+ All documents
Home > Documents > Multimodal Metonymic Image of the Bottle in Advertising

Multimodal Metonymic Image of the Bottle in Advertising

Date post: 27-Feb-2023
Category:
Upload: lka
View: 0 times
Download: 0 times
Share this document with a friend
9
Bibliography entry: Veinberga, Elīna. 2014. Multimodal Metonymic Image of the Bottle in Advertising. Language in Different Contexts. Research papers Vol VI (1), Part 1. Vilnius: Lietuvos edukologijos universiteto leidykla, 182-190. The article is indexed in the MLA International Bibliography and the EBSCO Research Database “Mass Media & Communication”. MULTIMODAL METONYMIC IMAGE OF THE BOTTLE IN ADVERTISING Elīna Veinberga Latvian Academy of Culture, 24 Ludzas Street, Rīga, Latvia, LV-1003, [email protected] ABSTRACT The theoretical approach of this article is cognitive stylistic. It enables me to explore the functioning of metonymy in multimodal discourse. The method offered for identification and analysis of phraseological units (Naciscione, 2001; 2010) has been used to identify and analyse metonymic multimodal conceptualisations, taking into account extra-linguistic factors (political, social, cultural). My research is mainly based on Latvian advertisements, focusing on metonymy in its verbal and visual representation. The article deals with interdiscoursal use of the metonymic image of the bottle. I would argue for the term “interdiscoursal use” to describe the type of use which arose at the appearance of the first advertising posters in Latvia in 1863 and is still in use in various advertising campaigns in the 21 st century in both its verbal and visual expression. Key-words Metonymy, cognitive stylistics, multimodal discourse, multimodal advertising INTRODUCTION I have chosen to explore interdiscoursal use of the metonymic image of the bottle because it presents special interest. I use the term “interdiscoursal use” 1 to describe the type of use which appeared at the beginning of the first advertising posters 1 Norman Fairclough uses the terms “interdiscourse” and “interdiscursivity” in reference to texts. By “interdiscourse” Fairclough means the formation of a text from different text types or discourses which use different discourse events. Interdiscursivity also means genre mixture and relationship of one discourse with other discourses (see Fairclough, [1992] 2012, 4; 10; 68; 124- 130). I follow Anita Naciscione who uses the term “discoursal” to treat interaction of stylistic elements and continuous use of stylistic patterns, I have chosen to use the term “interdiscoursal use” to refer to sustainable visual use across advertisements or advertising campaigns (see also Naciscione, 2001; 2010).
Transcript

Bibliography entry:

Veinberga, Elīna. 2014. Multimodal Metonymic Image of the Bottle in Advertising.

Language in Different Contexts. Research papers Vol VI (1), Part 1. Vilnius: Lietuvos

edukologijos universiteto leidykla, 182-190.

The article is indexed in the MLA International Bibliography and the EBSCO Research

Database “Mass Media & Communication”.

MULTIMODAL METONYMIC IMAGE OF THE BOTTLE

IN ADVERTISING

Elīna Veinberga

Latvian Academy of Culture, 24 Ludzas Street, Rīga, Latvia, LV-1003,

[email protected]

ABSTRACT

The theoretical approach of this article is cognitive stylistic. It enables me to

explore the functioning of metonymy in multimodal discourse. The method offered for

identification and analysis of phraseological units (Naciscione, 2001; 2010) has been

used to identify and analyse metonymic multimodal conceptualisations, taking into

account extra-linguistic factors (political, social, cultural).

My research is mainly based on Latvian advertisements, focusing on metonymy

in its verbal and visual representation. The article deals with interdiscoursal use of the

metonymic image of the bottle. I would argue for the term “interdiscoursal use” to

describe the type of use which arose at the appearance of the first advertising posters in

Latvia in 1863 and is still in use in various advertising campaigns in the 21st century in

both its verbal and visual expression.

Key-words

Metonymy, cognitive stylistics, multimodal discourse, multimodal advertising

INTRODUCTION

I have chosen to explore interdiscoursal use of the metonymic image of the

bottle because it presents special interest. I use the term “interdiscoursal use”1 to

describe the type of use which appeared at the beginning of the first advertising posters

1Norman Fairclough uses the terms “interdiscourse” and “interdiscursivity” in reference to texts.

By “interdiscourse” Fairclough means the formation of a text from different text types or

discourses which use different discourse events. Interdiscursivity also means genre mixture and

relationship of one discourse with other discourses (see Fairclough, [1992] 2012, 4; 10; 68; 124-

130). I follow Anita Naciscione who uses the term “discoursal” to treat interaction of stylistic

elements and continuous use of stylistic patterns, I have chosen to use the term “interdiscoursal

use” to refer to sustainable visual use across advertisements or advertising campaigns (see also

Naciscione, 2001; 2010).

and is still in use in various advertising campaigns in the 21st century both in its verbal

and visual expression.

A diachronic insight into the development of the Latvian advertising posters

reveals that social campaigns against alcohol abuse have always been topical. For

instance, in the Latvian language the bottle is to blame for a misfortune or an accident,

which is reflected in a number of stable language units, e. g., the Latvian phraseological

unit skatīties/ieskatīties/ielūkoties pudelē2 (to look/glance/peep into the bottle), which

means “to drink; to use alcohol” (euphemistic metonymy).

The development of the metonymic image of the bottle forms a sustainable

figurative network. The image of the bottle appears repeatedly in different advertising

campaigns; these images go beyond the boundaries of one discourse or one advertising

campaign. Sustainable stylistic use demonstrates the strength of stylistic use of the

image, and reveals stability and continuity of figurative thought.

My theoretical approach is rooted in Cognitive Linguistics when studying

metonymy in its verbal and visual manifestations. The approach to figurative language

has changed and, as Raymond W. Gibbs argues that figuration is not only a matter of

language but largely serves as a basis for our thinking, reasoning and imagination. He

also claims that in the cognitive framework, metaphor, metonymy and other tropes are

seen as an essential part of human thinking and conceptual system (Gibbs, [1994] 2002,

15-16).

It interesting to note that the basic definition of metonymy has not changed

dramatically over time. The oldest definition of metonymy can be found in “Rhetorica

ad Herennium”, a work attributed to Cicero (86-82 BC): “Metonymy is a figure which

draws from an object closely akin to or associated with an expression suggesting the

object meant, but not called by its own name. This is accomplished by substituting the

name of the greater thing for that of the lesser [..]; or by substituting the name of the

thing invented for that of the inventor” ([Cicero], [1954] 2004, 335). This definition is

still valid; furthermore, Cicero has argued that “It is harder to distinguish all these

metonymies in teaching the principle than to find them when searching for them, for the

use of metonymies of this kind is abundant not only amongst the poets and orators but

also in everyday speech3 ([Cicero], [1954] 2004, 335-337)”. This assumption is

fervently defended by some cognitive linguists who claim that everyday use of

figurative patterns is their discovery.

In Cognitive Linguistics a conceptual metaphor arises when one concept is

understood in terms of another concept, when the structure A is B can be identified.

Metaphorical mapping occurs across conceptual domains – from the target domain to

the source domain. The target domain is understood in terms of the source domain. The

target domain is a concept which is abstract and which we are trying to comprehend and

convey, while the source domain is a more concrete concept in terms of which we wish

to conceive the abstract concept. Conceptual metaphor facilitates the process of

understanding abstract things in terms of concrete things. The conceptual metaphor

LOVE IS FIRE is represented by numerous linguistic metaphors, e.g., “fire in my heart”,

“flame of love”, etc (see Lakoff and Johnson, [1980] 2003; Gibbs, [1994] 2002;

Kövecses, 2002).

2 Latviešu frazeoloģijas vārdnīca (LFV), 2000, 968. Metonymy of the bottle is also used in

English, saying that someone is “too fond of the bottle”. 3 My underlining – E.V.

Unlike conceptual metaphor, in metonymy mapping occurs within one

conceptual domain. Therefore we can use A (vehicle entity) and A1

(target entity) to

denote the structure of metonymy in a generalised way. There is a mapping from the

vehicle entity to the target entity (Kövecses, 2002, 148.). Instead of saying: “Here

comes the man I love (FEELINGS),” I say: “Here comes my love (THE OBJECT OF

FEELINGS, vehicle entity).” This statement is a metonymy which means that “he is my

love (he – target entity)”.

At the beginning of the 21st century Charles Forceville names five senses

(vision, audition, olfaction, taste and touch) and different semiotic modes (image,

written or spoken signs, gesture, sound, music, smell, taste and touch) when discussing

a multimodal approach to researching metaphor. Metaphor is multimodal if its

conceptual target domain is expressed in one semiotic mode, but its source domain is

expressed in another semiotic mode (Forceville, 2009, 22-25). I would argue that

multimodal metonymy could be defined by analogy with multimodal metaphor –

metonymy is multimodal if its target entity is expressed in one semiotic mode, while its

vehicle entity is expressed in another semiotic mode, thus, A is expressed in one

semiotic mode, while A1 is expressed in another semiotic mode (see also Krasovska,

2014).

AIM OF THE RESEARCH

The aim of the article is to examine cases of use of metonymic images of the

bottle, which demonstrate that metonymy is an important cognitive mechanism in

visual representation. The purpose of the article is to study figurative use and observe

whether metonymy functions together with other stylistic patterns, for instance,

metaphor, pun, allusion, personification, which contribute to conceptualisation of

thought, motivated by conceptual metaphor. It is important to establish whether there is

sustainability of the visual image and whether its interdiscoursal use plays a significant

role in thinking and conceptualisation of experience in culture.

OBJECT OF THE RESEARCH

The object of the article is multimodal metonymy and other figurative patterns

viewed from a cognitive stylistic viewpoint. Special attention is paid to metonymy in

single use and in its use in combination with other patterns of figurative expression

(metaphors, puns, allusions, etc.).

RESEARCH MATERIAL

For the analysis of Latvian visual advertisements, I have used my empirical

database, which includes photographed advertisements and advertisements saved on the

Internet from 2008 to 2013. I have also used two collections of posters called “Poster in

Latvia, 1899 – 1945 (244 posters) and 1945 – 2000 (320 posters) from the National

Library of Latvia. The total number of collected items amounts to 5780 cases of

figurative use covering the period from 1863 to 2013.

METHODS

For analysis and identification of tropes, the method offered by Naciscione for

identification and analysis of phraseological units has been used. This method has four

steps: recognition, verification, comprehension and interpretation (Naciscione, 2010,

43-55). Recognition and verification establish: 1) whether the specific example is a

trope, that is, whether there has been a meaning transfer and 2) whether this trope is a

metonymy. The analytical part starts with comprehension and interpretation, which is a

cognitive operation revealing deep and thorough understanding of figurative meaning

construction and their relationship in discoursal use. Interpretation discloses the

interaction of the verbal and visual use in the context of culture and history in which the

specific expression of metonymy has been created.

CASE STUDIES

This is the oldest preserved Latvian advertising poster featuring a bottle (see Fig.

1). The year when the poster was created is unknown, however, it is clear that it is the

beginning of the 20th

century because the old Latvian orthography is used in the poster.

It is known from history that the discussions for a change in orthography started in

1908, and continued until 1912. The new orthography was officially approved in 1919.

In this poster the bottle is in the hands of

a man standing at the entrance to a

restaurant. The man whom the caption

“Shall I go inside?” refers to is torn

between the choice of staying with his

family (his elder daughter is holding his

hand and his wife with their younger

child is standing in the street nearby) and

the choice of joining his friend (who is

holding a bottle) in the restaurant. We

can speak about the metonymic image of

the bottle which stands for alcohol

consumption. In the Latvian language the

bottle is usually metonymic because it

denotes excessive use of alcohol. As a

rule, in Latvian phraseological units it is

a case of part standing for a whole – A

(vehicle entity) stands for A1

(target

entity). In this case the bottle stands for

the conceptual domain of drinking, i.e.,

alcohol consumption.

Figure 1. Shall I go inside?

CD Collection: Poster in Latvia, 1899 – 1945.

Not signed. Riga: A. Grosset. S.a.4

It is clear that in the poster both men are

too fond of the bottle. If the family man

chooses to join his friend, it might cause

4 S.a. – Latin sine anno (without a year).

a serious misfortune; it might destroy his family. We can speak about euphemistic

metonymy because the subject of having an alcoholic in the family is always painful,

hence the use of a euphemism.

Let me have a closer look at the advertising poster created in the 1920s. The text

is written in the new orthography which was already widely used in the 1920s (see Fig.

2).

The verbal message at the top of the

poster reads: “The consequence of the

amendment in the law against boozing is a

flood of alcohol in Latvia. In the verbal

discourse “a flood of alcohol” is a

metaphor while in the poster the flood is

depicted as a visual hyperbole or a visual

metaphorical hyperbole, combining the

features of both – metaphor and

hyperbole. Below the advertisement the

text presents three rhetorical questions:

“What kills our husbands? What makes

the mothers of our families martyrs? What

robs our children of the sun in their

childhood and happiness in the future?

BEER! VODKA! WINE!”. “A flood of

alcohol” is in the verbal text and it is also

represented visually, thus a visual pun can

also be identified. The barrels

metonymically represent alcohol while the Figure 2. Beer! Vodka! Wine!

CD Collection: Poster in Latvia, 1899 – 1945.

Signed: I.Z. / Indriķis Zeberiņš. Riga: Ernst

Plates. S.a.

chairs floating in the flood of alcohol

stand for a household which alcohol has

destroyed. I would argue that my visual

and verbal material provide sufficient

grounds to identify the conceptual metaphor ALCOHOL IS A DESTROYER (see Fig. 3).

The interrogative pronouns “what” and the names of alcohol types are printed in

red. Red colour belongs to the basic colours or primary colours, or the so-called

chromatic colours. It means that they are true colours in contrast to achromatic colours

which are considered to be colourless. The meanings of colours are different in diverse

cultures. One of the interpretations in the red colour states that red stirs to activity,

excites and symbolises fight (see Kagaine, [1999] 2005). In this poster it should be

perceived as a warning and a call to take action against excessive alcohol consumption.

Verbal and visual interaction in the poster Beer! Vodka! Wine!

Verbally Visually

metaphor metaphorical hyperbole

flood of alcohol flood of alcohol

Visual pun

Conceptual metaphor

ALCOHOL IS A DESTROYER

Figure 3. Table Beer! Vodka! Wine!

The idea about alcohol as a killer and destroyer of all things was also topical in

the Soviet period when the poster “Only One Small Glass” was created. It was often

placed in the drop-off centres for empty bottles. In the Soviet times the prices for empty

bottles were fairly good, and people could buy alcohol for the amount. If the person

who had brought empty bottles had an intention to use alcohol and drive, the warning

could have been effective (see Fig. 4).

One small glass causes a car crash,

destroys your property and your life. There

are different phraseological units with “a

glass” in the Latvian language, for

instance, cilāt glāzīti (to raise a small

glass), ieskatīties glāzītē (to look into a

small glass), or kaut ko noslīcināt glāzē (to

drown something in a glass). Multimodal

representation in the poster “Only One

Small Glass” is motivated by the

conceptual metaphor ALCOHOL IS A

DESTROYER.

Since the celebration of Jāņi (Summer Solstice, St. John’s Day) in 2000

which is now usually referred to as

asiņainie Jāņi (the bloody John’s Day)5

when 124 people were injured and 26 died

in one night, there have been a number of

social campaigns to combat drunk driving

in Latvia, for example, Izglāb draugu, Figure 4. Only One Small Glass

CD Collection: Poster in Latvia, 1945 – 2000.

Signed: J. Riņķis / Jānis Riņķis. 1985.

neļauj braukt dzērumā (Save Your Friend,

Do Not Let Them Drink and Drive), Vienu

jau var?! Beigta balle! (You Can Have

One?! That’s the End of the Party!), etc. The social campaign “You Can Have One?!

That’s the End of the Party!” began in 2008. In Latvian these are phraseological units

which have been used in juxtaposition. Vienu jau var (you can have one) means to use a

small amount of alcohol, whereas beigta balle (that’s the end of the party) means

5 The expression “the bloody John’s Day” has now become a stable phraseological unit with the meaning

– car crashes caused by drunk driving in which many people die, a national tragedy.

something that is final, fatal or something that is not worth talking about6. The

organisers of the campaign say that alcohol is often used in different social gathering

and parties; therefore the leitmotiv of the campaign is the phrase “that’s the end of the

party” which means a party that ends badly, and it also means a stopped life (see

CSDD). Thus, the very name of the campaign contains a pun (see Fig. 5).

Figure 5. That’s the End of the Party!

Frame photographed from a social campaign video by CSDD. Saved on the Internet:

http://www.csdd.lv/?pageID=1213078931 June 26, 2010.

The development of the metonymic image of the bottle is revealed in a

sustainable figurative network. It means that the image of the bottle appears again and

again in different advertising campaigns, and these images go beyond one discourse or

one advertising campaign. Sustainable stylistic use demonstrates the stylistic use of this

image, its stability and continuity in figurative thought.

The leading idea of the next example of visual metonymy is the conceptual

domain of alcohol abuse where the bottle is its part, whereas the crashed car is part of

the accident including possible injuries and casualties. It should be pointed out that only

visual stylistic means have been used here, and for that reason there are various

possibilities of interpretation (see Fig. 6).

6 LFV, 2000, 118.

Figure 6.The Car in the Bottle

The advertisement is meant as a warning – if you drink and drive, you will crash

your car. However, the visual image is more complicated, it is also a case of visual

allusion7. It is an allusion to the ship in a bottle or the so-called impossible bottle. The

impossible bottle is one of the mechanical puzzles, whose basic principle is to place an

object in a bottle; however, the object appears not to fit in through the bottle neck.

Nevertheless if you know the correct techniques how to dip and hoist the sail, you can

put a ship in a bottle, but you cannot put an intact car in a bottle because it has no sail to

be dipped. The advertisement expresses the idea that concurrent drinking and driving is

impossible and can only lead to a crash. The bottle will shelter the ship from the

influence of the environment, but, when a bottle and a car come into contact, the bottle

destroys the car. A ship in a bottle is usually a souvenir which can be bought as a

keepsake of a trip, whereas here we can say – your life is not a souvenir, it has a value.

We can also discuss allusion that is linked to a message in a bottle which is sent by a

person in misfortune, asking for help. A message in a bottle can save life which is the

mission of this advertisement. The aim of the creators of the advertisement to promote

human life as the highest value in a postmodern way relates to the art of the tragedy that

has been forgotten today. On the grounds of Conceptual Metaphor Theory, it is possible

to retrieve the conceptual metaphor THE CONTAINER IS THE REASON, because the bottle is

a container and its content is the reason for the crash (see Fig. 7). The word trauks

(container) is metonymically used in Latvian to describe alcohol. The bottle refers to

any type of alcohol or its use.

Patterns of figurative thought and the interaction of

tropes in the advertisement The Car in the Bottle:

Metonymy Common Visual image Allusion

Alcohol consumption a bottle and

a crashed car

a ship in a bottle

Drinking + driving a message in a bottle

Result:

Conceptual metaphor

THE CONTAINER IS THE REASON

Figure 7. Table The Car in the Bottle

7 For the use of the term see Naciscione, 2010, 181; 197; 199.

CONCLUSIONS

Examination of examples of use of the metonymic images of the bottle leads me

to the conclusion that metonymy is an important means of expression in visual

representation. The sustainability of the visual image and its interdiscoursal use play a

significant role in thinking and conceptualisation of experience. Metonymy most often

functions together with other stylistic means, for instance, metaphors, allusions and

puns which become part of conceptualisation of thought and may be motivated by a

conceptual metaphor.

LIST OF REFERENCES

1. CD Collection: Poster in Latvia. The National Library of Latvia. CD 1: 1899 – 1945

and CD 2: 1945 – 2000.

2. [Cicero]. [1954] 2004. Rhetorica ad Herennium. Cambridge and London: Harvard

University Press.

3. CSDD (Ceļu satiksmes drošības direkcija – Latvian Road Traffic Safety

Directorate). [online] [quoted August 1, 2010]. Available: http://www.csdd.lv

4. Fairclough, N. [1992] 2012. Discourse and Social Change. Cambridge and Malden:

Polity Press.

5. Forceville, C. 2009. Non-verbal and Multimodal Metaphor in a Cognitivist

Framework: Agendas for Research. In Forceville, C. and Urios-Aparisi, E., (Eds.)

Multimodal Metaphor, P. 19–42. Berlin and New York: Mouton de Gruyter.

6. Gibbs, R., W., Jr. [1994] 2002. The Poetics of Mind: Figurative Thought, Language

and Understanding. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

7. Kagaine, Z. [1999] 2005. Tēlainā domāšana vizuālajā mākslā: redzēt-just-domāt-radīt. Rīga: Zvaigzne ABC.

8. Kövecses, Z. 2002. Metaphor: A Practical Introduction. Oxford and New York:

Oxford University Press.

9. Krasovska, E. 2014. Multimodālā perspektīva: metonīmiski tēli reklāmkarogos

(Multimodal Perspective: Metonymic Images in Internet Banners). Valoda – 2014:

Valoda dažādu kultūru kontekstā. Zinātnisko rakstu krājums XXIV. Daugavpils:

Daugavpils Universitātes Akadēmiskais apgāds “Saule” (in print).

10. Lakoff, G. and Johnson, M. [1980] 2003. Metaphors We Live By. Chicago and

London: The University of Chicago Press.

11. LFV – Latviešu frazeoloģijas vārdnīca. 2000. Sastādītāji: Laua, A.; Ezeriņa, A. un

Veinberga, S. Rīga: Avots.

12. Naciscione, A. 2001. Phraseological Units in Discourse: Towards Applied

Stylistics. Riga: Latvian Academy of Culture.

13. Naciscione, A. 2010. Stylistic Use of Phraseological Units in Discourse.

Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company.


Recommended