, erosion is a key process in the resuspension and redistribu on of biodeposits, expanding the reach of biodeposits up to more than 20 km2 around the tes ng farms.

Keywords: mussel farm wastes, numerical models, Greifswald Bay

Marwa Baloza*, Marit van Erk, Dr. Dirk de Beer, Dr. Timothy Ferdelman*Alumnus profi le: h ps://nf-pogo-alumni.org/profi le/Marwa+Baloza/

The infl uence of kelp degrada on on the biogeochemistry of the North beach of Helgoland

The elevated accumula on of kelp deposits along inter dal fl ats typically leads to high sulfi de concentra ons. Two diff erent pathways could lead to the release of sulfi de within these systems: 1) dissimilatory sulfate reduc on, which is considered as the

most signifi cant source of sulfi de in sediments and 2) the release of organic sulfur by kelp materials during their degra-da on. The main goal of this study was to understand the processes that are responsible for sulfi de produc on within the inter dal environment. Sediments from the inter dal fl at of the North Sea, along the north coast of the island of Helgoland, Germany, were monitored during the dal cycle using diff erent approaches. In situ measurements of oxygen, sulfi de and pH were performed using microsensors/optodes at the low water line and higher up the fl at to describe the dynamics of these parameters within the surface sediments. The ver cal profi les of sensors were confi rmed by extract-ing pore water samples from the sediment near and below the kelp deposits at 2 cm depth intervals and then analys-ing the samples for sulfi de, sulfate, nitrate, and dissolved organic carbon. Seawater samples were also collected over a diff erent dal range and measured for their sulfi de concentra ons. To inves gate the amount of sulfur released during kelp degrada on, anoxic incuba ons of diff erent kelp components (i.e. blade and s pe) were also conducted during this study. Our results showed that oxygen, sulfi de and pH profi les changed with kelp deposits in response to the des on the beach. During low de, in situ measurements of sulfi de concentra ons can reach higher values (about 4 mM) just below the sediment surface while this concentra on decrease during high de (1mM). The results of depth pore water samples below the kelp demonstrated high dynamics of sulfate, sulfi de and iron (Fe2+) in the surface sediments of the inter dal fl at. Depth pore water profi les below the kelp showed high concentra ons of sulfi de (20 mM) in the fi rst 4 cm below the surface coupled with sulfate deple on. These concentra ons varied over the dal cycle. We also observed high concen-tra ons of sulfi de in seawater near to the kelp deposits associated with large concentra ons of foul-smelling sulfi de.

Keywords: kelp degrada on, sulphide, Helgoland

5Contact us: [email protected], [email protected], [email protected] website: www.nf-pogo-alumni.org

Felipe de Luca Lopes de Amorim*, Dr. Lasse Sander, Dr. Chris an Hass*Alumnus profi le: h ps://nf-pogo-alumni.org/profi le/Felipe+de+Luca+Lopes+de+Amorim/

Tidal Currents in the Sylt-Rømø Bight

Sylt is a sandy barrier island located in the southeastern North Sea (Germany). The west coast is exposed to high wave energy and experiences severe erosion each year. Over the last decades, the nega ve mass balance was compensated by the addi on of large quan es of sand, while the sediment budget of the back-barrier environ-

ment depended almost en rely on the natural, de-driven exchange through the Lister Deep inlet. The present study inves gates currents in the main dal channels of the Sylt-Rømø Bight with the aim to characterise their hydrodynamic proper es, such as depth-averaged current velocity, direc on and cross sec on transport. These proper es are in -mately associated with the movement of sediment in and out of the bight in the form of mobile bedforms at the seafl oor of the channels. Observa onal data on current velocity was measured with a vessel mounted Acous c Doppler Current Profi ler (ADCP) during fi ve cruises on board the research vessel “Mya II”. These cruises covered three transects across the Lister Deep dal inlet as well as across the main dal channels of Lister Ley, Højer Dyb and Rømø Dyb, during at least one en re dal cycle. The observed de is semidiurnal, with currents related to a sta onary wave, where, as observed in the transport and velocity me series, the high veloci es are approximately in the middle of the fl ood and ebb fl ows. Temporal changes in fl ow direc on and velocity are primarily controlled by the dal cycle (fl ood and ebb currents), where they reached the average veloci es of 0.8 m s-1 (during neap de) and 1.0 m s-1 (during spring de). Maximum transport observed in Lister Deep was 2.4x104 m3 s-1 for fl ood dal and 2.2x104 m3 s-1 for ebb dal condi ons. Although small diff er-ences were observed between the characteris cs of the fl ood and ebb currents, the geomorphology of the channels plays a major role in defi ning fl ow direc on and intensity at each of the transects.

Keywords: Tidal currents, ADCP, Transport, Sylt-Rømø Bight

Md. Monzer Hossain Sarker*, Karen H. Wiltshire, Mirco Scharfe, Peter Lemke*Alumnus profi le: h ps://nf-pogo-alumni.org/profi le/Monzer.MSP/

Ocean variability of Helgoland roads me series data using spectral analysis

Global changes can modify environmental condi ons and alter structure, seasonal dy-namics, and biological components of the seas and oceans. The aim of this study was to inves gate the extent and nature of the inter-annual and inter-decadal variability and periodicity of physical, chemical and biological proper es of coastal shelf sea sys-

tem in the German Bight and biological response to environmental drivers. Time series data of the physical variables (temperature, salinity and Secchi depth), biological variables (total diatom and Acar a sp.), climate indices such as North Atlan c Oscilla on (NAO) and Arc c Oscilla on (AO) (both considered as temperature drivers), Elbe River discharge, nitrate (NO3) and phosphate (PO4) (both considered as salinity drivers), for a period from 1968 to 2017, were acquired from the Helgoland Roads Time Series Sta on, NOAA and Global Runoff Data Centre (GRDC). Methods include autocor-rela on, Mul -Taper Method for power es ma on, Wavelet Transform for me and frequency domain spectral signal detec on, and Cross Wavelet Transform to infer coincident high power between two variables. The results of this work revealed a more coherent picture of how and on what me scales biological variables respond to physical changes and the inherent consequences for the ecosystem. Total diatom showed a signifi cant coherence signal of 3-year periodicity with temperature (a er 2010) and salinity (2008-2013), whereas a strong 7-year periodicity signal for both temperature and salinity between 1980-2000 was observed. Temperature and salinity varia ons were the major drivers of changes in the abundance and seasonality of Acar a sp. and total diatom. This work highlights complex inter-dependence in the temporal changes of physical, chemical and biological parameters in the German Bight and the high nonlineari es in the dynamics of coastal shelf sea system.

Keywords: Temporal variability, me-frequency domain, wavelet transform, power spectrum

6Contact us: [email protected], [email protected], [email protected] website: www.nf-pogo-alumni.org

Kamal Aldien Alawad*, Dr. Monica Ionita, Prof. Dr. Gerrit Lohmann*Alumnus profi le: h ps://nf-pogo-alumni.org/profi le/Kemo/

Sea level varia ons over the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden and their rela onships with large-scale circula on

Regional and large scale drivers of sea level variability in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden were inves gated for the period between 1993 and 2015. A 23-year me series of satellite-derived sea level anomalies (SLA) data was obtained from the AVISO por-

tal. Composite, Spectral and Empirical Orthogonal Func on (EOF) analyses were employed to inves gate the regional physical and remote clima c mechanisms aff ec ng local sea level fl uctua ons. Spectral analysis showed a signifi cant spectrum peak on a 12-month period, sugges ng that the annual cycle is the dominant pa ern, followed by a weaker semi-annual signal. The fi rst (PC1) and second (PC2) modes of the EOF analysis explained between 45-55% of SLA total variance during the Winter (Dec-Jan-Feb), Spring (Mar-Apr-May), Summer (Jun-Jul-Aug) and Autumn (Sep-Oct-Nov) sea-sons. Furthermore, PC1 and PC2 temporal modes clearly refl ected the El Niño Southern Oscilla on events. SLA values increased during the 1997-1998 El Niño and decreased during the 1999-2001 La Niña. The composite analysis suggested that the associated regional physical mechanisms include surface wind. The wind infl uenced the dipole-like pa ern of SLA between eastern and western sides of the Indian Ocean (IO) by enhancing the westward (eastward) movement of water during El Niño (La Niña) phase. Moreover, sea surface temperature (SST) seemed to play the same role by increasing the thermal expansion of the water column, implying that the pa ern may be linked to the Indian Ocean Dipole. The regres-sion analysis of PC1, surface wind, SLA and SST in the IO revealed a strong posi ve rela onship (r=0.7) for the East IO and a strong nega ve rela onship (r=-0.7) for the West IO, thus suppor ng the dipole pa ern. Conversely, the correla on values for PC2 were lower, the dipole pa ern was reversed and the shape distorted, implying that the internal circula on of the basin may have more infl uence over PC2 pa erns. The rela onship of PC1 with global temperature and sea level pressure refl ected a clear weaker circula on especially during winter in the tropical Pacifi c and Indian Oceans with cor-rela on above r=0.7. Interes ngly, PC2 showed higher correla on with the local drivers for the polar area than within the tropical area. For Spring, Summer and Autumn seasons, the correla on between PC1 and the Mul variate El Niño Index were r=0.68, 0.53 and 0.57, respec vely. The same analysis, but with the North Atlan c Oscilla on and East Atlan c/West Russian Pa ern indicated r ≈-0.35, therefore, sugges ng that these climate pa erns may be the large-scale drivers of SLA.

Keywords: sea level anomaly, El Niño, La Niña, Red Sea, Gulf of Aden

Willy Karol Abouga Bodo*, Mario Hoppema*Alumnus profi le: h ps://nf-pogo-alumni.org/profi le/willy/

Net community produc on variability in the Weddell Sea (Southern Ocean)

The Southern Ocean is a high nutrient- low chlorophyll (HNLC) zone. However due to climate change, this environment has been altered. In this study, we es mated the variability in the net community produc on (NCP) in the Weddell Sea using long-term observa onal data from fi ve oceanographic summer cruises: Four FS Polarstern, February 1990, December 2002 (ANT-

XX/2), February 2005 (ANT-XXII/3), December 2010 (ANT-XXVII/2); and one Meteor cruise (MT11-5). NCP represents the net produc on of autotrophs (phytoplankton produc on) minus the respira on of the en re community. The NCP value is obtained by the diff erence between nutrient concentra on in the temperature minimum depth and nutrient concen-tra on in the upper layer integrated in the water column. The results showed that nutrient deple on pa erns seemed similar with high values at the open boundaries between the Weddell Sea and Atlan c Ocean. Due to the ice mel ng, NCP variability was observed with high values in February (1990 and 2005) compared to December (2002 and 2010), when the produc on was rela vely low. These results showed that the ice mel ng process and the seasons aff ect NCP variability. The N:P and Si:N ra os at most of the sta ons were lower than the standard Redfi eld ra o, possibly due to the dominance of diatom species. However, higher ra os at some sta ons suggested that non-diatoms may play a signifi cant role there.

Keywords: Net community produc on, Weddell Sea

7Contact us: [email protected], [email protected], [email protected] website: www.nf-pogo-alumni.org

Yet Yin Hee*, Judith Hauck, Dieter Wolf-Gladrow*Alumnus profi le: h ps://nf-pogo-alumni.org/profi le/yueyen/

Unsteady seasonality of marine carbon dioxide in this century: the impact of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide

Atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) are currently rising from anthropogenic emissions and keep accumula ng in the surface ocean, causing major shi s in the surface ocean inorganic carbon system. Observa onal data now provide evidence that

the seasonal cycle of the marine inorganic carbon system is also changing. In this study, we assess the changes of the sea-sonal cycle of marine carbonate chemistry variables in the twenty-fi rst century by a simula on of the MITgcm ocean circu-la on model coupled with the ocean biogeochemistry model REcoM, forced with a business-as-usual emission scenario. At the end of the twenty-fi rst century, the seasonal cycles of CO2 fl ux and sea surface pCO2 are respec vely amplifi ed by about 110% and 80% globally with an even stronger response in subpolar regions (CO2 fl ux: 90-200%, pCO2: 70-140%). In contrast, the seasonal amplitudes of pH and aragonite satura on state (Ωarag) are a enuated by 2% and 30%, respec vely, globally at the end of this century. In general, projected seasonal changes of these variables are more intense poleward except for pH, which has stronger a enua on in the subtropics. Overall changes in seasonality are clearly apparent in diff erent regions at the end of the twenty-fi rst century.

Keywords: ocean circula on model, ocean biogeochemistry model, carbon dioxide

Gay Amabelle Go*, Prof. Dr. Harald Asmus, Dr. Ragnhild Asmus, Dr. Sabine Horn, Petra Kadel*Alumnus profi le: h ps://nf-pogo-alumni.org/profi le/ggo/

Eff ects of elevated temperature on seagrass Zostera nol i

Seagrasses despite being key marine habitat are strongly threatened by impacts of an-thropogenic ac vi es and climate change driving ecosystems or even a single species towards the pping point for func onal collapse. Their growth and distribu on are infl uenced by several factors such as depth, sediment condi ons, nutrients and tem-

perature. Temperature specifi cally regulates seagrass produc vity. While this factor may be limited and some in excess, this can either limit of inhibit seagrass growth. Temperature increase is one of the poten al eff ects of climate change. The IPCC showed informa on about future climate and temperature change in the 21st century and beyond. Increase in sea surface temperature greatly aff ects seagrass ecosystem and it is known to result in distribu on shi s, or changes in pa erns of sexual reproduc on as well as altering seagrass growth and metabolism. Thus, this study was conducted to evaluate the eff ects of environmentally induced stress on the plas city of Zostera nol i. A mesocosm experiment was conducted at the AWI Wadden Sea Sta on Sylt to test this hypothesis. Twelve tanks were set up with four diff erent treat-ments. Each treatment had three replicates. First treatment was control treatment, second treatment was 4 °C warmer than the natural regime. Third treatment had ambient temperature with keystone species and the last treatment was a set-up with a 4 °C temperature increase and keystone species. Each mesocosm has four 20 x 20 cm boxes each containing a sediment core with sediments, seagrass, and associated fauna, represen ng a sec on of natural seagrass community. These were incubated inside the mesocosm tanks during the whole experiment period. Development of these boxes were monitored every four weeks, removing one box for sampling, measuring the necessary parameters, and were ana-lyzed in the laboratory. Seagrass (%) cover, shoot density, canopy height, biomass, and leaf lengths were measured every four weeks. Flowers were observed fi ve weeks a er the start of the experiment. Along with shoot density, these were also counted inside a 10x10 cm quadrat. Treatments in warmer water were observed to have more fl owers than in treat-ments with ambient temperature. However, this did not increase further compared to treatments in ambient condi on, which con nued to develop. Preliminary results also showed that changes in cover and shoot density were varied but ob-served to be higher in warm water treatments. Both below- and above-ground biomass showed posi ve response in tank with warm condi on. Insights from these observa ons may demonstrate how seagrass ecosystem respond to changes in temperature, and can be used as basis how seagrass cope with temperature stress. Con nuous monitoring and analyses are needed to gain fundamental insights of their resilience to disturbances.

Keywords: seagrass, temperature, mesocosm experiment, climate change, Zostera nol i

8Contact us: [email protected], [email protected], [email protected] website: www.nf-pogo-alumni.org8

Contact us: [email protected], [email protected], [email protected] website: www.nf-pogo-alumni.org

The 4th GEO Blue Planet Symposium was held from 4th to 6th July 2018 in Toulouse, France, hosted by Merca-tor Oceans Interna onal and organized as a side event of the European Open Science Forum (ESOF). The

symposium was very successful with 300 a endees, and many exci ng presenta ons from both users and providers of ocean informa on, which s mulated frui ul discussions. The focus was on ocean and coastal informa on needs for sustainable development, Blue Growth and societal awareness.

Sophie Seeyave, Co-Chair of the Ini a ve, gave the introductory overview of GEO Blue Planet at the start of the Symposium. Margaret Leinen, Director of Scripps Ins tu on of Oceanography, POGO trustee and GEO Blue Planet Advisory Board member, gave the keynote presenta on on the fi rst day, on “Understanding and Man-aging Environmental and Economic Pressures”. Jan Seys, long-standing member of the POGO News and Infor-ma on Group, and Mohammad Uddin, NANO alumnus and former POGO-SCOR fellow, were invited speakers in the session on “Societal Awareness of the value of Ocean and Coastal Informa on”.

The main recommenda ons from the symposium were:• GEO Blue Planet should play a coordina ng role, crea ng and iden fying linkages between exis ng networks and organiza ons;• GEO Blue Planet should share best prac ces between regions (for sharing new services, user engagement, capacity building & ocean literacy etc.);• Comple ng the “ocean observing seascape” project (led by POGO) should be a priority;• GEO Blue Planet should facilitate user discovery of data and products;• GEO Blue Planet should put together success stories for the u liza on of ocean observa ons for decision making;• GEO Blue Planet needs addi onal Secretariat support and should put out a call for interest in hos ng a Sec-retariat node.

The next Symposium is planned to take place in 2020, and a call for a host will be is-sued in the coming months. Proposals from regions that haven’t yet hosted a Sympo-sium will be par cularly welcome (e.g. Asia, Africa).

Welcome session (credits: GEO Blue Planet)

Blue Planet’s mission is to advance and exploit synergies among the many observa onal programmes devoted to ocean and coastal waters; to improve engagement with a variety of users for enhancing the meliness, quality and range of services delivered; and to raise awareness of the soci-etal benefi ts of ocean observa ons at the public and policy levels.Visit h ps://geoblueplanet.org/

Dr. Sophie SeeyavePOGO Chief Execu ve Offi cerGEO Blue Planet Steering Commi ee co-chair

9Contact us: [email protected], [email protected], [email protected] website: www.nf-pogo-alumni.org 9Contact us: [email protected], [email protected], [email protected] website: www.nf-pogo-alumni.org

Dr. Uddin is an Associate Professor of Oceanography at the Ins tute of Marine Sciences and Fisheries, Univer-

sity of Chi agong, Bangladesh, and also a NANO alumnus. He gave a presenta on on the ‘Status of formal ocean edu-ca on and informal ocean literacy ac vi es in Bangladesh’ at the 4th Geo Blue Planet Symposium upon invita on by the “Oceans and Society: Blue Planet”, an ini a ve of the Group on Earth Observa ons (GEO). Dr. Sophie Seeyave, GEO Blue Planet Steering Commi ee co-chair and POGO CEO, was one of the main organizers, session opening speaker and one of the panel co-chairs.

The symposium brought together leaders and representa- ves of various interna onal organiza ons and networks,

research scien sts and graduate and postdoctoral students, who took part in a total of 49 oral presenta ons and 112 poster presenta ons. This context provided Dr. Uddin with the opportunity to represent Bangladesh, the Asia Marine Educators Associa on, and NANO, and to introduce the Blue Green Founda on Bangladesh (BGFB). Dr. Uddin presented a speech about Ocean Literacy work in Bangladesh during the fi nal session of the symposium on ‘Societal Awareness of the Value of Ocean and Coastal Informa on’. He has also ac vely par cipated in the panel discussion. Dr. Uddin start-ed his presenta on by highligh ng the importance of Ocean Literacy as a next fron er for sustainable development, and more specifi cally on why Bangladesh should give top most priority to ocean educa on. A er a brief introduc on about the educa onal system followed by the status of ocean ed-uca on in Bangladesh and its limita on in comparison to world-class science and ocean educa on programs in devel-oped countries, he emphasized the integra on of ocean sci-ence topics in na onal school curricula and prac ce of non-formal ocean science educa on and outreach programs for all ages and all professions. Finally, he talked about past and present projects and events organized by the non-profi t or-ganiza on, the Blue Green Founda on Bangladesh (h p://bg d.org/governing-body/).

A journey to bring awareness about Ocean Literacy in Bangladesh

Background:

It is a long story! It was the year 2010 and I was doing my advanced post gradu-ate course in Hydrography (Cat A) at the University of New Hampshire, USA. One day my professor asked me to pre-pare all the instruments in the laboratory to host some visi-tors on the following day. I was surprised to see that the visitors were 4th grade students. I was overwhelmed by their numerous ques ons and pleased to see their huge interest in marine sciences. Before that day, I have never thought that we need to educate children about the ocean. So, for the fi rst me I felt the necessity of doing something similar in my country to let people know more about the ocean and atmosphere and to bring awareness about how the oceans can aff ect our lives, what we formally call “Ocean Literacy”.

A dream come true: the birth of Blue Green Founda on Bangladesh

Upon returning to my country in 2011, I started talking to people in schools, industries and clubs about the impor-tance of Ocean Literacy and global sustainability. I took part in several talk shows in the media, talking about the Blue Economy and Ocean Literacy, the future of Bangladesh and the Bay of Bengal. Furthermore, I have organized several workshops, seminars, gatherings and storytelling events at schools, colleges, clubs and social gatherings, at coastal and off shore islands.

I started to interact with people from various walks of soci-ety, with whom I expressed my interest to form an organiza- on. I was lucky to get a posi ve response from many peo-

ple, especially from some of my colleagues and a group of students from the Ins tute of Marine Sciences and Fisheries at the University of Chi agong. We had several formal and informal mee ngs to exchange ideas to form an organiza- on, to decide on the name of the organiza on and the

goals and objec ves. Finally, on the 10th of October 2015, the non-profi t organiza on “Blue Green Founda on Bang-ladesh” came into existence, with the slogan “Working to-wards a blue economy based on a green Bangladesh”.

Presenta on on Ocean Literacy in Bangladesh at the 4th GEO Blue Planet Symposium

Dr. Mohammad Muslem UddinIns tute of Marine Sciences and Fisheries, University of Chi agong, BangladeshAlumnus profi le: h ps://nf-pogo-alumni.org/profi le/mudddin

Dr. Uddin presents at the Societal Awareness of the Value of Ocean and Coastal Informa on session during the 4th GEO Blue Planet

Panel discussion

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Goals and Objec ves:

1. to build an Ocean Literate na on. BGFB will spread basic knowledge about the ocean among the general public and for this reason, we aimed to conduct “Ocean Literacy cam-paigns” in various schools, colleges and universi es around the country.

2. to develop modern and prac cal oceanography syllabi for primary to higher secondary school level students.

3. to conduct interna onal standard studies on the Bay of Bengal and to create an oceanography-minded enthusias c young society.

4. to establish a resourceful online oceanographic Data Center.

5. to conduct research collabora on with na onal and in-terna onal organiza ons on ocean and climate changes.

6. to arrange na onwide “Ocean Olympiad” under the BGFB.

7. to arrange seminars and campaigns about Ocean Educa- on, Blue Economy, Ocean Technology and regular aware-

ness on climate issues.

8. to establish a “Marine Aquarium”.

9. to build a prosperous Bangladesh based on ocean econo-my in collabora on with the Bangladesh government.

The challenges:

Ini ally, our works were solely confi ned to indoor discus-sions on recent ocean and environmental issues, skill de-velopment sessions, indoor celebra ons of many signifi cant events. During the fi rst six months, we had a challenging me defi ning the structure of the organiza on. Gradually,

the organiza on started to become well known by the pub-lic.

Boundless dream with endless poten ality:

The organiza on scheduled its fi rst public program on the 8th of June 2016 to celebrate World Oceans Day. We re-ceived considerable public engagement, as well as na onal media coverage. We also celebrated the “Interna onal Day of Natural Disaster Reduc on” on the 13th of October 2016 and “Interna onal Day of Climate Ac on” on the 24th of Oc-tober 2016.

In 2017, our challenge was to reach more people with real engagement. So, we planned a na onwide school campaign called the “Na onwide Ocean Literacy Campaign”. Ini ally, we set a target to conduct one program every month. We started to receive invita ons from diff erent schools and oth-er educa onal ins tu ons. Our volunteers were enthusias -

cally grabbing these opportuni es to reach school students with a message of responsibility towards the ocean, the en-vironment and the Earth. We designed the program in such a way that we could make people deeply curious about the ocean and fi nally to create a sharp sense of responsibility in return. Various ac vi es including ocean gallery and power point presenta ons on diff erent thrilling ocean events, spot quiz compe ons and day-long discussion programs were successfully carried out in eight schools. Some of our other achievements in 2017 included par cipa on in television talk shows and at an interna onal conference to share with the interna onal community the Ocean Literacy ac ons be-ing undertaken in Bangladesh. Another big achievement in that year was celebra ng the “Clean up Beach Carnival” in collabora on with the Bangladesh Marine Academy and other 12 asian countries. BGFB also published its brochure in 2017, the fi rst Ocean Literacy document in Bengali, since one of the most important objec ves of the organiza on is to provide ocean educa on in the country’s na ve lan-guage.

In 2018, we con nued our na onwide Ocean Literacy pro-gram and set more resolu ons to achieve our big goal of reaching one million members within the year. One of the achievements in 2018 was signing a Memorandum of Un-derstanding with “Radiant Fish World”, the fi rst live fi sh aquarium of Bangladesh and celebra ng the World Oceans Day on the 8th of June 2018 with a global call to reduce plas- c pollu on (page 21).

Interna onal Collabora ons:

Dr. Uddin’s Ocean Literacy ac vi es got the a en on of Dr. Peter Tuddenham who is the president of the College of Explora on, USA. Dr. Tuddenham invited Dr. Uddin to pre-sent his ac vi es at the Global Ocean Educa on Workshop at the University of Rhode Island, in 2015. Dr. Uddin also par cipated at the NMEA conference 2015 at Rhode Island and proposed to create an Asian Marine Educators Associa- on (AMEA). Under the supervision of Dr. Trudenham, the

interna onal coordinator of NMEA, AMEA was ini ated by four asian par cipants: Dr. Uddin (Bangladesh), Dr. Emily King (China), Dr. Tsuyoshi Sasaki (Japan) and Dr. Ray Yen (Taiwan). As a board member of AMEA, Dr. Uddin has been working closely with the Asian Marine educator’s network in the organiza on of workshops, seminars and conferences in Taiwan, Japan, Philippines and China. He has also been working with the African marine educators’ community (Dr. Russell Stevens from Two Oceans Aquarium, South Africa, and Ms Fiona Crouch from EMSEA and IPMEEN) in order to boost Ocean Literacy campaigns worldwide.

Acknowledgements:

I am highly grateful to POGO for sponsoring my travel and accommoda on for a end-ing the GEO Blue Planet Sym-posium.

BGFB outreach campaigns.

11Contact us: [email protected], [email protected], [email protected] website: www.nf-pogo-alumni.org

El Pez León en Venezuela (The Lionfi sh in Venezuela)

Invasion cases by the lionfi sh (Pterois volitans) have been discussed extensively in the literature. Since the lionfi sh is a general carnivore that preys on other fi shes, this species may impact local fi sh com-

muni es, and unbalance marine ecosystems by consuming na ve species. In Venezuela, lionfi sh was fi rst reported in 2009 and is nowadays a well-established and widely distributed fi sh species along the Venezuelan coast. Up to now, there are not enough natural predators in the Caribbean Sea and the Atlan c Ocean to control lionfi sh popula ons that have been introduced in this region.

Li le is currently known about the problem generated by this invasive species in Venezuela. Since the lionfi sh is mostly known for the fact that it “can kill”, there is usually a great tendency to repulsive reac ons by the general public when this animal is men oned. The Laboratory of Marine Biology at the Simón Bolívar University, through fi nancial support from the NANO Regional Project in the Caribbean, has designed and developed several environmental educa onal workshops for the coastal popula on of Ocumare de la Costa (Edo. Aragua) in order to inform both children and adults about the fol-lowing aspects: What is the lionfi sh? How did it get to Venezuela? What are the consequences of the presence of this fi sh along Venezuelan coasts? How can we contribute to the cause?

Several visits to Ocumare Village were carried out between June and October 2017, whereby our team implemented vari-ous ac vi es for schools and tourists.

Ac vi es

In order to spread knowledge and provide awareness about lionfi sh, two students and a professor from the Simón Bolívar University prepared a few ac vi es for two schools (high school level) in the town of Ocumare (Fig. 1). A stand was also placed at the beach of Cata Bay as an informa on point for visitors to pass by and to listen to a small talk (Fig. 2) on lionfi sh invasions in Venezuela. Several ac vi es were prepared to raise public awareness of the problems caused by the presence of the lionfi sh along Venezuelan coasts. Several educa onal games were held with 14 and 17 year old students. Many of them were sons of local fi shermen, or worked as a fi sherman with their fathers.

The ac vi es during the school visits consisted of:

1) a talk given by one of the instructors from Simón Bolívar University, using Power-Point slides. The talk provided a detailed explana on about the lionfi sh anatomical features, biology, reproduc on and worldwide distribu on. At the end of the talk, there was a descrip on of how each and every one could contribute in controlling the lionfi sh popula on.

2) ques on and answer games were also implemented a er the talk, with priz-es given to those who answered the ques ons correctly. During the recrea onal

games, par cipants were able to respond according to what they had seen on the PowerPoint slides and as such receive a few prizes (e.g. Venezuelan Coastal Marine Biodiversity posters, a handbook referring to the topic, fl yers, s ckers and posters related to the ocean; Fig. 3).

The ac vi es at the Bay of Cata stand

A stand was placed on the beach next to the food services area. Around 50 tour-ists visited the stand. The instructors explained about the lionfi sh presence along the Venezuelan coast and how people can contribute to the biological control of the popula ons of this invasive fi sh. Various recipes were proposed as an op on for consuming lionfi sh. Tourists were given a try of lionfi sh “ceviche” that was prepared exclusively for this event and was presented as a tas ng opportunity for the ones who were curious about the lionfi sh taste. While people were tas ng the “ceviche”, the instructors gave a talk about the lionfi sh distribu on and the consequences of having this invasive species along our coasts. People received fl yers with informa on about the lionfi sh and the ceviche recipe (Fig. 4). Most of the tourists found the event interes ng and appreciated the informa on they received through the program.

Caribbean projectDr. Ana Carolina Peralta Brichtova

NANO RESEARCH PROJECTS

Environmental Studies Department, Marine Laboratory, Simón Bolívar University, VenezuelaAlumnus profi le: h ps://nf-pogo-alumni.org/profi le/aperalt/

Fig. 1 - Students between 14 and 17 years old a ended the ac vi es.

Fig. 2 - Cata Bay stand placed for visitors.

12Contact us: [email protected], [email protected], [email protected] website: www.nf-pogo-alumni.org

Fig. 4 - The lionfi sh stand in Cata Bay.

Some of them stated that due to the present cri cal situa on in Venezuela, they were grateful to listen to us and see that some posi ve changes are happening in the country. Some fi shermen passed by our stand and were interested in commer-cializing the lionfi sh species and shed the fear from it.

AcknowledgmentsTo the Biology undergraduate students at Simón Bolívar University Laura Paola Milano, Zlatka Rebolledo and Ricardo Marquina; to Jose Elias Rondón, diver and business owner in Ocumare, to Mr. Pino, business owner in charge of a restaurant in Cata Bay. Thanks to all for their enthusias c par cipa on and for all the ideas and contribu ons to all of the ac vi es. Thanks NANO and POGO for the funding!!!

Fig. 3 - Some of the winners of the lionfi sh contest.

13Contact us: [email protected], [email protected], [email protected] website: www.nf-pogo-alumni.org

From June 25th to July 6th 2018, I had the fortunate op-portunity to be one of the 21 par cipants of the IOCCG

Summer Lecture Series. The Interna onal Ocean Colour Coordina ng Group (IOCCG) Summer Lecture Series is dedi-cated to high-level training in the fundamentals of ocean op cs, bio-op cs and ocean colour remote sensing. Since 2012, these advanced training courses have been taking place every two years during the summer months at the Laboratoire d’Océanographie de Villefranche (LOV) in Ville-franche-sur-Mer (Fig. 1), which is part of the Observatoire Océanologique de Villefranche (OOV), and hosts the Marine Op cs and Remote Sensing group (MORS).

The course approached the major topics within bio-op cal oceanography, from fundamental aspects of light-ma er interac ons and water bio-op cal proper es to highly ad-vanced applica ons, including atmospheric correc ons and remote sensing retrievals and modelling. The lectures and discussions were extremely produc ve and interes ng, and conducted by the most renowned researchers in this fi eld, from all over the world. The par cipants (Fig. 2) were mostly PhD students and post-doctoral researchers from diff erent countries with various background within the fi eld, which made the discussions incredibly rich. Furthermore, I believe many new collabora ons among the par cipants might arise from the training and, hopefully, there will be further en-gagements in the bio-op cs and remote sensing community.

Some of the par cipants’ perspec ves about the course summarized in one sentence are:

“I really enjoyed to listen and discuss with the scien- sts of the Ocean Colour science workshop in a relaxed

atmosphere. I am also pleased to have met amazing young scien sts from everywhere around the world, that I wish to keep contact with for a long me.” (Guil-laume Morin – France)

“An opportunity for early intra-country collabora ons with peers and experts in water colour domain” (Srini-vas Kolluru – India)

“The IOCCG 2018 summer school helped me be er un-derstand the applica on of marine op cs to resolve my doctoral research challenges” (Falilu Adekunbi – Nige-ria)

“Lecturers combined prac cal work and presenta ons to bring understanding to us, which changed my previ-ous knowledge structure in marine op cs” (Xiaohui Zhu – China)

For me, being at LOV was a really special experience, since I have been working on bio-op cs and ocean colour remote sensing for about 11 years. Some of the greatest research-ers in the fi eld made their careers at this ins tute and many others spend part of their me at LOV, leaving an important legacy to our fi eld. It was a great opportunity to visit this historical place that is very important in our research fi eld. Besides being in such a beau ful place, it is really inspiring and mo va ng to be there as an early-career ocean colour scien st. I am very grateful to IOCCG and EUMETSAT, the agency that funded my travel expenses, for the opportunity of this training.

NANO Alumni in ac on: Capacity building

IOCCG Summer Lecture Series 2018: Fron ers in Ocean Op cs and Ocean Colour Science, Villefranche-sur-Mer, France

Dr. Fernanda GianniniSpectral and Remote Sensing Laboratory, University of VictoriaUniversity of Bri sh Columbia/Hakai Ins tute, CanadaAlumnus profi le: h ps://nf-pogo-alumni.org/profi le/mcologi/

Fig. 2 - Par cipants of the 2018 IOCCG Summer School.

Fig. 1 - Villefranche-sur-Mer, France.

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Nano Alumni, Edem Mahu and Ngozi Oguguah, who were both par cipants of the North South Atlan c Floa ng

Summer School (NoSoAT) in 2015, met again at the Coast-al Ocean Environment Summer School at the University of Ghana in August 2018. Edem Mahu was one of the Directors of the summer school. As we may all be aware, oceanog-raphy is s ll under-represented in most parts of Africa, es-pecially western Africa. The goal of the school, therefore, is to create awareness, build regional capacity and inspire young scien sts to enroll in marine science-related disci-plines in the region. The school which is gradually gaining worldwide popularity is generously funded by the Univer-sity of Ghana, the University of Michigan, Na onal Science Founda on USA, and The Abdus Salam Interna onal Centre for Theore cal Physics, Italy. Approximately one hundred par cipants from Ghana, Nigeria, Côte d’Ivoire, Cameroon, Benin and Togo took part in this year’s summer school. Ex-perts from Ghana, USA, Italy and the UK took par cipants through diverse oceanography topics and projects that are very relevant to the region. Addi onally, the school served as a great pla orm for building networks and strategic col-labora ons/alliances. All par cipants gave good feedback about the summer school and they hope that it will con nue to run in coming years.

Building Regional Capacity in Ocean Sciences in Africa

Ngozi Oguguah1 and Dr. Edem Mahu2

1 Department of Fisheries Resources, Nigerian Ins tute for Oceanography and Marine Research, Nigeria Alumnus profi le: h ps://nf-pogo-alumni.org/profi le/Ngozi/2 Department of Marine and Fisheries Sciences, University of Ghana, GhanaAlumnus profi le: h ps://nf-pogo-alumni.org/profi le/emahu/

Par cipants of the 2018 Coastal Ocean Envi-ronment Summer School at the University of Ghana

NANO Alumni in ac on: Capacity building

Ngozi and Edem at the training

Plastic pollution

In this issue, we are featuring ac- ons and opinions of members

and invited collaborators in regard to plas c pollu on.

Here, a photo by our Editor-in-Chief Pavanee Annasawmy depic ng trash accumula on in a river near a local township in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania.

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Plastic pollution

Pavanee AnnasawmyIns tut de Recherche pour le Développement (France),Université de Montpellier (France),University of Cape Town (South Africa)Alumnus profi le: h ps://nf-pogo-alumni.org/profi le/pannasa/

Global plastic usage, pollution and alternatives

Once considered an essen al product, plas c has made its way into our homes and our daily lives. Strong, impermeable, cheap, easily accessible and disposable, plas c has many advantages and

hence has been produced and used massively around the globe. In 2013, global plas c produc on reached 299 million tons (Thompson et al., 2009; Plas csEurope, 2015). Due to global use and misuse, it is es mated that approximately 4.8-12.7 million tons of plas c are entering the ocean from land every year (Jambeck et al., 2015; Ocean Conservancy, 2018), a number which is predicted to increase exponen ally in coming years (Jambeck et al., 2015; Lusher, 2015). There are numerous consequences of such disposals on plants, animals and human health (Prata, 2018). An in-creasing number of scien fi c ar cles have documented the presence of plas c debris in the stomachs of diff erent types of marine animals around the globe: from benthic, coastal, mesopelagic (Wieczorek et al., 2018), demersal and pelagic fi shes (Murphy et al., 2017), to seabirds (Ryan et al., 1988; Blight and Burger, 1997; Colabuono et al., 2010; Provencher et al., 2014; Acampora et al., 2016, 2017; Poon et al., 2017), seaturtles (Clukey et al., 2017; Pham et al., 2017), seals (Eriksson and Burton, 2003; Rebolledo et al., 2013; Unger et al., 2017), dolphins and whales (Besseling et al., 2015). A greater number of dead animals do not make it to shore but simply sink to the bo om of the ocean, carrying plas c fragments to the ocean fl oor and hence remaining undocumented in literature. Harmful chemicals associated with plas cs can cause serious health issues in animals and humans (Prata, 2018). If le unchecked, plas c pollu on will be as harmful as climate change in the near future. Plas c pollu on should be considered a major concern for humanity by governments worldwide and there is an increasing need for government offi cials to come together and organize summits dedicated to reducing plas c pollu on.

Scien sts should also be encouraged to do research on plas c pollu on since it is by providing government offi cials with valid proof that such issues can be brought forward during parliamentary debates and summits with interna onal leaders. However, as demonstrated by Taheri and collaborators on “Plas c pollu on in Bandar Abbas coastline, Iran” (see page 22), funding is o en an issue when studying plas cs. There is, therefore, an urgent need for increasing funding opportuni es in this fi eld for various types of incen ves, such as basic research on plas c pollu on and microplas cs along the coast and in the deep ocean, encouraging innova ve ideas on garbage collec on and encouraging ac ons such as OpenLi erMap with ci zen science and blockchain rewards, to name only a few. Governments around the globe must also be encouraged to ban the use of single-use plas c items and microplas cs. Several countries such as the USA, the UK, Canada, New Zealand and Taiwan have taken legisla ve ac ons to reduce microplas c pollu on. However, such ac ons have not been implemented yet in some developing countries. Plas c pollu on is s ll an important issue in countries such as China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, South Africa, Tanzania, Madagascar, Brazil, the USA (Jambeck et al., 2015), to name only a few. In some countries around the globe, there are not enough legisla ve measures in place to ban single-use plas c items such as plas c bags, wrappings, plas c packages and straws. In countries such as South Africa (Fig. 1) and Tanzania (see previous page), plas c pollu on is even more severe in townships and less affl uent areas due to the lack of proper garbage collec- on systems, lack of educa on and awareness. In these areas, people o en live below the poverty line, struggling for basic

needs such as food, clean water, clothing, accommoda on and educa on. It is thus hard to educate these people about plas c pollu on while they have other basic requirements that fi rst need to be a ended to. Plas c pollu on is hence also a poverty problem. If we wish to eradicate plas c pollu on around the globe, we must also work together to eradicate pov-erty and bring educa on and awareness to disadvantaged people.

In order to reduce our plas c consump on/pollu on, the government, companies and retailers who are using plas cs as packaging and utensils, as well as the general public have to collaborate and make a signifi cant eff ort (Table 1). Ci zens around the globe are already taking part in beach clean-up ac vi es and are developing innova ve ideas and technologies to remove plas c from the oceans. However, as seen by current trends, these ac vi es are important but not enough. The plas c tap has to be closed at the source by pu ng pressure on governments to put in place legisla ve bans on single-use

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plas c items, on companies to produce less and use less plas c in their packaging, on supermarkets to off er products with-out plas c or with 100% biodegradable wrappings, on ci zens to change their behaviour regarding single-use and discard-ing of plas c items, to consume less plas c and to recycle as much as possible, and on scien sts to monitor the marine environment and assess the impact of plas c on terrestrial and marine ecosystems.

Plas c pollu on is not a single country’s problem. Plas c pollu on is a global issue since millions of tons of plas c are ending up in the ocean and are being carried by ocean currents around the globe, impac ng ecosystems and marine lives world-wide. Whatever legisla ve ac ons are taken by a handful of countries, if these ac ons are not followed by the rest of the world, plas c pollu on will keep on being a problem, choking marine and terrestrial plants and animals worldwide.

ReferencesAcampora, H., Lyashevska, O., van Franeker, J. A., and O’Connor, I. (2016). The use of beached bird surveys for marine plas c li er monitoring in Ireland. Marine Environmental Research, 120: 122-129. h p://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marenvres.2016.08.002Acampora, H., Berrow, S., Newton, S., O’Connor, I. (2017). Presence of plas c li er in marine pellets from Great Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) in Ire-land. Marine Pollu on Bulle n, 117: 512-514.Besseling, E., Foekema, E. M., van Franeker, J. A., Leopold, M. F., Kühn, S., Re-bolledo, E. L. B., Heße, E., Mielke, L, IJzer, J., Kamminga, P., and Koelmans, A. A. (2015). Microplas c in a macro fi lter feeder: Humpback whale Megaptera novaeangliae. h p://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2015.04.007Blight, L. K., and Burger, A. E. (1997). Occurrence of plas c par cles in sea-birds from the Eastern North Pacifi c. Marine Pollu on Bulle n, 34(5): 323-325.Clukey, K. E., Lepczyk, C. A., Balazs, G. H., Work, T. M., and Lynch, J. M. (2017). Inves ga on of plas c debris inges on by four species of sea turtles collect-ed as bycatch in pelagic Pacifi c longline fi sheries. Marine Pollu on Bulle n,

120: 117-125. h p://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2017.04.064Colabuono, F. I., Taniguchi, S., and Montone, R. C. (2010). Polychlroniated biphenyls and organochlorine pes cides in plas cs ingested by sea-birds. Marine Pollu on Bulle n, 60: 630-634. h ps://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2010.01.018Eriksson, C., and Burton, H. (2003). Origins and biological accumula on of small plas c par cles in fur seals from Macquarie Island. AMBIO: A Journal of the Human Environment, 32: 380–384. h ps://doi.org/10.1579/0044-7447-32.6.380Jambeck, J. R., Geyer, R., Wilcox, C., Siegler, T., Perrman, M., Andrady. A., Narayan, R., and Law, K. L. (2015). Plas c waste inputs from land into the ocean. Science, h ps://dio.org/10/1126/science.1260352Lusher, A., 2015. Microplas cs in the Marine Environment: Distribu on, Interac ons and Eff ects, in: Bergmann, M., Gutow, L., and Klages, M. (Eds.), Marine Anthropogenic Li er. Springer Interna onal Publishing, pp. 245-307.Murphy, F., Russell, M., Ewins, C., and Quinn, B. (2017). The uptake of macroplas c and microplas c by demersal and pelagic fi sh in the North-east Atlan c around Scotland. Marine Pollu on Bulle n, 122: 353-359. h p://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2017.06.073Ocean conservancy, 2018. Building a Clean Swell. Washington, DC, USA.h ps://oceanconservancy.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/07/Building-A-Clean-Swell.pdfPham, C. K., Rodríguez, Y., Dauphin, A., Carriço, R., Frias, J. P. G. L., Vandeperre, F., Otero, V., Santos, M. R., Mar ns, H. R., Bolten, A. B., and Bjorndal, K. A. (2017). Plas c inges on in oceanic-stage loggerhead sea turtles (Care a care a) off the North Atlan c subtropical gyre. Marine Pollu on Bulle n, 121: 222-229.h p://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2017.06.008Plas csEurope. (2015). Plas cs – the Facts 2014/2015. h p://issuu.com/plas cseuropeebook/docs/fi nal_plas cs_the_facts_2014_19122Poon, F. E., Provencher, J. F., Mallory, M. L., Braune, B. M., and Smith, P. A. (2017). Levels of ingested debris vary across species in Canadian Arc c seabirds. Marine Pollu on Bulle n, 116: 517-520. h p://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2016.11.051Prata, J. C. (2018). Airborne microplas cs: consequences to human health? Environmental Pollu on, 234: 115-126. h ps://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2017.11.043Provencher, J. F., Bond, A. L., Hedd, A., Montevecchi, W. A., Muzaff ar, S. B., Courchesne, S. J., Gilchrist, H. G., Jamieson, S. E., Merkel, F. R., Falk, K., Durinck, J., Mallory, M. L. (2014). Prevalence of marine debris in marine birds from the North Atlan c. Marine Pollu on Bulle n, 84: 411-417. h p://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2014.04.044Rebolledo, E. L. B., van Franeker, J. A., Jansen, O. E., and Brasseur, S. M. J. M. (2013). Plas c inges on by harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) in The Netherlands. Marine Pollu on Bulle n, 67: 200-202. h p://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2012.11.035Ryan, P. G., Connell, A. D., Gardner, B. D. (1988). Plas c inges on and PCBs in seabirds: Is there a rela onship? Marine Pollu on Bulle n, 19(4): 174-176.Thompson, R. C., Moore, C. J., vom Saal, F. S., and Swan, S. H. (2009). Plas cs, the environment and human health: current consensus and future trends. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 364: 2153-2166. h ps://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2009.0053Unger, B., Herr, H., Benke, H., Böhmert, M., Burkhardt-Holm, P., Dähne, M., Hillmann, M., Wolff -Schmidt, K., Wohlsein, P., and Siebert, U. (2017). Marine debris in harbour porpoises and seals from German waters. Marine Environmental Research, 130: 77-84. h p://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marenvres.2017.07.009Wieckzorek, A. M., Morrison, L., Croot, P. L., Allcock, A. L., MacLoughlin, E., Savard, O., Brownlow, H., and Doyle, T. K. (2018). Frequency of mi-croplas cs in mesopelagic fi shes from the Northwest Atlan c. Front. Mar. Sci., 5: 39. h ps://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2018.00039

Plastic pollution

Fig. 1 - Uncollected trash at Motherwell, Port-Elizabeth, South Africa.

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Plastic pollution

Table 1 - Plas c items overly used globally; nega ve impacts of single-use plas c items on health and the environment and alterna ves to single-use plas c items.

18Contact us: [email protected], [email protected], [email protected] website: www.nf-pogo-alumni.org

Plastic pollution

Good prac ces to beat plas c pollu on

What do you do to help end plas c pollu- on? Share with us in our Facebook page

Nano Nfpogo (h ps://www.facebook.com/lkrug.nfpogo)

I am one of the ‘crazy people’ who picks up li er. This has been a habit of mine for some me now. Every me I go for a walk by the beach or the mountains, I take a bag and collect pieces of li er along the way.Here’s the result of a 30 min (le ) and 20 min (right) walk at the Algarve coast, in Portugal. Lilian Krug

(photo credits Lilian Krug)

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Plastic pollution

Arnaud Nicolas and Khishma Modoosoodun-NicolasAssociate Research Scien sts, Mauri us Oceanography Ins tute, Mauri usAlumnus profi le: h ps://nf-pogo-alumni.org/profi le/jnicola/Alumnus profi le: h ps://nf-pogo-alumni.org/profi le/kmodoos/

Celebrations of the World Oceans Day 2018 in Mauritius

The Mauri us Oceanography Ins tute (MOI) celebrated the World Oceans Day on 8th June 2018 in collabora on with the Ministry of Ocean Economy, Marine Re-

sources, Fisheries and Shipping and the University of Mauri us. An outreach program was conducted during that event with a series of exhibi ons and scien fi c talks held at the Paul Octave Wiehe Auditorium in Réduit under the theme: Preven ng plas c pollu on and encouraging solu ons for a healthy ocean. On that day, students and the public at large were sensi zed on the impacts of plas c pollu on on the ma-rine environment (Fig. 1). In that context, the POGO alumni Arnaud Nicolas and Khishma Modoosoodun-Nicolas presented a poster on the project of Nearshore Hydrodynamics Studies being carried out along the coast of Albion. In addi on, the MOI staff par cipated in a beach clean-up campaign at the Blue Bay Marine Park on Saturday 9th June 2018 (Fig. 2).

The MOI is currently undertaking a project en tled “The Evalua on of Anthropogenic Accumula on of Microplas cs across Mauri an Waters” under the supervision of Dr. Yashvin Neehaul. The aim is to establish a baseline of the distribu on of mi-croplas cs in the nearshore waters. A general assessment of microplas cs is determined both from seawater and sediment samples around the island to determine the magnitude of microplas cs contamina on. The sampling and analy cal meth-ods have been extensively reviewed and adapted to the local marine environment. Furthermore to consolidate this study, a collabora on was set up with the University of Strasbourg in France where Raman spectroscopy and Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy techniques are used to iden fy the plas c par cles. The outcome of this study will provide a qualita ve and quan ta ve distribu on of microplas cs in Mauri us waters. The way forward is to probe microplas cs ac-cumula on in commercial marine organisms and its poten al impacts on human health.

Fig. 1 - Poster exhibi ons and demonstra ons of microplas- cs occurrence in sediment samples.

Fig. 2 - Beach clean-up ac vity by MOI staff .

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Plastic pollution

Zerihun SenbetoEthiopian Biotechnology Ins tute, EthiopiaAlumnus profi le: h ps://nf-pogo-alumni.org/profi le/Zerihun/

Addressing plastic pollution and its way forward

I completed the NF-POGO CofE programme at AWI in July 2017 and am currently working as a research-er in the Environmental Biotechnology Directorate of Ethiopian Biotechnology Ins tute (EBTI). EBTI is

a federal research ins tute established in June 2016 to consolidate and lead research ac vi es that are being conducted in diff erent universi es and research ins tutes by forming a biotechnological research hub. The ins tute makes the most of research developments that provide a means to strategize research relevant to environmental, health, bioinforma cs, genomics, and industrial and agricultural issues, to achieve innova ve solu ons of direct benefi t to the public. Research staff are responsible to work in the key themes of the directorates that benefi t the development strategy of the country as well as build sustainable living. The research work o en involves a con-siderable component of team work, both within the working groups and as part of the directorate. Hence POGO’s profes-sional training with its unique set of technical skills, knowledge and interdisciplinary team work experience benefi ts me to conduct environmental research using relevant methods and techniques.

In Ethiopia, eff orts have been made to advance environmental awareness and modernize waste management mechanisms, including plas c waste. At the same me, due to its convenience and low cost, consump on of plas c products is growing in the country that intensifi ed the genera on of plas c waste pollutants. These days plas c waste like plas c bags and bot-tles thrown on the road-side, open drains, river banks and in many public open spaces that fi nd their ways to be ingested by animals, choking the sewerage system and ruining the aesthe c value of the ci es has become a pressing environmental issue. In order to maintain a clean and healthy environment, on one hand there are growing ini a ves to raise the public consciousness and ac on about the long-term eff ects of plas c pollu on and its poten al impact on the environment apart from blocking the sewerage system. On the other hand, a new law is under considera on to introduce a total ban on plas c bag usage. Also, a new regula on awai ng to be ra fi ed will restrict the importa on and produc on of plas c products that are below 0.03 millimeters. But apparently inadequate implementa on of the direc ve augmented the phenomenon of single-use plas cs every year.

As UN is celebra ng World Environment Day on the 5th of June every year to address environmental issues, me and my colleagues also organized a half-day workshop to celebrate this year’s environmental day in our ins tute with a theme ”Overcoming Plas c Pollu on and Way Forward” - adapted from this year’s UN theme. The workshop primarily envisaged to boost awareness and ac on for the protec on of our environment from plas c pollu on. The program comprises of wel-coming keynote speech followed by three thema c individual presenta ons and discussions on diff erent topics, including: • importance of celebra ng world environmental day and what drives this year’s theme “Beat Plas c Pollu on”• how our ins tute play its part in reducing plas c pollu on• ways to reduce single-use plas c footprint• what possible ac ons and research approaches are there to reuse, recycle and degrade plas c waste and• ways that help raise the public awareness to exchange best prac ces

In addi on, poten al future technologies and services of plas c waste management facili es and systems as well as na- onal policy and regula ons were also important aspects of the workshop. The workshop brought together par cipants

working in the ins tute as researchers and corporate administra on offi cers which create ideal opportunity for interac ve professional discussion on how to stand up to the plas c pollu on challenge. Apparent solu ons and best prac cal strate-gies that can be applied in our daily life in and out of the ins tute were discussed. To keep our environment clean, safe and green, workshop par cipants also agreed to embrace EBTI’s mission and value-mo vated-work to access, document, facili-tate and/or adopt applied researches as part of our everyday opera ons. In fact, the necessity of Ethiopia’s development to safeguard the life and living environment also rests on combined eff ort and successful applica on of novel technologies and knowledge to li the damage that plas c wastes infl ict. Hence, research in the environmental biotechnology directo-rate also aimed at more effi cient and sustainable use of natural resources, and ways in which applica on of new and/or emerging technological solu ons to protect the environment, and restore its quality by addressing environmental issues like plas c pollu on.

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Plastic pollution

Dr. Mohammad Muslem UddinIns tute of Marine Sciences and Fisheries, University of Chi agong, BangladeshAlumnus profi le: h ps://nf-pogo-alumni.org/profi le/mudddin

Celebrations of World Oceans Day by the Blue Green Foundation Bangladesh

On 8th June 2018, Blue Green Founda on Bangladesh (BGFB) performed a grand celebra on of “World Oceans Day 2018” in collabora on with “Radiant Fish World” aquarium. The World Oceans Day was

celebrated in the touris c city Cox’s Bazar (Bangladesh), where the longest undivided sea beach in the world is situated. Students, NGO workers, offi cials from diff erent educa onal ins tu ons, as well as the general public from various corners of the country were gathered in Cox’s Bazar to celebrate the day with a global call to stop plas c pollu on. A series of day-long programs were organized to encourage the popula on to become more responsible towards the ocean and the atmosphere. The ac vi es included a pre-ocean day press conference, ocean day rallies, live fi sh aquarium visits, surfi ng, beach clean-ups, ocean day gallery visits, presenta ons, quiz compe ons, art and drawing compe ons and a prize giving ceremony.

Diverse scenes of World Ocean Day 2018 organized by Blue Green Founda on Bangladesh and Radiant Fish World: Ral-ly at Cox’s Bazar sea beach, Free Aquarium visit for school students and the press conference.

To conclude, the workshop ini a ve taken by the environmental directorate of EBTI was a very good pla orm to engage par cipants’ awareness and mo va on towards reducing single-use plas cs, improving waste management and recycling schemes, and promo ng research into sustainable plas c alterna ves. Lessons learned from the workshop will contribute to the mission of EBTI research ac vity by dissemina ng current environmental and public health challenges of plas c pol-lu on in research development.

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Plastic pollution

Mehrshad Taheri1, Mohammad Ali Hamzeh1, Samad Hamzei1, Maziar Khosravi1* and Maryam Yazdani Foshtomi2

1Iranian Na onal Ins tute for Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences2Faculty of Biological Sciences, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran*Alumnus profi le: h ps://nf-pogo-alumni.org/profi le/mkhosra/

Plastic pollution in Bandar Abbas coastline, Iran

Coastal areas are increasingly aff ected by human ac vi es. Nowa-days, plas c pollu on is one of the greatest threats to coastal

ecosystems worldwide. Bandar Abbas is the largest port city in the southern part of Iran. In this project, our goals are to understand the amount and composi on of lit-ters along the coastline of Bandar Abbas and their possible impacts on marine benthic ecosystems.

In phase I, during a fi eld study, the abundance and composi on of li er in a 100 me-tre transect of the coastal Vealyat Park, was studied, following the 2017 OSPAR in-struc on. A total of 499 pieces of waste were collected. Plas cs/polysterylene ma-terials were most abundant (59.25%) with 297 pieces collected, followed by paper/cardboard (43.6%) and po ery/ceramic (12.62%) with 63 pieces. Other less important items consisted of clothing (3.20%) with 16 pieces, broken glass (2.60%) with 13 pieces, 8 pieces of used metals (1.60%) and 7 pieces of wood (1.40%) (Fig. 1). Among all items, disposable plas cs (both waste plas cs and disposable containers) as well as cigare e bu s (20 consumed fi lters) were hazardous materials for coastal ecosystems. Our results from phase I showed that single use plas c bags were the main component of marine li er in the study area (Fig. 2). Tourism and recrea onal ac vi es had the greatest role in coastal pollu on in this area.

In phase II, a fi eld experiment will be conducted in order to inves gate the responses of inter dal benthic fauna (meio and macrofauna), community characteris cs (density, diversity, ver cal distribu on, feeding type contribu ons and reproduc- on ac vity), as well as ver cal migra ons of sediment heavy metals to oxygen stress driven by discarded single use plas c

bags (Fig. 2).

Finally in phase III, the amount and composi on of microplas cs will be inves gated in three contras ng sediment types along the coast-line of Bandar Abbas. Rela onships between benthic bacteria and meiofauna with environmental factors will be studied.

Unfortunately due to lack of budget, phases II and III can no longer be pursued. Any fi nancial support to con nue this research project would be highly appreciated.

Fig. 2 - Single use plas c bag li er in sandy sediment in Bandar Abbas, Iran (le ) and samples for inves ga on of ver cal migra ons of sediment heavy metals (right).

Fig. 1 - Li er items found in 100 metre transect along the coastline of Bandar Abbas, Iran.

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Plastic pollution

La Daana KanhaiMarine and Freshwater Research Centre, Galway Mayo Ins tute of Technology, IrelandInvited collabora on - contact: [email protected]

Microplastics in the ocean

The global interconnected ocean is one of the most cri cal resources for life on planet Earth. Within the past few decades, plas c debris in the ocean has emerged as an issue of global concern due to the

threat that plas cs poten ally pose to organisms that inhabit or depend upon the marine environment (UNEP, 2014). Although marine li er is broadly defi ned as “any persistent, manufactured or processed solid material discarded, disposed of or abandoned in the marine and coastal environment”, it is es mated that plas cs comprise over 60 % of all marine li er in the ocean (UNEP, 2009; AWI Li erbase, 2018). Plas cs comprise of a diverse ar-ray of synthe c polymers that can be sub-divided based on size classifi ca ons into macro-, meso- and microplas cs (Ryan, 2015). Microplas cs can be defi ned as plas c par cles of less than 5 mm in diameter that enter the environment from a combina on of terrestrial and marine anthropogenic ac vi es (Arthur et al., 2009). These par cles may be of (i) primary origin whereby they are industrially created for use as exfoliants in cosme cs, abrasives in synthe c ‘sandblas ng’ media and resin pellets or, (ii) secondary origin whereby they are formed as a result of the fragmenta on of macro or mesoplas cs (Andrady, 2017). Concerns regarding the presence of microplas cs in the marine environment stems from the fact that they are (i) ubiquitous, (ii) persistent and, (iii) a poten al threat to marine biota.

The ubiquitous nature of microplas cs is such that they have been recorded in every environmental compartment of the world’s oceans (Lusher, 2015). Some of the highest microplas c abundances have been recorded in (i) oceanic waters of the North East Pacifi c Ocean (279 ± 178 par cles m-3), (ii) deep sea sediments of the Fram Strait (42 – 6595 microplas cs kg-1 dry sediment) and, (iii) sea ice of the Arc c Ocean (1.1×106 – 1.2×107 par cles m-3; Desforges et al., 2014; Bergmann et al., 2017; Peeken et al., 2018). Within the ocean, surface waters are not the ul mate repository for plas c debris (Cózar et al., 2014; Eriksen et al., 2014). In fact, it has been suggested that deep sea sediments and sea ice act as sinks for microplas cs in the ocean (Woodall et al., 2014; Obbard et al., 2014). Furthermore, there are several factors which may poten ally infl uence the ver cal fl ux and overall fate of microplas cs in the ocean. Some of these include (i) the inges on and subsequent eges- on of microplas cs by marine organisms in faecal pellets (Cole et al., 2016), (ii) the a achment of microplas cs to mucus

‘houses’ of larvaceans (Ka ja et al., 2017), (ii) the incorpora on of microplas cs in aggregates of various algal species (Long et al., 2015), (iii) biofouling of microplas cs by microorganisms (Fazey and Ryan, 2016) and, (iv) other abio c factors such as oceanic currents, and wind stress, among others. (Kukulka et al., 2012; van Sebille et al., 2012).

Concern about microplas cs in the world’s oceans is in part driven by their discovery in several phyla of marine organisms (Lusher, 2015). Since the presence of a contaminant does not automa cally imply its impact, laboratory studies have sought to inves gate the poten al impact of a given contaminant by conduc ng exposure experiments. Some of these experiments have shown that microplas cs can nega vely impact (i) algae by hindering their photosynthesis/growth (Bha acharya et al., 2010; Besseling et al., 2014), (ii) lugworms by reducing their feeding and energy reserves (Besseling et al., 2013; Wright et al., 2013), (iii) mussels by reducing their fi ltering ac vity and decreasing their lysosomal membrane stability (Von Moos et al., 2012; Wegner et al., 2012), (iv) copepods by reducing their feeding and reproduc ve output (Cole et al., 2015) and, (v) fi sh by causing liver stress, nega vely impac ng upon cholinergic neurotransmission and leading to endocrine disrup on (Oliveira et al., 2013; Rochman et al., 2013, 2014). However, since many of these laboratory experiments expose marine organisms to microplas c concentra ons that are not recorded in the natural environment, uncertainty remains regarding this issue and thus, it is important not to overstate the risks (Phuong et al., 2016; Burton, 2017; Paul-Pont et al., 2018).

Recently, a few countries have taken legisla ve ac on regarding certain types of microplas cs (microbeads) in a bid to re-strict the infl ux of these par cles to the marine environment. Currently, Canada, New Zealand, Taiwan, the UK and USA are among the countries that have introduced bans on microbeads (US Government in 2015; Government of Canada in 2017; UK Government in 2017; New Zealand Government in 2017; Government of Taiwan in 2017). While these legisla ve meas-ures can aid in restric ng the amount of microbeads that are released into the ocean, they are however a drop in the ocean of poten al solu ons regarding the issue of microplas cs in the ocean. In fact, numerous previous studies conducted in various oceanic basins have reported the predominance of fi brous microplas cs in their samples. Laboratory-based experi-

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Plastic pollution

About the author: La Daana Kanhai is from the Caribbean country of Trini-dad and Tobago. She is a Doctoral Candidate in the program Marine Eco-system Health and Conserva on (MARES). Her host ins tu ons are Galway Mayo Ins tute of Technology, Ireland and the University of Plymouth, UK. Her PhD research focuses on microplas cs in the Atlan c Ocean (sampling conducted on board the R/V Polarstern during the PS95 expedi on) and Arc c Ocean (sampling conducted on board the icebreaker Oden during the Arc c Ocean 2016 expedi on).Recent ar cles from the author about microplas cs in the ocean:Kanhai, L.D.K., Gårdfeldt, K.,et al., 2018. Microplas cs in sub-surface waters of the Arc c Central Basin. Marine Pollu on Bulle n 130, 8-18. h ps://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2018.03.011Kanhai, L.D.K., Offi cer, R., et al., 2017. Microplas c abundance, distribu- on and composi on along a la tudinal gradient in the Atlan c Ocean.

Marine Pollu on Bulle n 115, 307-314. h ps://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol-bul.2016.12.025

ments have shown that washing clothes leads to the release of several thousands of fi bres (Napper and Thompson, 2016). To date, however, there has been no legisla ve ac on aimed towards reducing the amount of fi brous microplas cs that are entering the ocean.

The issue of microplas cs in the ocean cannot be addressed in isola on, but instead ought to be linked to the broader issue of macroplas cs. So far, the world has witnessed several mul pronged approaches that focus specifi cally on plas c pollu- on. Certain countries have taken legisla ve ac on to target single-use plas cs (Xanthos and Walker, 2017). Some other

countries have pledged their inten on to address the plas c issue. Five of the G7 countries (Canada, France, Germany, Italy, and UK), as well as the European Union have agreed on an Ocean Plas cs Charter (G7, 2018). In January 2018, a Europe-wide strategy on plas cs was adopted with the European Union set to propose new rules to target single use plas cs (EU, 2018). Organiza ons have launched public awareness campaigns about plas c pollu on in the ocean. Na onal Geographic’s ‘Planet or Plas c?’ campaign (Na onal Geographic, 2018) is one of several examples. Last but not by any means least, indi-viduals have begun to rethink their lifestyle and take ac ve steps to (i) reduce the amount of plas cs that they are using, for example, by refusing single-use plas c items (water bo les, plas c bags, straws, disposable coff ee/tea cups) and choosing more sustainable alterna ves, (ii) reuse plas c items that may have been disposed of a er a single use and, (iii) engage in recycling. Since the alarm was fi rst raised about plas cs in the ocean, the scien fi c community and the general public have come a long way in understanding the problem and fi nding solu ons. I think if I were to echo the sen ments of the world about plas c pollu on it would be that ‘We are not where we used to be (our knowledge base has defi nitely expanded), we are not where we want to be (the ‘plas c tap’ is s ll open and plas cs are s ll making their way to the ocean) but we are on the way there (remarkable individuals all across the world are taking ac on to address the issue).

ReferencesAndrady, A.L., 2017. The plas c in microplas cs: A review. Marine Pollu on Bulle n 119, 12-22.Arthur, C., Baker, J., Bamford, H., 2009. Proceedings of the Interna onal Re-search Workshop on the Occurrence, Eff ects and Fate of Microplas c Marine Debris. NOAA, University of Washington Tacoma, WA, USA.AWI-LITTERBASE, 2018. Global composi on of marine li er. Alfred Wegener Ins tute.Bergmann, M., Wirzberger, V., et al., 2017. High Quan es of Microplas c in Arc c Deep-Sea Sediments from the HAUSGARTEN Observatory. Environmen-tal Science & Technology 51, 11000-11010.Besseling, E., Wegner, A., et al., 2013. Eff ects of Microplas c on Fitness and PCB Bioaccumula on by the Lugworm Arenicola marina (L.). Environmental Science & Technology 47, 593-600.Besseling, E., Wang, B., et al., 2014. Nanoplas c Aff ects Growth of S. obliquus and Reproduc on of D. magna. Environmental Science & Technology 48, 12336-12343.Bha acharya, P., Lin, S., et al., 2010. Physical Adsorp on of Charged Plas c Nanopar cles Aff ects Algal Photosynthesis. The Journal of Physical Chemistry C 114, 16556-16561.Burton, G.A., 2017. Stressor Exposures Determine Risk: So, Why Do Fellow Scien sts Con nue To Focus on Superfi cial Microplas cs Risk? Environmental Science & Technology 51, 13515-13516.Cole, M., Lindeque, P., et al., 2015. The Impact of Polystyrene Microplas cs on Feeding, Func on and Fecundity in the Marine Copepod Calanus helgolandi-

cus. Environmental Science & Technology 49, 1130-1137.Cole, M., Lindeque, P.K., et al., 2016. Microplas cs Alter the Proper es and Sinking Rates of Zooplankton Faecal Pellets. Environmental Science & Technol-ogy 50, 3239-3246.Cózar, A., Echevarria, F., et al., 2014. Plas c debris in the open ocean. Proceed-ings of the Na onal Academy of Sciences 111, 10239-10244.Desforges, J.-P.W., Galbraith, M., et al., 2014. Widespread distribu on of mi-croplas cs in subsurface seawater in the NE Pacifi c Ocean. Marine Pollu on Bulle n 79, 94-99.Eriksen, M., Lebreton, L.C.M., et al., 2014. Plas c Pollu on in the World’s Oceans: More than 5 Trillion Plas c Pieces Weighing over 250,000 Tons Afl oat at Sea. PLoS ONE 9, e111913.(EU), European Union, 2018. Single use plas cs: New EU rules to reduce ma-rine li er. European Union, Brussels, Belgium.Fazey, F.M.C., Ryan, P.G., 2016. Biofouling on buoyant marine plas cs: An ex-perimental study into the eff ect of size on surface longevity. Environmental Pollu on 210, 354-360.G7, 2018. Ocean Plas cs Charter. h ps://g7.gc.ca/wpcontent/up-loads/2018/06/OceanPlas csCharter.pdfGovernment of Canada, 2017. Microbeads in Toiletries Regula ons, in: Cana-da, G.o. (Ed.), SOR/2017-111, Canada Gaze e, Part II: Vol. 151, No. 12 - June 14, 2017. h p://laws-lois.jus ce.gc.ca/PDF/SOR-2017-111.pdfGovernment of Taiwan, 2017. Restric ons on the manufacture, import and sale of personal care and cosme cs products containing plas c microbeads. h ps://oaout.epa.gov.tw/law/EngLawContent.aspx?lan=E&id=199&KW=microbeadsKa ja, K., Choy, C.A., et al., 2017. From the surface to the seafl oor: How gi-ant larvaceans transport microplas cs into the deep sea. Science Advances 3, e1700715.Kukulka, T., Proskurowski, G., et al., 2012. The eff ect of wind mixing on the ver cal distribu on of buoyant plas c debris. Geophysical Research Le ers 39, n/a-n/a.Long, M., Moriceau, B.l., et al., 2015. Interac ons between microplas cs and phytoplankton aggregates: Impact on their respec ve fates. Marine Chemistry 175, 39-46.Lusher, A., 2015. Microplas cs in the Marine Environment: Distribu on, In-terac ons and Eff ects, in: Bergmann, M., Gutow, L., Klages, M. (Eds.), Marine Anthropogenic Li er. Springer Interna onal Publishing, pp. 245-307.Napper, I.E., Thompson, R.C., 2016. Release of synthe c microplas c plas c fi bres from domes c washing machines: Eff ects of fabric type and washing condi ons. Marine Pollu on Bulle n 112, 39-45.Na onal Geographic, 2018. Planet or Plas c? h ps://www.na onalgeograph-ic.com/environment/planetorplas c/New Zealand Government, 2017. Waste minimisa on (Microbeads) Regu-la ons 2017, 2017/291. h p://www.legisla on.govt.nz/regula on/pub-lic/2017/0291/latest/whole.html#DLM7490735

25Contact us: [email protected], [email protected], [email protected] website: www.nf-pogo-alumni.org

Plastic pollution

Seán LynchFounder and Developer of OpenLi erMapInvited collabora on - contact: openli [email protected]

Introducing OpenLitterMap - Open Data on Plastic Pollution (With Blockchain Rewards)

Terrestrial li er mapping is the panacea of Ci zen Science that can increase ocean literacy, mi gate plas c pollu on and even increase par cipa on in Marine Spa al Planning.

Plas c entering the marine environment is expected to con nue to increase exponen ally from 8-12 million tonnes in 2010 to ~70 million tonnes by 2025 assuming current trends con nue (Jambeck et al., 2015). The majority of this pollu on (67%-90%) has been reported to originate from just 10-20 rivers, which are believed to be primarily located in South-East Asia and Africa (Lebreton et al., 2018; Schmidt, et al., 2017). While these fi gures may be correct, these approaches (which are some of the most commonly cited and authorita ve references to plas c pollu on) make inferences based on popula on and waste management metrics. In lieu of detailed and accessible geospa al data on plas c pollu on, these approaches may be largely unable to appropriately characterize contemporary anthropogenic li er.

Geospa al informa on on plas c pollu on is of cri cal importance as data can be used to warrant interven on, inform and evaluate policy, and maps of li er can expose and communicate plas c pollu on. Li er maps have the poten al to redefi ne what can be considered “normal” in society by provoking the hyper-spa al and abundant diversity of the once invisible and elusive plas c pollu on. By interac ng with the maps, what was once taken for granted can be made exceedingly obvious to the extent that some people may never look at the streets, or their throwaway consumer behaviour, the same way again (Fig. 1). The extent that interac ng with li er maps or data collec on processes has for changing behaviour is unknown, but it is worth considering.

For the fi rst me, hundreds of millions of people have been empowered with incredibly powerful geospa al data col-lectors. Mapping was once a prac ce limited exclusively to those who wrote history, but with the advent of the Inter-net and GPS-enabled smartphones, anyone can now produce detailed geographic informa on anywhere (Fig. 2). This is a paradigma c shi in how knowledge, par cularly that of a geospa al nature, can be created and shared throughout society (Goodchild, 2007). However, due to the lack of economic support for the emerging fi eld of ci zen science, it is likely and increasingly evident that privately developed pla orms are restric ng access to crowdsourced data (on plas c pollu on). So ware innova on is expensive and because this fi eld is so new, support for the produc on of geospa al data

Obbard, R.W., Sadri, S., et al., 2014. Global warming releases microplas c leg-acy frozen in Arc c Sea ice. Earth’s Future 2, 315-320.Oliveira, M., Ribeiro, A., et al., 2013. Single and combined eff ects of microplas- cs and pyrene on juveniles (0+ group) of the common goby Pomatoschistus

microps (Teleostei, Gobiidae). Ecological Indicators 34, 641-647.Paul-Pont, I., Tallec, K., et al., 2018. Constraints and Priori es for Conduc ng Experimental Exposures of Marine Organisms to Microplas cs. Fron ers in Marine Science 5.Peeken, I., Primpke, S., et al., 2018. Arc c sea ice is an important temporal sink and means of transport for microplas c. Nature Communica ons 9, 1505.Phuong, N.N., Zalouk-Vergnoux, A., et al., 2016. Is there any consistency be-tween the microplas cs found in the fi eld and those used in laboratory experi-ments? Environmental Pollu on 211, 111-123. Rochman, C.M., Hoh, E., et al., 2013. Ingested plas c transfers hazardous chemicals to fi sh and induces hepa c stress. Scien fi c Reports 3, 3263.Rochman, C.M., Kurobe, T., et al., 2014. Early warning signs of endocrine disrup on in adult fi sh from the inges on of polyethylene with and without sorbed chemical pollutants from the marine environment. Science of The To-tal Environment 493, 656-661. Rochman, C.M., Kurobe, T., et al., 2014. Early warning signs of endocrine disrup on in adult fi sh from the inges on of polyethylene with and without sorbed chemical pollutants from the marine environment. Science of The To-tal Environment 493, 656-661.Ryan, P.G., 2015. A Brief History of Marine Li er Research, in: Bergmann, M., Gutow, L., Klages, M. (Eds.), Marine Anthropogenic Li er. Springer Interna- onal Publishing, Cham, pp. 1-25.

US Government, 2015. Microbead-free waters Act of 2015, United States of America. h ps://www.congress.gov/114/plaws/publ114/PLAW-114publ114.pdfUK Government, 2017. The Environmental Protec on (Microbeads) (Eng-land) Regula ons 2017, 2017 No. 1312. h ps://www.legisla on.gov.uk/uksi/2017/1312/pdfs/uksi_20171312_en.pdf(UNEP), United Na ons Environment Programme. 2009. Marine Li er: A Glob-al Challenge. UNEP, Nairobi, Kenya.(UNEP), United Na ons Environment Programme. 2014. UNEP Year Book Emerging Issues in Our Global Environment 2014. UNEP, Nairobi, Kenya.van Sebille, E., England, M.H., Froyland, G., 2012. Origin, dynamics and evolu- on of ocean garbage patches from observed surface dri ers Environmental

Research Le ers 7, 1-6.von Moos, N., Burkhardt-Holm, P., Kohler, A., 2012. Uptake and Eff ects of Mi-croplas cs on Cells and Tissue of the Blue Mussel My lus edulis L. a er an Ex-perimental Exposure. Environmental Science & Technology 46, 11327-11335.Wegner, A., Besseling, E., et al., 2012. Eff ects of Nanopolystyrene on the Feed-ing Behaviour of the Blue mussel (My lus Edulis L.). Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 31, 2490-2497.Woodall, L.C., Sanchez-Vidal, A., et al., 2014. The deep sea is a major sink for microplas c debris. Royal Society Open Science 1.Wright, S.L., Rowe, D., et al., 2013. Microplas c inges on decreases energy reserves in marine worms. Current Biology 23, R1031-R1033.Xanthos, D., Walker, T.R., 2017. Interna onal policies to reduce plas c marine pollu on from single-use plas cs (plas c bags and microbeads): A review. Ma-rine Pollu on Bulle n 118, 17-26.

26Contact us: [email protected], [email protected], [email protected] website: www.nf-pogo-alumni.org

About the author: Seán Lynch is a self-taught full-stack geospa al so -ware developer who is building OpenLi erMap.com by himself. He has 2 M.Sc., one in GIS & Remote Sensing and the second in Coastal & Marine Environments. Seán recently published his fi rst peer-reviewed paper in Open Geospa al Data, So ware and Standards on OpenLit-terMap. OpenLi erMap is currently growing at several new users per day. Seán spent 5-weeks on-board the R/V Polarstern (PS-95) in 2015 as part of the fi rst North-South Atlan c Training Transect which gave him a much greater perspec ve of plas c pollu on as a global problem and what needs to be done about it.Read more at Lynch, S., (2018). OpenLi erMap.com – Open Data on Plas c Pollu on with Blockchain Rewards (Li ercoin). Open Geospa al Data, So ware, and Standards, 3:6. h ps://doi.org/10.1186/s40965-018-0050-y

that in this case is caused largely by the economic ac vity of a handful of corpora ons at a global scale, does not exist. While it might make prac cal sense to restrict access to crowdsourced data in an a empt to generate revenue, limit-ing data access inhibits democracy, research, transparency, innova on, curiosity, knowledge, accountability, and solu ons. Considering the persistent cost of plas c pollu on, it does not make ra onal sense to restrict access to data when sharing can be as simple as h ps://openli ermap.com/maps/Ireland/download. Open data has signifi cant poten al to reduce the impact that plas c is having on the environment by enabling democra zed research, good governance and corporate ac-countability. This is par cularly important for plas c pollu on, which is closely, if not directly related to economic ac vity. However, open data requires fi nancial support to grow and survive. OpenLi erMap has been developed independently out of necessity to enable anyone to produce and access detailed and verifi ed open ci zen science data on plas c pollu on. However the kind of ci zen science we value and how we collec vely author the next chapter of the history books with our newfound geo-tech has yet to be determined.

Li er mapping can even act as a bridge between terrestrial and marine planning. Stakeholders who have compe ng in-terests can use li er-mapping science to cooperate or compete with each and even incen vize public par cipa on, which is o en one of the most challenging aspects of Marine Spa al Planning. The stakeholders with the ini a ve to pioneer and display leadership early could use this as an opportunity to increase their visibility and acceptance with members of the public and even develop new business opportuni es. To incen vize data collec on, OpenLi erMap applies blockchain proof-of-work mining principles to Ci zen Science for the fi rst me. Users are rewarded with crypto-tokens Li ercoin for do-ing the work of producing open geospa al data on plas c pollu on. As cryptocurrencies are generally permissionless, stake-holders and facilitators have a new innova ve opportunity to incen vize and reward par cipa on in the public process. This has the poten al to incen vize the most rapid produc on of geospa al data the world has ever seen and we could probably get a good picture of the world’s li er in as li le as 15 minutes if people were incen vized enough to do it. The persistence of plas c pollu on makes it incredibly expensive, and it makes economic sense to incen vize data collec on that can be used by anyone for any purpose. Paying people to pick up li er is not new, as local authori es spend millions annually as the cost of plas c pollu on is signifi cantly greater than the cost of interven on. However, despite having advanced mapping capabili es, it is clear that local authori es are not mo vated to map how polluted their ci es are caused by the economic ac vity of local and global stakeholders (Fig. 1). Tradi onally, li er mapping and even science in general was limited to those with the exper se and permission to do so, but now anyone can par cipate in the process. If you are interested in commu-

nica ng and advancing research into plas c pollu on, you can now get rewarded for doing so.

ReferencesGoodchild, M. F., (2007). Ci zens as sensors: the world of volunteered geography, GeoJournal, 69(4): 211-21.Jambeck, J. R., Geyer, R., Wilcox, C., Siegler, T., Perrman, M., Andrady. A., Narayan, R., Law, K. L., (2015). Plas c waste inputs from land into the ocean, Science, h -ps://dio.org/10/1126/science.1260352Lebreton, L., Slat, B., Ferrari, F., Sanite-Rose, B., Aitken, J., Marthouse, R., Hajbane, S., Cunsolo, S., Schwarz, A., Levivier, A., Noble, K., Deblejak, P., Maral, H., Schoe-neich-Argent, R., Brambini, R., Reisser, J., (2018). Evidence that the great Pacifi c garbage patch is rapidly accumula ng plas c. Nature Scien fi c Reports, Vol. 8, Ar cle 4666.Schmidt, C., Krauth, T., Wagner, S., (2017). Export of plas c debris by rivers into the sea, Environmental Science & Technology.

Fig. 1 - Li er mapping of branded so drinks with the OpenLi erMap applica on (le ) along a motorway in Wassenaar, Netherlands, and (right) in Cork, Ireland.

27Contact us: [email protected], [email protected], [email protected] website: www.nf-pogo-alumni.org

The west coast of Canada is part of a complex environ-ment, infl uenced by its geomorphology, small to large

scale oceanographic processes, a dynamic bathymetry, and con nental run-off transpor ng massive quan es of fresh-water and nutrients. These combined physi-cal and chemical processes are expected to determine the local phytoplankton produc- on, underpinning the coastal food web

and the distribu on and maintenance of an important natural resource for the lo-cal coastal community: the salmon and its migra on pa erns. Due to the importance of this ecosystem, the project “Spa al-tem-poral dynamics of coastal bio-geochemical and bio-op cal provinces along Bri sh Co-lumbia and Southeast Alaska - following the migra on route of juvenile salmon” was proposed by Dr. Maycira Costa (University of Victoria, BC) and Dr. Brian Hunt (Univer-sity of Bri sh Columbia, BC), funded by the Tula Founda on under the auspices of the Hakai Coastal Ini a ve. This project aims to provide tools to map the nearshore domain along the Bri sh Columbia and Southeast Alaska coasts using remote sens-ing data of bio-op cal and biogeochemical products, such as chlorophyll-a and dissolved and par culate ma er. Along with addi onal oceanographic and meteorological data, the project aims to address the following research ques- ons: What are the spa al and temporal dynamics of the

biogeochemical proper es of the coastal oceans of Bri sh

Columbia and Southeast Alaska? What are the dominant bo om-up control processes driving the dynamics of these regions? What are the implica ons of bo om-up processes for regional primary produc vity, and the foraging habitat

available to migra ng juvenile salmon?

As the post-doctoral research fellow in charge of this project since October 2017, I have been working on the Sen -nel-3 sensor data, which is operated by the European Space Agency (ESA) and distributed by EUMETSAT. The Sen nel-3 sensor has the appropriate resolu on to retrieve data from such a highly complex nearshore environment as the Bri sh Columbia coast, and it has been show-ing promising results. In situ data have been collected and historical datasets have been processed for remotely-sensed products valida on and atmospheric cor-rec on comparisons. The project has re-ceived support from several agencies and

collaborators, such as the MEOPAR (Marine Environmen-tal Observa on, Predic on and Response Network), ONC (Oceans Network Canada), PSF (Pacifi c Salmon Founda on), Environmental Canada, ACRI-ST Group and ESA/EUMETSAT.

NANO Alumni in ac on: Research communica ons

Dynamics of coastal biogeochemical and bio-op cal provinces along Bri sh Columbia and Southeast Alaska - following the migra on route of juvenile salmon

Dr. Fernanda GianniniSpectral and Remote Sensing Laboratory, University of VictoriaUniversity of Bri sh Columbia/Hakai Ins tute, CanadaAlumnus profi le: h ps://nf-pogo-alumni.org/profi le/mcologi/

Chlorophyll-a concentra on along Bri sh Columbia coast on March 15th, 2018. Satellite image from Sen- nel-3 OLCI sensor from EUMETSAT.

The Blue Green Founda on Bangladesh ac vi- es during the World Oceans Day 2018. Read

more at page 21.

28Contact us: [email protected], [email protected], [email protected] website: www.nf-pogo-alumni.org

As the dominant photosynthe c pigment in all of the photoautotrophic algae and cyanobacteria, chlorophyll-

a concentra on (Chl-a) is widely employed as an index for ecosystem produc vity in aqua c environments (Reynolds, 2006). As the main energy source of ecosystem food web, es ma ng Chl-a and its variability over me is an essen- al part in water quality and health monitoring programs

(Moses et al., 2009), fi sheries resources assessment and marine aquaculture development in coastal and marine en-vironments (Radiarta and Saito, 2008). Iden fi ca on of high Chl-a areas is of great importance in discovering marine produc vity hotspots, i.e., regions that provide favourable living and reproduc ve habitats for marine species. Due to the high spa al and temporal variability in Chl-a in aqua c environments (Valavanis et al., 2008), limita ons in research funding and prac cal diffi cul es in making ship-board ob-serva on, only a limited part of the ocean can be studied in a given me. The only prac cal tool for capturing the spa al and temporal scales necessary to adequately characterise changes in Chl-a in marine environments is remote sensing (Stromberg et al., 2009).

In general, the seas and the oceans of the world can be di-vided into two parts based on their op cal characteris cs: Case 1 and Case 2 waters. Case 1 waters are typically deep ocean systems with more than 200 m depth, where the op- cal proper es of the water column are mainly determined

by Chl-a alone. In contrast, Case 2 waters are classifi ed as highly produc ve con nental shelf and near shore areas, where other factors, such as mineral suspended solids and coloured dissolved organic ma er exhibit op cally complex absorp on spectra that overlap with the spectral region used for Chl-a retrieval (Gitelson et al., 2007). These sub-stances interfere with the es ma on of the satellite Chl-a, usually causing an overes ma on in Chl-a in Case 2 waters using standard global algorithms (Morel et al., 2007).

The Caspian Sea (CS) has been classifi ed as a Case 2 water environment, for which satellite global algorithms fail to accurately predict the Chl-a concentra on (Nezlin, 2005). Considering the lack of Chl-a measurements for the CS, few studies have been carried out on valida ng the remotely sensed obtained Chl-a data for this aqua c environment (Kopelevich et al., 2004). First es ma ons on MODIS Aqua level 2 products accuracy for the Southern CS showed a weak correla on between satellite Chl-a data and in situ Chl-a measurements (RMSE= 39.4%; Fendereski et al., 2010). In the current study, GlobColour Chl-a products are validated with in situ Chl-a data of the con nental shelf (less than 100 meters deep) of the Southern CS. Two ESA’s Chl-

a products, CHL1 and CHL2, are com-pared for applica on in the coastal waters of the Southern CS. CHL1 is a merged Chl-a product (mg m-3) from three concurrent sensors, SeaWiFS, MODIS Aqua and MERIS. It has shown good performance in the es- ma on of Chl-a in off shore Case 1 waters. CHL2 provides

Chl-a (mg m-3) for Case 2 near shore waters and is only avail-able from the MERIS sensor. In the report published on the valida on of the quality of the full product set (FPS) of the GlobColour merged ocean colour data over 10 years (Glob-Colour Full Valida on Report, 2007), the precision and ac-curacy of the GlobColour CHL1 products were inves gated in the open ocean and coastal waters of the global ocean. Although in general, the report showed a weak performance of CHL1 products in coastal waters, however, at the same me a be er match was observed for some regions and in

some seasons in the same report. These studies concluded that the performance of the CHL1 products is not consistent throughout the year and diff ers with variabili es in Chl-a in a way that high and low values of Chl-a in a given water body result in over/underes ma ons, respec vely (GlobColour Full Valida on Report, 2007). Hence, the ques on that re-mains is whether the complex GlobColour Chl-a product can accurately es mate Chl-a from space in coastal waters of the Southern CS. Moreover, since CHL1 and CHL2 algorithms are mainly generated for recogni on and measurement of Chl-a in open ocean and coastal waters of large oceanic regions (GlobColour.info), do these algorithms work for coastal ar-eas of enclosed aqua c systems, such as the CS, with its dif-ferent physical and biological characteris cs comparing to other seas and oceans in the world?

Material and Methods

Study area

The CS is the largest, almost landlocked, water body in the world. It covers a total area of about 4x105 km2, extends from 37°N to 47°N and from 47°E to 55°E. Conven onally, the CS has been divided into the northern, middle and southern basins. The three basins provide diff erent ecosystems with diff erent clima c, physical, chemical, biological and bathy-metrical features. Apsheron Ridge separates the Southern part from the middle (Fig. 1). The Southern Caspian basin has a sub-tropical climate, while in the east it has dry condi- ons of the steppe zones (Su et al., 2000; Barale, 2008). The

average depth of the Southern CS is 184 m with maximum depth of 1025 m.

NANO Alumni in ac on: Research communica ons

The fi rst a empt to validate GlobColour chlorophyll-a on the con nental shelf of the southern Caspian Sea

Dr. Forough FendereskiHelmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research, Alfred Wegener Ins tute, GermanyAlumnus profi le: h ps://nf-pogo-alumni.org/profi le/foroughfendereski/

29Contact us: [email protected], [email protected], [email protected] website: www.nf-pogo-alumni.org

Sampling and satellite Chl-a data

In situ data were collected within two weeks between Feb-ruary and March 2011, from 57 sta ons on seven transects distributed along the con nental shelf of the Southern CS (Fig. 1). At each sta on, water samples were fi ltered on board using Whatman GF/F glass fi ber fi lters. Photosyn-the c pigments were extracted in 90% acetone and a spec-trophotometer was used to es mate Chl-a values, using the equa ons provided by Jeff rey and Humphrey (1975; Aminot and Rey, 2000). The reduced availability of in situ Chl-a available from local research ins tu ons or the World Ocean Atlas database (Boyer et al., 2013), par cularly dur-ing the period coinciding with the start of GlobColour Chl-a me series, limited the number of matching up points used

in this study.

GlobColour Case 1 and Case 2 Chl-a products on monthly, weekly (8 days) and daily bases and in spa al resolu on of 4.6 km were downloaded for the sampling period (h p://www.GlobColour.info). Two models have already been ap-plied to create CHL1 and CHL2 products; GSM10 semi ana-ly cal model and Weighed average. GSM10-derived CHL1 data were used as they showed a slightly be er perfor-mance than Weighted averaged-derived products (Durand et al., 2007).

Sta s cal analyses

Sta s cal analyses, including correla on and regression analyses, were performed on the extracted CHL1 and CHL2 data points against and collocated in situ data (occurring within a single Chl-a GlobColour pixel). Because of log-nor-mal distribu on of Chl-a in natural marine environments, and as the sta s cal methods only apply to normally dis-tributed variables (Gregg and Casey, 2004; Durand et al., 2007), the analyses were performed with logarithmically transformed (base 10) in situ and satellite data. Mean bias was calculated as:

and root mean square error (RMSE) was defi ned as:

where yi indicates satellite Chl-a, xi indicates in situ Chl-a, and N is the number of samples. The coeffi cient of deter-mina on (r2) from the correla on analysis shows the co-variance between the data set and the in situ observa ons. RMSE is an es mate of the error of the satellite data. To ex-plore the performance and uncertainty of the satellite CHL1 and CHL2 data with water depth, the regression residuals were inves gated as a func on of water depth.

Results

In situ Chl-a values ranged between 0.71 and 3.43 mg m-3 with an average of 2.2±0.8 mg m-3. The number of pairs were N=25 for the monthly matchups and N=18 and N=11 for the weekly matchups with Case 1 and Case 2 algorithms, respec vely. The reason for inconsistency in the number of matchups was because some data points from satellite data had to be fl agged out due to the cloud cover.

Sca er plots of weekly and monthly averaged satellite Case 1 and Case 2 Chl-a products against in situ Chl-a are shown in Fig. 2. The r2 values, slope, intercept, bias, and RMSE of comparisons of in situ data with weekly averaged products are listed in Table 1. Comparison between Case 1 satellite Chl-a and in situ data (Fig. 2b and 2d) did not show any consistency in the manner of the Chl-a es ma on in the study area. That is, points were not consistently distributed around the reference line in the sca er plots. However, the similar comparison for the Case 2 satellite Chl-a (Fig. 2a and 2c) showed an underes ma on in Chl-a for coastal waters of the Southern CS (i.e. points fell below the reference line in the sca er plots). However, at very low Chl-a values, the algorithm has overes mated Chl-a (i.e. points fell over the reference line in the sca er plots; Fig. 2a and 2c). Good cor-rela ons were observed between satellite Case 2 and in situ Chl-a data (r2= 0.84 for weekly and 0.65 for monthly com-parisons). Correla ons were weaker in comparing Case 1 Chl-a products and in situ data (r2= 0.19 for weekly and 0.12 for monthly comparisons; Table 2).

To inves gate the infl uence of water depth on the applica-bility of Case 1 and Case 2 Chl-a products in the con nental shelf of Southern CS, the obtained bias in the comparisons between weekly products and in situ data were inves gated as a func on of water depth (Fig. 3). A nega ve rela on-ship is observed between bias in both Case 1 and Case 2

Fig. 1 - Caspian Sea and loca on of sampling sta ons.

Table 1 - Correla on coeffi cient for log-transformed week-ly (N=25) and monthly (N=111) Case 1 and Case 2 Chl-a products and in situ data in the coastal waters of Southern Caspian Sea.

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products with water depth (-0.57 and -0.51, respec vely), while the decreasing slope with the increase in water depth is steeper for the Case 1 comparison (grey line; Fig. 3).

Discussion

The CS is of par cular ecological and economic importance. Due to its long-term separa on from other water bodies of the world, the CS acts as habitat for many endemic species to spawn, feed and mature. It is also famous for concentrat-ing 85% of the world’s en re sturgeon popula on (UNEP, 2006). Es ma on of Chl-a, as an index for primary produc-ers is of specifi c value in ecological studies of marine envi-ronments, e.g., in modeling habitats (Valavanis et al., 2008), iden fi ca on of marine produc vity hotspots, es ma on of fi sheries revenues, delinea ng marine ecosystem bounda-ries (Gregr and Bodtker, 2007), and studying trophic status of aqua c environments (Vollenweider and Kerekes, 1982). However, satellite algorithms have been mainly developed based on Chl-a in open ocean and coastal waters of large oceanic basins. The applicability of empirical algorithms in a given environment depends on the representa veness of the data that these algorithms are based on. Hence, empiri-cal algorithms do not always provide reasonable es ma on of Chl-a in all areas of the world ocean (IOCCG, 2006). The errors of these algorithms tend to be higher in some areas, especially in con nental shelf and near shore regions (Gitel-son et al., 2007).

Considering the special physical (salinity, pa erns in currents, bathymetry) and biological characteris cs of the CS (UNEP, 2006), the ques on arise is that how ac-curate the global algorithms are for Chl-a es ma on in the CS. The CS is classifi ed as Case 2 water type, where some uncertain es has been observed in dif-ferent ocean colour products (Nezlin, 2005; Barale, 2008; Fendereski et al, 2010). Thus, valida on of satel-lite Chl-a data for the CS is required prior to any use of these data. In the current study, the applicability of the Case 2 Chl-a product (CHL2) presented by ESA’s GlobColour project was examined for turbid and pro-duc ve coastal waters of the Southern CS. The applica- on of merged Case 1 Chl-a product (CHL1) in shallow

con nental shelf of the Southern CS was also tested. The observed mismatch between CHL1 and in situ data was an cipated considering the sampling points bathymetry (< 100 m depth). In the GlobColour vali-da on report (2007) the applicability of merged Case 1 GlobColour Chl-a product in coastal waters of nine sites distributed in the US eastern coast and in diff er-

ent European seas showed a weak correla on for shallow con nental shelf (r2= 0.14). Although the primary results showed no persistency in es ma on of Chl-a in the CS using Case 1 product, the GlobColour valida on team (GlobCol-our Full valida on Report, 2007) has reported an overes -ma on in Chl-a in coastal waters using the same product. Given the number and the range of the in situ Chl-a values used in GlobColour valida on project (N=4752, in situ Chl-a range = 0.01 to 72.61 mg m-3) in comparison with what was used here (N=18, in situ Chl-a range=0.71 to 3.04 mg m-3), and considering the results presented in the same report on underes ma on of Chl-a in high in situ Chl-a and overes -ma on in low Chl-a using the CHL1 product, it seems that more in situ data is required to judge on this issue for the coastal waters of the Southern CS.

GlobColour Case 2 Chl-a product is based solely on the MERIS sensor and have been created for Case 2 near shore waters. The GlobColour report (2007) showed a strong posi- ve correla on between individual MERIS sensor level 3

products and open ocean Chl-a data (r2= 0.66), but no such analysis was carried out for coastal waters in their report. In the GlobColour workshop, Durand et al. (2007) reported a high consistency (r2=0.9) between coastal waters Chl-a and MERIS level 2 data. The high correla on observed be-tween CHL2 and in situ data of the shallow con nental shelf of Southern CS shows the representa veness of these data for this area. Intensifi ca on is observed in this study in the degree of bias in Case 1 and Case 2 Chl-a products with the decreasing depth. This may suggest the higher applicability of GlobColour Chl-a product, especially the merged CHL1, in open ocean environments of Southern CS.

Conclusion

Results of the present study showed that GlobColour CHL1 product correlated poorly with in situ data for in-shore areas

Fig. 2 - Sca erplots of linear regression between monthly (a and b) and weekly (c and d) in situ and satellite Case 1 and Case 2 Chl-a data in coast-al waters of Southern Caspian Sea (fi ed regression line and reference line are shown in red and blue, respec vely).

Table 2 - Comparison between weekly averaged Case 1 (N=18) and Case 2 (N=11) satellite Chl-a products in the coastal waters of Southern Caspian Sea.

31Contact us: [email protected], [email protected], [email protected] website: www.nf-pogo-alumni.org

of Southern CS, while CHL2 products have be er accuracy in these regions. As the selected season in this study was concurrent with typical concentra on of Chl-a in the area during the year (Kopelevich et al., 2004), it is recommend-ed that the CHL2 product may be used for Chl-a es ma on in the coastal waters of Southern CS. However, due to the lack of Chl-a data for the study area since the release of the GlobColour Chl-a products, neither the local organiza ons, nor the World Ocean Atlas provided any Chl-a measure-ments for this area. Considering fi eld work diffi cul es, the valida on in this study was confi ned to the coastal waters of the Southern sub-region of the CS culmina ng in a limited number of the match up points. Studies of this type need to be carried out at diff erent mes of the year in this region, par cularly during the phytoplankton bloom in July-Sep-tember that has been reported a er jelly fi sh invasions in the year 2000 (Kopelevich et al., 2008). A similar valida on test using in situ Chl-a from off shore areas for studying the applicability of CHL1 and CHL2 products for the Southern off shore waters of the CS is also recommended. In addi on, due to the signifi cant diff erences in Chl-a for the Northern and Middle/Southern sub-regions of the CS, as well as the intense eff ect of Volga runoff on bio-op cal characteris cs of the Northern part of the CS (Kopelevich et al., 2008), the valida on tests for GlobColour products are suggested to be carried out separately for the Northern sub-region.

ReferencesAminot, A., and Rey, F., 2000. Standard Procedure for the Determina on of Chlorophyll a by Spectroscopic Methods. Interna onal Council for the Explo-ra on of the Sea, Denmark, 134 p.Barale, V., 2008. The European and Marginal Seas: An Overview, in: Remote Sensing of the European Sea, (Springer, Netherlands), pp. 3-22.Boyer, T.P., Antonov, J.I., Baranova, O.K., Coleman, C., Garcia, H.E., Grodsky, A., Johnson,D.R., Locarnini, R.A., Mishonov, A.V., O’Brien, T.D., Paver, C.R., Reagan, J.R., Seidov,D., Smolyar, I.V., Zweng, M.M., 2013. World Ocean Database 2013, NOAA At-lasNESDIS 72, S. Levitus, Ed., A. Mishonov, Technical Ed.; Silver Spring, MD, p. 209,DOI 10.7289/V5NZ85MTFendereski, F., Salman, M. A., Hosseini, S. A., and Fazli, H., 2010. The First A empt to Test Correla on between MODIS Chl-a Concentra ons and in situ Measurments in The Southern CS, paper presented at the Symposium on Oceans from Space, European Commission EUR 24324 EN. Italy, Venice.Gitelson, A. A., Schalles, J. F., and Hladik, C. M., 2007. Remote chlorophyll retrieval in turbid, produc ve estuaries: Chesapeake Bay case study. Remote Sensing of Environment, 109: 464–472 h p://www.GlobColour.infoDurand, D., Mangin, A., Pinnock, S., 2007. GlobColour Full Valida on Report. ACRI-ST/LOV, UoP, NIVA, BC, DLR, ICESS consor um. 1(1): 1-75. h p://www.globcolour.info Gregr, E. J., and Bodtker, K. M., 2007. Adap ve classifi ca on of marine ecosys-tems: Iden fying biologically meaningful regions in the marine environment. Deep-Sea Res Part I, 54: 385–402, doi:10.1016/j.dsr.2006.11.004.Gregg, W. W., and Casey, N. W., Global and regional evalua on of the SeaWiFS Chl-a data set. Remote Sensing of Environment, 93(2004) 463-479.IOCCG, 2006. Lee, Z. P. (Ed.), Remote Sensing of Inherent Op cal Proper es: Fundamentals, Tests of Algorithms, and Applica ons, Reports of the Interna- onal Ocean- Color Coordina ng Group, No. 5, IOCCG, Dartmouth, Canada,

122 pp.Kopelevich, O. V., Burenkov, V. I., and Sheberstov, S. V., 2008. Case studies of op cal remote sensing in the Barents Sea, Black Sea and Caspian Sea, in: Remote Sensing of the European Sea, edited by: Barale, V. and Gade, M., Springer, the Netherlands, 53–66.Kopelevich, O. V., Burenkov, V. I., Ershova, S. V., Sheberstov, S. V., and Ev-doshenko, M. A., 2004. Applica on of SeaWiFS data for studying variability of bio-op cal characteris cs in the Barents, Black and Caspian Seas. Deep-Sea Res Part II, 51: 1063–1091.Morel, A., Huot, Y., Gen li, B., Werdell, P. J., Hooker, S. B., and Franz, B. A., 2007. Examining the consistency of products derived from various ocean colour sensors in open ocean (Case-1) waters in the perspec ve of a mul -sensor approach. Remote Sensing of Environment, 111: 69–88.Moses, W. J., Gitelson, A. A., Berdnikov, S. and Povazhnyy, V., 2009. Es ma on of Chl-a concentra on in case-2 waters using MODIS and MERIS data—suc-cesses and challenges. IOP Publishing, Environmental Research Le ers.Nezlin, P. N., 2005. Pa erns of seasonal and inter-annual variability of re-motely sensed chlorophyll, in: The Caspian Sea environment: The Hand-book of Environmental Chemistry, Kosarev, A. N., and Kos anoy, A. G. (Eds.), Springer, Berlin, 143-157.Reynolds C S, 2006. The Ecology of Phytoplankton (Cambridge University Press, USA), pp. 551.Radiarta, I. N., and Saitoh, S., 2008. Satellite-derived measurements of spa al and temporal Chl-a variability in Funka Bay, southwestern Hokkaido, Japan. Journal of Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 79: 400-408.Stromberg, K. H. P., Smyth, T. J., Allen, J. I., Pitois, S. and Oʹ Brien, T. D., 2009. Es ma on of global zooplankton biomass from satellite ocean color. Journal of Marine Systems, Ar cle in press.UNEP, 2006. Stolberg, F., Borysova, O., Mitrofanov, I., Barannik, V., and Eghtesadi, P., Caspian Sea, GIWA Regional assessment 23, University of Kal-mar, Kalmar, Sweden.Valavanis, V. D., Pierce, G. J., Zuur, A. F., Palialexis, A., Saveliev, A., Katara, I. and Wang, J., 2008. Modelling of essen al fi sh habitat based on remote sens-ing, spa al analysis and GIS. Hydrobiologia, 612: 5–20.Vollenweider, R. A. and Kerekes, J., 1982. Eutrophica on of waters, monitor-ing, assessment and control. OECD, Paris.

Fig. 3 - Case 1 (blue star and grey line) and Case 2 (red cross and red line) Log-residuals of Chl-a products fi t vs. in situ data as a func on of water depth.

32Contact us: [email protected], [email protected], [email protected] website: www.nf-pogo-alumni.org

The Antares sta on CartagenaStella Patricia Betancur-TurizoMarine Environmental Protec on Area (APROM)Ministry of Defense – General Mari me Directorate (DIMAR), ColombiaCenter for Oceanographic and Hydrographic Research of the Caribbean (CIOH)Alumnus profi le: h ps://nf-pogo-alumni.org/profi le/sbetanc/

Fig. 2 - The vessels used for monitoring the Antares Cartagena sta on.

NANO Alumni in ac on: Research communica ons

Fig. 1 - The DIMAR-CIOH, Antares Cartagena sta on.

In 2008, the ins tu onal agreement between the Antares Observa on network, the Center for Oceanographic and Hydrographic Research of the Caribbean (CIOH) and

the General Mari me Directorate of the Ministry of Defense (DIMAR) was signed. The principal goal of the Antares Observa on network is taking in situ and re-

mote sensing data for the detec on of long-term changes in marine ecosystems around the Americas. The sta ons are

located far away from the coast, in order to avoid possi-ble con nental interferences. The CIOH-DIMAR sta on,

also known as the Antares Cartagena sta on, is located 10 km from the west coast of Tierra Bomba Island, Colombia (Fig. 1; 10° 24’ 32’’N

and 75° 45’ 34’’W), in water approximately 150 m deep.

Local characteris cs

Two main clima c periods were iden fi ed in this area: dry and rainy seasons (Maza et al., 2016). The dry season extends from December to April and is characterized by low precipita on and predominance of the trade winds blowing from north/northeast. The rainy season covers the period May to November and has an average precipita on rate of 125.7 mm with rela vely weak northern winds un l August. Later, the winds turn south-westward, especially during August–November. This clima c seasonality is typical of the southern part of the Caribbean Sea and is caused by the oscilla ons of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ).

The temperature is uniform along the water column for most of the year with diff erences of up to 1.5°C (average of 0.75°C) observed between May and August (rainy season). The zone is seasonally infl uenced by the Magdalena River plume, located approximately 100 km north of the Antares Cartagena sta on.

33Contact us: [email protected], [email protected], [email protected] website: www.nf-pogo-alumni.org

Ac vi es at the sta on

Antares Cartagena sta on started its ac vi es in 2008, when the CIOH joined the ANTARES network. The monitoring program at the sta on started in 2009, taking water samples at eight depths (ca. 0, 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 m), and at chlorophyll-specifi c depths (i.e. at the surface, the maximum chlorophyll depth, above and below the maximum chlo-rophyll depth, and at the deepest chlorophyll value) using diff erent vessels (Fig. 2).

Temperature, oxygen, salinity and fl uorescence data were measured using a CTD with a fl uorometer and mul parameter sounder. Water transparency was determined with a secchi disk and from water samples obtained with CTD Niskin bot-tles.

In the laboratory, we measured total suspended solids, chlorophyll-a and nutrient (nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, orthophos-phates and silicates) concentra ons, and we analyzed plankton community according to standard methods (Table 1). The CIOH’s laboratory is accredited under NTC ISO/IEC 17025:2005 for physical-chemical analysis of marine and estuarine waters.

As part of the Antares network, team members were invited to take part in diff erent NANO workshops and training pro-grammes (Fig. 3) such as the Margarita Island workshop in 2013 and the Ensenada workshop in 2015. In February 2016, the en re team par cipated in a mee ng in Cartagena. A researcher went to Mar del Plata (Argen na) in June 2016 and to Lima (Peru) in 2017. Members par cipated in the Lisbon workshop (Portugal) in April 2018. The par cipa on of our researchers in these training courses was important to learn new monitoring techniques for measuring the absorp on coeffi cients of par culate and dissolved organic ma er. Likewise, valida on of the chlorophyll-a technique, as well as analysis and interpreta on of satellite products were developed thanks to the support of NANO, POGO and the Antares Network coordinators.

All the data and informa on obtained within the monitoring program of the Antares Cartagena sta on, including hydro-dynamic models, remotely sensed ocean colour products, and/or ocean acidifi ca on studies have been important to generate me series of oceanographic variables used in the valida on of ins tu onal tools and for the exercise of the Na onal Mari me Authority and its ins tu onal posi oning as a regional and interna onal reference.

Fig. 3 - Main experiences and ac vi es of the Antares Cartagena sta on along the 10-year membership.

34Contact us: [email protected], [email protected], [email protected] website: www.nf-pogo-alumni.org

The global ocean has an average depth of approximately 3650 m, but it is in its uppermost sector that marine life

is most plen ful and where exchanges with the atmosphere and land more strongly impact human wellbeing, modulate Earth’s climate and the distribu on and ac vity of marine organisms. Phytoplankton, the main marine primary pro-ducer, is strongly infl uenced by the complex dynamic pro-cesses in the surface ocean, cons tu ng an important indi-cator of the state and variability of marine ecosystems. All this interac on between and within abio c and bio c (in-cluding phytoplankton) proper es refl ect in a “piecewise” spa al (horizontal) organisa on of the surface ocean. Each “piece” or func onal unit (frequently defi ned as regions or provinces) is associated with specifi c a ributes and variabil-ity pa erns. The par on or regionalisa on of the surface ocean, iden fying and delinea ng these func onal units, simplifi es and facilitates the evalua on and understanding of ecosystem func oning. Ocean surface par ons have been increasingly applied in the study, management and conserva on of marine ecosystems. The popularity of this approach for studying the ocean and coastal systems is partly due to increasing data availability from observa onal oceanography. Satellite remote sensing cons tutes a valu-able source of data for ocean surface par on as it provides synop c fi elds of various oceanographic and atmospheric variables, at relevant spa al and temporal scales, covering periods of several decades.

For my doctoral thesis, my advisors and I proposed to use satellite remote sensing and ocean par oning techniques to study the Southwest Iberian Peninsula (SWIP; Fig. 1). SWIP is a par cularly complex and challenging region, which encompasses both open ocean and coastal-type waters, in-fl uenced by mul ple local and regional oceanographic and atmospheric processes, as well as remotely-forcing large-scale pa erns of climate variability. The par ons were then used as framework for assessing phytoplankton vari-

ability pa erns and underlying en-vironmental drivers within SWIP. To accomplish such objec ves, methods of ocean surface par- oning based on satellite remote sensing were reviewed.

Then, three par oning strategies were applied; each based on dis nct methodological approaches and input datasets.

Literature review

The literature review evidenced that the evolu on of ocean surface par on techniques followed by the development of ocean colour remote sensing, allowed the designing of par on strategies with the applica on to evaluate marine ecosystems (Krug et al., 2017a). Based on this review, diff er-ent elements to be considered in the par on include: aims and uses; variables or criteria; methods; spa al coverage and temporal representa on. Each of these elements requires diff erent approaches that were discussed and exemplifi ed in sec ons and summarised in tables. A case study based on the analysis of previous par ons including SWIP in their area of interest showed that strategies applying mesoscale spa al resolu on and unsupervised delinea on methods provided be er results in terms of discrimina on of phyto-plankton environmental drivers. Thus, these aspects were incorporated in all three strategies developed for my thesis.

Read more at KRUG, L.A.; PLATT, T.; SATHYENDRANATH, S.; BARBOSA, A.B., 2017a. Ocean surface par oning strate-gies using Ocean Colour Remote Sensing: a review. Progress in Oceanography, Volume 155, Pages 41-53, DOI 10.1016/j.pocean.2017.05.013.

Par on I

The fi rst strategy consisted in a sta c ( me-invariant) SWIP par on, based on the main modes of spa o-temporal vari-ability of the chlorophyll-a concentra on (Chl-a), an indicator of phytoplankton biomass (Krug et al., 2017b). The 15-year (1997-2012) Chl-a spa o-temporal variability was analyzed through Empirical Orthogonal Func on (EOF) and the fi rst three modes were extracted. The par on iden fi ed and delineated nine regions (defi ned as Chl-a regions), including four coastal, two on the con nental slope and three oce-anic (Fig. 2). The applica on of Generalized Addi ve Models (GAM) to each region allowed iden fying, to each region, Chl-a environmental predictors as well as Chl-a intra- and interannual variability pa erns. The predic ve power of the region-specifi c models varied markedly, presen ng be er performance for the open ocean Chl-a regions. Lo-cal environmental variables (e.g., sea surface temperature, photosynthe cally ac ve radia on) emerged as the most

NANO Alumni in ac on: Research communica ons

Ocean surface provinces off Southwest Iberia based on satellite remote sensing

Dr. Lilian KrugCentre for Marine and Environmental Research, University of Algarve, PortugalAlumnus profi le: h ps://nf-pogo-alumni.org/profi le/Lica+Krug/

Fig. 1 - The southwest area off the Iberian Peninsula (SWIP) bathymetry and main sources of freshwater dis-charges, Guadiana and Guadalquivir rivers.

35Contact us: [email protected], [email protected], [email protected] website: www.nf-pogo-alumni.org

infl uen al predictors in all Chl-a regions, while large-scale climate pa ern indicators showed minor but s ll signifi cant eff ects. Predic ve models of the oceanic Chl-a regions in-dicated de-stra fi ca on as the main factor related to the increase of nutrient availability. For coastal and slope Chl-a regions, river discharge and coastal upwelling represented addi onal sources of nutrients. Strong and signifi cant sea-sonal Chl-a pa erns were detected in all regions, whereas signifi cant interannual pa erns were detected in regions south of 37° N. Interes ngly, the la er presented opposite trends, with an increase in Chl-a in the oceanic region and a decline over coastal and slope regions. These pa erns were accompanied by a signifi cant increase in wind speed and mixed layer depth (MLD), which likely increased nutrient and reduced light intensity within the mixed layer.

Read more at KRUG, L.A.; PLATT, T.; SATHYENDRANATH, S.; BARBOSA, A.B., 2017b. Unravelling region-specifi c en-vironmental drivers of phytoplankton across a complex marine domain (off SW Iberia), Remote Sensing of En-vironment, Volume 203, Pages 162-184, DOI 10.1016/j.rse.2017.05.029.

Par on II

The second par on comprised a dynamic ( me-variant) ap-proach, based on the unsupervised Hierarchical Agglomera- on Clustering (HAC) technique (Krug et al., 2018a). A total of

22 abio c variables representa ve of the physical, chemical and op cal environments of SWIP were derived from satel-lite and computa onal model data for the period from 2002 to 2011. This par on de-lineated twelve dynamic Environmental Provinces (EPs), two predominantly coastal, two predomi-nantly located on the con- nental slope and eight

predominantly oceanic. The spa al-temporal dis-tribu on and abio c prop-er es of the EPs, as well as their biological relevance, were evaluated. During the annual cycle, an alter-

na on was detected in the extent and coverage area of EPs (Fig. 3), which were grouped according to the predominance period: cold (boreal autumn-winter) or warm (boreal spring-summer). EPs predominant during the cold period presented greater variability, whereas those predominant during the warm period were more stable in terms of area coverage. The abi-o c proper es of the EPs refl ected the predominant oceanographic and coastal processes of the domains. During the warm period, the signature of coastal up-welling was evident, par cularly over the western slope and coastal EPs. Riverine discharge was also a relevant local control of abio c proper es over coastal EPs. Overall, the abio c and bio c proper es, as well as the spa al-temporal pa erns of area coverage of

the EPs showed a good agreement with previous studies of the area, especially over the oceanic and slope sectors. Phytoplankton metrics across EPs and similari es with the previous exercise (sta c bio c-based par on; Krug et al., 2017b) indicated the biological relevance of this dynamic abio c par on. Also important, this result demonstrated that a classifi ca on based solely on abio c proper es (com-monly more abundant than the bio c informa on) may rep-resent a valuable tool for assessing environmental proper- es and ecological structures.

Read more at KRUG, L.A.; PLATT, T.; BARBOSA, A.B., 2018a. Delinea on of ocean surface provinces over a complex marine domain (off SW Iberia): an objec ve abio c-based approach. Regional Studies in Marine Science, Volume 18, Pages 80-96, DOI 10.1016/j.rsma.2018.01.003.

Par on III

The third and last par on strategy was based on phyto-plankton phenological proper es along an 18-year period (1997-2015), and the unsupervised HAC analysis (Krug et al., 2018b). Phytoplankton phenology is par cularly important as its pa erns (and altera ons therein), have large impacts on ecosystem func oning, aff ec ng, to cite a few, the effi -ciency of carbon transfer to higher trophic levels, depth of remineraliza on, and the recruitment success of economi-cally important fi sh and invertebrate resources. Phenologi-cal indices derived from satellite Chl-a included the number of bloom events per year, total and average dura on of

bloom events per year, maximum Chl-a value and (ini a on, peak and termina on) bloom m-ings. This par on iden- fi ed fi ve coherent phe-

noregions over SWIP, with dis nc ve phyto-plankton phenological proper es: two open ocean and three coastal regions (Fig. 4). Over the open ocean, a sin-gle, low magnitude and

Fig. 2 - Chl-a regions delineated using the spa al coeffi cient of dominant modes of Chl-a variability (1997-2012). Black lines depict the 20m, 200m, 1000m and 2500m isobaths. Adapted from Krug et al. (2017b).

Fig. 3 - Season-specifi c spa al distribu on of the 12 EPs delineated off SWIP, during the period February 2002 - December 2011. Black and white lines represent Chl-a (μg L-1) and isobathymetric contours (200m, 500m, 1000m and 2500m), respec vely. Adapted from Krug et al. (2018a).

36Contact us: [email protected], [email protected], [email protected] website: www.nf-pogo-alumni.org

long bloom event per year was regularly observed. Over the coastal phenoregions, however, up to six short bloom events occur along a year, with higher magnitude and intra-annual variability. GAM models revealed that interannual pa erns in phytoplankton phenology and their environmental driv-ers varied markedly among the fi ve phenoregions. Over the oceanic phenoregions, large-scale climate indices (Eastern Atlan c Pa ern, Atlan c Meridional Oscilla on), MLD and nitrate concentra on preceding primary bloom events were infl uen al predictors, refl ec ng the relevance of nutrient limita on. For the Coastal-Slope, a rela vely more light-lim-ited phenoregion, the North Atlan c Oscilla on and wind speed preceding primary bloom were more relevant. There, bloom magnitude was also posi vely infl uenced by riverine discharge. This variable was also a signifi cant predictor of bloom frequency, magnitude and dura on over the coastal Riverine-infl uenced region. Over the coastal Upwelling-in-fl uenced region, upwelling intensity and mean annual MLD showed the strongest par al eff ects on phytoplankton phe-nology.

Read more at KRUG, L.A.; PLATT, T.; SATHYENDRANATH, S.; BARBOSA, A.B. (2018b) Pa erns and drivers of phytoplank-ton phenology off SW Iberia: a phenoregion based perspec- ve. Progress in Oceanography, Volume 165, Pages 233-

256, DOI 10.1016/j.pocean.2018.06.010

Conclusions

The three par on strategies presented dis nct number of par on units (5 phenoregions, 9 Chl-a regions and 12 EPs). Nonetheless, their spa al organisa on showed simi-lari es, which can be considered the main spa al pa erns of the surface ocean in SWIP. A gradual dis nc on between coast, con nental slope and open ocean, and a la tudinal separa on (ca. 36.5oN) over the la er were present in all par ons. Likewise, over the coast and con nental slope

domains, the infl uence of coastal upwelling off the west Por-tuguese coast and Cape São Vicente (CSV) areas, and river discharges along the northeastern Gulf of Cadiz were fur-ther discriminated in all exercises. The results showed that the stra fi ca on of the water column, the discharge of the Guadiana and Guadalquivir rivers and the intensity of the upwelling on the west coast of Portugal were the most in-fl uen al environmental factors in the abio c proper es and in the phytoplankton biomass and phenology variability pat-terns. Overall, all par ons evidenced a signifi cant rela on-ship between phytoplankton and environmental variability, suppor ng the use of phytoplankton as a key element in assessing ecosystem responses to variability and climate change.

Finally, the thesis showed the added value of both satellite remote sensing data and ocean surface par on techniques to assess environmental variability. All strategies employed presented objec ve, reproducible and cost-eff ec ve meth-odologies that can be easily applied in several marine eco-systems and for dis nct purposes, including the study of oceanographic processes or the management and conserva- on of marine resources and ecosystems.

On a side note, my apprecia on to the NF, POGO and SCOR

This thesis could not have been successfully accomplished with-out the guidance of my dear advisors, Dr. Ana Barbosa (University of Algarve, Portugal), Dr. Shubha Sathyendranath and Prof. Trevor Pla (Plymouth Marine Laboratory, UK).

I met Dr. Sathyendranath and Prof. Pla during my par cipa on in the NF-POGO Centre of Excellence, back in 2009-2010, and thanks to their recommenda on, I got a posi on as a research assistant at the University of Algarve, in a project led by Dr. Barbosa, in 2011. One year later, when I applied to a PhD studentship (under the Programme Science without Borders, from the Brazilian Ministry of Science), I could not think of be er mentors for myself.

During my PhD studies, I was granted with a POGO-SCOR Visi ng Fellowship and had the opportunity to work closely with Dr. Sathyendranath and Prof. Pla , at the Plymouth Marine Laboratory, for 3 months.

POGO, NF, SCOR, the Brazilian Government and so many other ocean science related organiza ons gave me an amazing opportunity to improve my technical and scien fi c skills, as well as to expand my interna onal network. Today, among other ac vi es, I am a proud lecturer of Ocean Data Management and Opera onal Oceanography, teaching in-terna onal under- and graduate students in Portuguese and English. I am also involved with ocean literacy, giving semi-nars to several audiences, from children to senior ci zens.

I consider myself a privileged young“-ish” researcher, but also, someone with the responsibility of paying forward. More than a responsibility, it is an honour to pass the ac-quired knowledge to others.

Fig. 4 - Phenoregions delineated based on phytoplankton phenological indices (1997-2015). (A) Spa al distribu on and (B-F) weekly-based phy-toplankton climatological seasonal cycles, with mean chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) values (coloured lines) ± 1 standard devia on (shaded coloured areas) for each phenoregion. Black thick horizontal lines (B-F) represent the aver-age annual Chl-a threshold criteria (5% above the yearly median) used to defi ne a phytoplankton bloom for each phenoregion (Krug et al., 2018b).

37Contact us: [email protected], [email protected], [email protected] website: www.nf-pogo-alumni.org

Scien fi c events announcements

For more opportuni es in Ocean Sciences visit h ps://nf-pogo-alumni.org/Opportuni es/Have any opportunity you would like to announce here? Contact [email protected]

4th Interna onal Ocean Colour Science mee ngBusan, South Korea

9 - 12 April 2019

The primary focus of the IOCS mee ngs is to serve as a venue for the ocean colour community to communicate their views, ideas, concerns and issues with the satellite agencies. The programme for the IOCS-2019 mee ng will include invited keynote lectures and agency talks as well as a special session dedicated to ocean colour remote sensing in Asian waters. Several break-out workshops will be included along with poster sessions and community Town Halls.

DeadlineTBA December 2018

Contact: [email protected] ps://iocs.ioccg.org/

ASLO 2019 Aqua c Sciences Mee ngSan Juan, Puerto Rico

23 February - 2 Mach 2019

A wealth of topics will be discussed at the mee ng, many stemming from key areas of importance to the area itself at this crucial me – the role of science at the center of all economic, societal and environmental recovery and development eff orts, studies on renewable energy, environmental sustainability, clean water, and rebuilding and maintaining terrestrial ecosystems.

Deadline22 October 2018

Contact: [email protected] ps://aslo.org/sanjuan2019/main

SOLAS Open Science ConferenceSapporo, Japan

21-25 April 2019

The Surface Ocean–Lower Atmosphere Study (SOLAS) is an interna onal and interdisciplinary research project on biogeochem-ical-physical air-sea interac ons and processes. With its Open Science Conference, SOLAS off ers the ideal programme for sci-en sts who wish to learn and exchange about cu ng edge research in the fi eld and present their own fi ndings. A special event dedicated to Early Career Scien sts is being organized. Limited fi nancial support will be available for early-career scien sts from developing countries and countries with economies in transi on to par cipate in the SOLAS Open Science Conference 2019.

Deadline15 November 2018

Contact: [email protected] p://www.confmanager.com/main.cfm?cid=2778

OceanPredict’19 GODAE OceanView SymposiumHalifax, Canada6-10 May 2019

Ocean scien sts, ocean observa on specialists, industry representa ves, service providers and users of ocean data & prod-ucts from across the local, na onal & interna onal opera onal oceanography community will gather in Halifax for the GODAE OceanView Symposium, OceanPredict ‘19.The event will present high-level speakers providing expert insight into the latest ocean research & development eff orts, prod-ucts and services and applica ons, and off ers par cipants to engage in special science splinter mee ngs, poster sessions, booth exhibi ons and discussion rounds to explore and defi ne the direc on of future opera onal oceanography.

DeadlineTBA October 2018

Contact: kirsten.wilmer-becke@metoffi ce.gov.ukh p://oceanpredict19.org/

Partnership for Observa on of the Global Ocean (POGO)Plymouth Marine LaboratoryProspect PlacePlymouth PL1 3DHUnited Kingdom

POGO SecretariatTel. +44 (0)1752 633424E-mail [email protected]

NANO News Chief Editor: Pavanee Annasawmy Layout design Editor: Lilian Krug

https://nf-pogo-alumni.org/

http://www.nippon-foundation.or.ja/eng/ http://www.ocean-partners.org

h ps://nf-pogo-alumni.org/about/newsle ers/


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