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Nota Bene - Wilson Center

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Translation of original notes from KGB archive Files by Alexander Vassiliev (1993-1996) Translationed by Steve Shabad, reviewed and edited by Alexander Vassiliev and John Earl Haynes (2007) [Pagination and formatting track the handwritten original notebook. Phrases in English in the original are italicized. Phrases that were transliterated from English to Russian in the original are in Arial font. Marginal comments in the left margin are chiefly page numbers from the archival file while those in the right margin are Vassiliev’s topic designations, his own comments, or notes to himself. Endnotes were added in translation.] ************************************************************************************************* p. 3 File 70545 “Myrna” “Complex” U.S. Shipping Corp. World Tourists “Complex” p. 9 Elizabeth Bentley was unknown to the Comintern. An inquiry was sent to the Comintern in November 1939 (p. 8). p. 19 “Clever Girl” established contact with “Pal” in March-April 1942. A cipher cable from Maxim regarding this is dated 5.04.42. She was instructed to keep regular contact with him once or twice a month. “Pal” p. 21 More precisely : Letter from NY to C 19.4.42 “Clever Girl” traveled to see “Pal” on 30 March 1942. “Sound” was forbidden to meet with “Pal” because of the investigation of the latter. p. 22 After that contact was maintained through Lud Ullmann, who would come to NY. Sometimes “Clever Girl” traveled to Wash. Now the station gets all the materials from Sound and Pal through Clever Girl, with whom “Sergey’s” wife, “Shura,” is in contact. “Shura” passes the materials to “Stock” or another operative. She doesn’t bring them to the consulate herself. p. 28 “Mer’s” account of his meeting with C.G. on 29.11.43 “Helmsman” is “Nelly’s” uncle “Mer” Helmsman- Nelly p. 26 “Mer” contacted “Clever Girl” through “Nelly.” p. 32 Mer told C.G. that the work with “Pal’s” group must continue. C.G. eagerly agreed. But when M. said that C.G. should introduce him in the future to “Pal,” C.G. protested, saying that “Pal” is afraid of extraneous people, that they fear Russians like the plague. “Here she was undoubtedly expressing “Sound’s” mentality.” p. 35 “Maxim” instructed Mer not to tell C.G. that they are Russian operatives. But none of those C.G. had previously met were able to create the impression that they were Americans. “To play this role, of course, it’s not enough just to know the language.” “She came to the meeting with me on the definite assumption that she was going to meet a Russian operative. We didn’t say anything about this, but her opinion in this regard was clear from several comments. For example, her reaction regarding a personal meeting with “Pal” and so forth. I spoke with her in the tone of a local businessman. After our more than two-hour discussion she was apparently left with a slightly unexpected and not altogether definite impression. Despite two unhelpful factors—her refusal to specify the amount of money she had taken from “Sound” and her negative reaction p. 36 regarding our personal meeting with “Pal”—she made a good impression on me. She’s an intelligent, sensible and mild-mannered woman. She gives the impression of a sincere person. Of course, the late “Sound’s” mentality has been incorporated into her psychology. I hope we’ll reach agreement with her in the spirit that we need.” White Notebook #2 1

Translation of original notes from KGB archive Files by Alexander Vassiliev (1993-1996)Translationed by Steve Shabad, reviewed and edited by Alexander Vassiliev and John Earl Haynes (2007)

[Pagination and formatting track the handwritten original notebook. Phrases in English in the original are italicized. Phrases that were transliterated from English to Russian in the original are in Arial font. Marginal comments in the left margin are chiefly page numbers from the archival file while those in the right margin are Vassiliev’s topic designations, his own comments, or notes to himself. Endnotes were added in translation.]*************************************************************************************************

p. 3File 70545 “Myrna”“Complex” U.S. Shipping Corp. World Tourists “Complex”

p. 9 Elizabeth Bentley was unknown to the Comintern. An inquiry was sent to the Comintern in November 1939 (p. 8).

p. 19 “Clever Girl” established contact with “Pal” in March-April 1942. A cipher cable from Maxim regarding this is dated 5.04.42. She was instructed to keep regular contact with him once or twice a month.


p. 21 More precisely: Letter from NY to C 19.4.42“Clever Girl” traveled to see “Pal” on 30 March 1942. “Sound” was forbidden to meet with “Pal” because of the investigation of the latter.

p. 22 After that contact was maintained through Lud Ullmann, who would come to NY. Sometimes “Clever Girl” traveled to Wash.Now the station gets all the materials from Sound and Pal through Clever Girl, with whom “Sergey’s” wife, “Shura,” is in contact. “Shura” passes the materials to “Stock” or another operative. She doesn’t bring them to the consulate herself.

p. 28 “Mer’s” account of his meeting with C.G. on 29.11.43 “Helmsman” is “Nelly’s” uncle


p. 26 “Mer” contacted “Clever Girl” through “Nelly.” p. 32 Mer told C.G. that the work with “Pal’s” group must continue. C.G. eagerly agreed. But when

M. said that C.G. should introduce him in the future to “Pal,” C.G. protested, saying that “Pal” is afraid of extraneous people, that they fear Russians like the plague.“Here she was undoubtedly expressing “Sound’s” mentality.”

p. 35 “Maxim” instructed Mer not to tell C.G. that they are Russian operatives. But none of those C.G. had previously met were able to create the impression that they were Americans. “To play this role, of course, it’s not enough just to know the language.”“She came to the meeting with me on the definite assumption that she was going to meet a Russian operative. We didn’t say anything about this, but her opinion in this regard was clear from several comments. For example, her reaction regarding a personal meeting with “Pal” and so forth. I spoke with her in the tone of a local businessman. After our more than two-hour discussion she was apparently left with a slightly unexpected and not altogether definite impression. Despite two unhelpful factors—her refusal to specify the amount of money she had taken from “Sound” and her negative reaction

p. 36 regarding our personal meeting with “Pal”—she made a good impression on me. She’s an intelligent, sensible and mild-mannered woman. She gives the impression of a sincere person. Of course, the late “Sound’s” mentality has been incorporated into her psychology. I hope we’ll reach agreement with her in the spirit that we need.”

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p. 27 When M. asked C.G. how much money she had taken from So., she replied that she hadn’t counted it yet. M. realized that it was a significant sum.

p. 28 All the money belonged to So. personally. He told C.G. that if something happened to him, she should turn it over to Boss.

p. 44 C.G. and Dir (after leaving “Imperialist”) were in contact with Hare and Koch. So. and C.G. knew them as “Mack” and “Pat.”

Hare, Koch

p. 48 Note from “Mer” dated 17.12.43[Re the notes and envelope that C.G. destroyed.]“She seems to be a very cautious and meticulous person. It’s odd that she destroyed an envelope of “Sound’s” without looking to see what was in it. The duty of friendship and devotion could explain this fact. “Nelly” once

p. 49 remarked to me that if I told her to destroy my package in the event something happened to me, she would definitely carry out my order. For me personally, this kind of mentality is hard to digest.”

p. 57 Message from Nelly dated 14.12.43The wife of Major John P. Reynolds (“Scott”) comes from the Fleischman family (owners of a yeast company).


p. 59 “Pal” was very pleased to meet with a Sov. rep. (?) [“Pal’s” cover name for the Americans was Sam, So’s was John.] [“Muse” was Helen Tenney,1 a staff member in the Spanish department of the OSS. Sound knew her.]

p. 60 C.G. doesn’t know that Nelly is Mer’s wife. To her Nelly is Catherine, Mer is Bill.

p. 64 Cipher cable from Maxim dated 24.12.43The view of “Helmsman” and the station: even if C.G. surmises that Mer is Sov., he should still act as though M. is local, and the work continues to proceed on the CP line. The same applies to “Pal.” The top boss is still Helmsman.

p. 65 Maxim re Vardo’s meeting with Helmsman on 19.12.43According to H., 10 mins. after So. became ill C.G. called an important fellowcountryman, H.’s man, who immediately sent to C.G.’s apartment the fellowcountryman Grace Hutchins, who helped C.G. with the doctor, police and the funeral.

p. 66 C.G. turned over to H. 11,000 that she took out of the safe at the bank. This money is a special fund for fellowcountrymen and belongs to H. So. was keeping it at H.’s request.“When “Helmsman” was asked what he thought of “Clever Girl,” he replied that although he only knows her from her work with “So.” and from the latter’s comments, he believes that she is a good and reliable person, since a verification during several years of work with “So.” showed this. According

p. 67 to “Helmsman,” “C.G.” is up to date on absolutely everything “So.” was doing, since he trusted her completely.”

p. 69 [Shortly we will begin taking over people from C.G. We’ll begin with Koch and Hare, whom we’ll turn over to “Informer” (“X”).]

Koch, Hare

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p. 71 Cipher cable from C to NY 29.12.43 [“Helmsman’s” and “So.’s” company doesn’t interest us, we shouldn’t interfere in that business; we don’t object to C.G.’s working for the company, which is a cover for her.]

p. 72 Note from “Albert” dated 20.1.44[Meets with “Myrna” about once a week. In the future it will be once every three or four weeks. “Elsa” will be in constant contact. “Myrna” makes a very good impression.]

p. 74 Note from “Mer” dated 5.01.44[“Pal” requested through “Clever Girl” that we look into H. Glasser, one of H. White’s aides at the Treasury Dept. He used to be in contact with J. Abt, but since he returned to Wash. it’s unknown whether he’s in contact with anyone. If he’s not in contact with the “neighbors,” “Pal” would like to make use of him.

Harold Glasser

p. 75 ““Clever Girl” says that “Koch” is too tense, that he doesn’t want to take notes himself and doesn’t allow them to do so in his presence. “Clever Girl” says that she memorizes as much of what he tells her as she can, and writes it down as soon as she leaves him. “Clever Girl” says that she now knows all of his weaknesses, gives in to him, and they now have a wonderful relationship.”


p. 79 Message from “Mer” dated 25.4.44:On 18.04 Mer asked C.G. to ask “Pal” to come to NY to see Mer. C.G. immediately cited a number of reasons “Pal” wouldn’t be able to come: he works every day, on Sundays he’s occupied with guests, he recently came to NY with a report and now will not be able to explain his trip, and so forth.After her trip to W. C.G. reported on 22.04 that Pal would not be able to come until the end of the summer.On “Maxim’s” instructions “Mer” attempted several times to turn “Dir,” “Koch,” “Mirage,” Hare” and “Gor” over to “Maxim’s” operatives. But each time there have been obstacles: Helmsman’s personal approval is needed, a


p. 80 probationer is too squeamish and fearful, equipment is needed for communications, and so forth. Mer doesn’t believe that Pal doesn’t want to meet. He thinks that C.G.’s meetings in W. with 6-7 probationers could result in failure.He thinks that it’s imperative to insist to Helmsman that the probationers be turned over.

p. 77 Cipher cable 20.03.44 Mer reported from NY on his first meeting with Pal. C.G. was present.

p. 82 Memorandum from “Mer” dated 29.4.44On 27.04 C.G. told M. that after So.’s death Helmsman appointed her to replace So. and assigned total control to her, that she was working for H. and not for us. So. and she had a number of unpleasant incidents as a result of our attempts to contact the probationers. H. and she are afraid of our “scary” operatives meeting with the probationers.

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H. allowed C.G. to arrange a meeting between our man and Pal only once. Mer suggests that he or “Maxim” personally meet with H. and come to an agreement that the whole group and C.G. are under our control. We will turn over to H. copies of all the materials that interest him.

p. 83 [H. recently sent C.G. to see Bat. H. suggested that permanent contact be established with Bat and that through him a fellowcountryman group comprised of “Mole” (Kramer?)2, Raid, Ted and others, 7 or 8 people in all, be put to use. Bat and Raid told C.G. that no one had been interested in them and the group had been neglected. The group leader is “Mole.” They all hold responsible positions in W. and want to supply information. The group used to be in contact with the “neighbors.” If we work with this group, we need to take it away and turn it over to our operative.Mer has never met with Helmsman, and Nelly hasn’t met with him for 6 years.

Mole, Raid et al.

p. 84 Cipher cable dated 13.5.44On Helmsman’s instructions C.G. made contact through J. Abt with Raid, Plumb (“Mole”), “Ted” and “Kant” (“Tan”).(detailed memorandum in “Raid’s” file)

p. 85 Cipher cable from C to “Maxim” in Washington dated 13.5.44Vardo must settle the following matters at the meeting with H.:1. Inform H. that C.G. is behaving contrary to our agreement with him regarding the subordination of her and “Pal’s” whole group to “Mer”2. Find out on whose instructions C.G. is acting.

p. 86 3. Find out the full roster of Kramer’s group and obtain biog. and prof. data on them. Raise the question of turning over this group to us without C.G.

p. 87 Cipher cable from Maxim dated 23.5.44.Vardo’s meeting with H. took place:1. H. granted us overall control of So.’s network. He is concerned about the issue of security and he requested that organizational matters be discussed with him in advance: any change in the procedure of contacting probationers, or turning them over to other individuals.

p. 88 Re “Mer” and “Pal”: H. agreed to our suggestions and pledged to give the relevant instructions to C.G.“One gets the impression that “Clever Girl” is the main impediment to the establishment of direct contact between “Mer” and “Pal” and to setting up their work together. She portrays the situation to “Helmsman” in a light that better suits her. Re Kramer’s group: H. acknowledged that it shouldn’t have been turned over to C.G., who already was overburdened. C.G. has already had a few meetings with its members.

p. 89 C. had planned to assign control of the new group to “Informer” and use C.G. as a courier.

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p. 90 Message from “Nelly”On 21 May C.G. reported re Koch:C.G. visited K. and his wife in Wash. The visit was the first in two months. C.G. had seen the wife, but he himself had avoided meetings with her. Six weeks ago C.G. had sent Dir to meet with Koch, but he refused to speak with her, put her in a taxi and sent her home. Dir is offended. At one time they had had an affair, but now K. told C.G. not to send her because he didn’t trust her. K. and C.G. talked for 3 hours in the park in his wife’s presence.K. doesn’t want to meet with Dir because he’s afraid that the information is going to the USSR. “If it’s discovered that that’s the case, he will be killed, and he doesn’t want to die.”


p. 91 C.G. assured K. that the information is going to Helmsman. K. agreed to continue the work. K. said that he wants to know more about C.G. C.G. replied that she was

p. 92 performing public work, and he shouldn’t ask her about her connections. “Dir” knew everything about So., and it’s very hard to convince her that she’s working for the fellowcountrymen.

p. 93 C to May 29.5.44“Mer” must ascertain C.G.’s connections, her lifestyle and relationship with “Scott” and to what extent “So.” informed her about the work.

p. 95 Mer re Clever Girl 15.06.44“In the time that we have worked with her, since last November, we have gotten to know her very well. A few times during our conversations she displayed a strange attitude toward our organization and the Sov. Union. She has a rather complicated and contradictory personality. In her work and conversations she usually behaves like our operative, in her comments she says “we,” implying our organization and including herself in this concept. I’ve written you that since my first meeting with her she has known perfectly well that she’s working for us. As a rule, she willingly carries out my instructions and reports everything to me about our people. Her behavior changes, however, when I ask her to arrange a meeting for me with “Pal” or to get any of the probationers in contact with our operative. She becomes a completely different person and, apparently restraining herself, declares that she isn’t our operative, that she works for “Helmsman.”[Episode with “Pal.”]

[“Pal” is in Baltimore.]

p. 97 “On 6 June, when I met with “Pal,” he expressed a wish to establish permanent contact with me, since he was concerned about the lack of contact with us. “Pal” told me that he is supposed to get 90 days’ vacation from his job, that he can easily come to NY at the end of the week and stay there a few days.”

p. 98 “Sometimes I sense from the remarks that are made that deep down she dislikes us. She tends to distinguish between us and the fellowcountrymen and bitterly notes that we only have a professional interest in certain issues.She says that we all care little about Americans, that the USSR is the only country we love and for which we work. I tried to explain to her that she is wrong, that both I and our

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other operatives think the same way as “Pal,” “Raid” and the others, that by helping the USSR, we are working out of deeply held ideological motives and we don’t stop being Americans. I told her that “Pal,” “Raid” and the others who are consciously helping us love America just as before, and that she must understand that we are doing important work for our cause. She told me in response that “Pal”

p. 99 isn’t an American and that his wife isn’t an American, that they don’t feel like Americans, that “Pal’s” wife talks very often about moving to the Soviet Union after the war and that they are doing everything for the USSR, since America doesn’t interest them. I tried to explain to her that she isn’t quite right, that “Pal” and his wife love their country just as the other comrades do and at the same time they perfectly well understand the role of the USSR in our struggle against fascism and the significance of building a socialist homeland. I told her that “Raid” and the others also share these views. She replied that “Raid” isn’t an American, that he’s a Russian and so forth, to which I countered that “Raid” was born in America and is just as much an American as she and her other comrades are.[Sound’s influence has apparently had an effect.]

p. 100 “I believe that she is indisputably 100 percent our person. I believe that with a tactful attitude, friendly treatment, and a firm, businesslike arrangement of a working relationship, her behavior can be corrected.”

p. 103 Decision by Fitin to Graur.“We should keep in mind “Clever Girl’s” unbalanced and erratic personality (today she says one thing, tomorrow another). Talk it over with me.”

p. 105 Message from “Mer” dated 25 June 1944“A couple of weeks ago I sent you notes about “Clever Girl’s” unhealthy attitudes toward us. After that I had lengthy, friendly discussions with her. In those conversations she expressed attitudes that sounded nothing like her previous statements about us. I hope she is now being candid. She acknowledged that she made nasty and unhealthy comments about us. Now, in trying to smooth it over, she somewhat exaggerates her feelings toward us. She repeated several times to me that it was very foolish of her to make such comments, that she really didn’t think that way, that I will not use the comments she made to hurt her. Now she tells me that her life is tied to us, that she has no other interests besides our work, that she loves our country more than anything. She states that she may have some wavering on the issue of defending her country, but she will fight for our Union against any enemy. She also says that her whole life for the last few years has been devoted to our work, that she loves it and that life without this work would lose its meaning for her. She feels that “Nelly” and I are

p. 106 her only friends whom she can openly tell everything she wants, that she doesn’t share her feelings and thoughts with anyone except us.”

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p. 107 “After all of her previous attacks I still can’t be absolutely sure of her candor and commitment to us. She has a strong personality and is a good actress—in college she had a drama major. It seems too good to be true, since she’s become an angel in every respect.”[She agreed that her behavior with “Pal” was improper.]

p. 110 “Becoming agitated, she told me that perhaps she is tormented by the same unresolved problems as “Sound,” that “Sound” resolved them with his passing, that perhaps that is the only path left to her. She told me that “Sound” was troubled by serious issues, that the day before he died “Sound” told her that he had made an important decision. She said she had not told me all these things before since she considered them purely personal.Her comments boil down to the fact that “Sound” was unable to resolve the problems facing him and committed suicide. I understood from her words that she had the same thoughts in mind for herself. I told her that those stories were fabricated and, in order to calm her down, changed the subject. After lunch she returned to the previous topic and said that there was a big difference between us and “Sound” and that she now cannot figure out exactly what “Sound’s” true status was. Maybe as he intensified his errors “Sound” went so far that he became a traitor. She had thought many times about these questions, but was unable to resolve them. Before his passing “Sound” was very agitated, something was seriously troubling him. She said that we had tried to establish contact with his people, but “Sound” had kept a firm grip on them. I realized that this issue had been among the main ones, but I didn’t comprehend what decision “Sound” had made. The way she explains it, it sounds like his decision was to commit suicide.

p. 111 I did all I could to cheer her up a bit, and told her that “Sound” was one of our most valuable agents, that he enjoyed a status that enabled him to have his own opinion on organizational matters and that there is no reason to think that “Sound” and we are very different. We put a lot of trust in him, and he did serious work for us.She asked me to forget everything she had said. In the future I will try, when the opportunity presents itself, to find out in more detail about “Sound’s” “important decision regarding his important problem.”

p. 112 [Mer suggests putting C.G. in contact with one of our senior operatives.]p. 109 C.G. is unhappy over the fact that H. is removing her from the work.]p. 106 [She wanted to be in contact with a Sov. operative, not an Amer. one. We wanted to put her in

contact with “Informer” (p. 117)[“She said that no matter how sophisticated our local worker is, he will not be able to provide explanations that satisfy her to the questions that come up for her. She’s sure that she knows as much as the local workers. She said that even Helmsman is not capable of providing her with satisfactory explanations on matters related to our ideas, work, experience, attitude toward our people, etc.”

p. 114 From Maxim in Wash. to C 5.7.44[At a meeting with Vardo H. said that he wants to free Myrna from working with us. M. is the manager of both of So.’s companies, which belong to the CP and are financially important. H. feels that it will be unreasonable if M. performs two jobs simultaneously.]

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p. 121 C to May (NY)According to a message from Mer received through Maxim, Raid’s first wife, after Raid took away their child from her, wrote a letter to Roosevelt about Raid’s activities in gathering information for Helmsman. Raid himself said that she had known about this. Raid is afraid that they’re going to start investigating him. None of the members of his group knows about this yet.


p. 125 Letter from “Albert” dated 7.07.44“She has significantly mended her ways of late. She displays complete obedience in her actions and words. She even told me once in a moment of candor that she would like very much to become our citizen. I hope she continues to be as good in the future as she is now.”[We decided to pay her 200 doll. a month.

p. 126 She was touched and said that she would gladly trade that for Soviet citizenship. They met again the next evening. She said that she had pondered the offer the whole night and had decided to decline it.]

p. 128 “I’d like us to be able to solve her personal problem. As I wrote you, she is young, energetic and a rather attractive woman. A large portion of her free time has been devoted to our

p. 129 work. I see that she is lonely in her personal life. Sometimes she tells me that we must find a good husband for “Dir.” I sense that this problem is as important to her as it is to “Dir.” If I could, I’d marry her off to one of our operatives. If not, then why don’t you send someone from home. Send him as a Polish or Baltic refugee to South America or Canada. We’ll take care of the rest. This will be a great stroke of luck and opportunity for our operative. He should be 35-45 years old and unmarried. Think this suggestion over. Maybe you’ll approve this idea.”Decision by Fitin to Graur: We need to think through this question of a husband for her.

p. 137 Cipher cable from Vadim in Wash. dated 16.10.44:“X” met with Myrna. In mid-September, as he approached the meeting place, X noticed a person who had walked behind him for six blocks, after which he fell back. “X” doesn’t know whether this was a tail or not.


p. 140 Cipher cable dated 2.11.44 Vadim reported that he had made contact with Myrna.

p. 159 Memorandum from Vadim re a conversation with M. about the cover (Oct. 44)“The Complex” is the U.S. Shipping Corp.

The Complex

p. 162 “Scott’s” grandfather was mayor of New York City, his father a justice of the NY State Supreme Court. Scott became wealthy on the stock exchange. In 1935 he was in the USSRè he became more left.


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p. 164 C to Vadim 5.11.44.It’s been proposed that Myrna be instructed to pass a request to Helmsman to turn her over to our control.

p. 168 C to Vadim 6.11.44It’s been proposed that the message be passed to M that she has been awarded the Order of the Red Star.

p. 169 “She expressed fervent gratitude and gave assurances that she would work tirelessly to validate the award.”

p. 170 Memorandum from Myrna re her contacts (November 1944)“Charlie” is Cedric Belfrage. Address: 540 Netherlands Indies


p. 171 Avenue, Bronx, N.Y. tel Kingsbridge 9-7263. Englishman. Author and journalist. Wife compiles cookbooks. No party affiliation. Was in contact with “So.” personally, but also through Jerome, an official of the directive echelon of the CP. Recruited for work by “Helmsman.” During that period he worked for the New York branch of the Intelligence Service. Undisciplined, often failed to appear for meetings. Shortly before Sound died he passed some materials to “H.” that he had received from “Charlie.” “Helmsman” used these materials for his article in Protestant magazine. Afterward “Charlie” came to see “So.,” badly frightened, and said that the publication of the article was blowing his cover. After that incident “C” stopped coming to meetings altogether, declaring that he had quit the Intelligence Service. Currently he is not working anywhere and is writing some book. M. herself has never met with C, since Helmsman forbade her to do so.

p. 140 M.’s contacts; list obtained by Vadim in Oct. 44.1. “Dir”—recruited by So. in Feb. 41.

p. 142 2. Mildred Price, married name Coy, sister of “Dir” (“Cio,”3 “Dorothy”).3. “Koch.” Fellowcountryman since 1939.

p. 143 4. “Hare”—received by So. from Informator.5. “Gor”6. “Mirage”7. “Cautious” and “Colleague”8. “Muse”9. “Flora”10. “Fedya”11. Bernard Redmont (“Mon”).12. Michael Greenberg, Englishman. Worked for the Institute of Pacific Relations in NY, in the Chinese section of the Foreign Econom. Admin. “Dir’s” contact. Hasn’t provided information and isn’t providing.13. Wife of “Peter” (“Paul”).14. “Raid.”15. “Ted”16. “Khal”.17. Lischinsky (“Sol,” “Rock”). Head of the Balkan department of UNRRA.18. Sid

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19. “Izra”20. George Perazich. Head of Balkan department of UNRRA, left for Cairo.

p. 152 21. “Ruble,” assistant to “Richard.” Former GRU source.(+Kant (Tan), Plumb (Mole) and others).

p. 170 Continued:1. Nadine Redeker (“Youth”). M. doesn’t know her personally, was in contact with So. Was used for “Transatlantica.”2. “Charlie”3. “Grin.” Journalist.

p. 172 4. Joe North, editor of the magazine New Masses.5. Bernie Schuster, alias Freedman, alias Chester.6. Landy. Official of the CP directive echelon.7. Louis Budenz. Editor of the Daily Worker.8. Grace Granich.4 Works for the Intercontinent News Service.

p. 172 9. Fred Rose. Communist member of the Canadian parliament. Provided leads to Canadians in the US.

p. 173 Visited So. in NY shortly before his death and raised the question of establishing a station in Canada. Gave So. a list of people who could be useful in Canada. According to M., the list was passed to us.10. “Operator.” Worked for the Canadian motion-picture representative office in Wash.11. Vladimir Kazakevich.

p. 174 12. Albert Kahn. Was editor of the magazine The Hour.

p. 177 Vadim to C cipher cable 23.11.44Contact with “Ruble”: “Ruble”—“Ted” (until recently “Raid”)—“Myrna”—“X.”


p. 178 Center to Vadim 24.11.44According to available documented information, the “Hut” and the “Hotel” are actively investigating “Gennady’s” past activities in establishing cover enterprises in the US. This poses a threat to “Myrna.” She should discontinue her work at “Scott’s” office and “W.T.” and fellowcountryman activities in general. Let M. meet5 with Helmsman and clarify whether he considers these enterprises to be his or ours.

p. 179 If he considers them his, we request that M. be released. If he wants to place it at our disposal, we will act at our discretion. In any case, to remove M. from participation in them and convert her to illegal status: change her name, documents and place of employment.

p. 184 Vadim to C cipher cable dated 4.12.44“After “Sound” died “M” didn’t get the appropriate guidance from us, she worked carelessly and primitively. She found herself under the influence of harmful ideas regarding her “perfection” as an intelligence agent. In particular, with the knowledge of the “Complex” staff, which consists of untested people, “Myrna” traveled to Wash. without any legal reasons to do so. “Myrna” says that the “Complex” staff knows that she travels to Wash. for “special” purposes.Initially “M” met with our people or probationers

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without verification; she tried to contend that “every intelligence agent must have a sixth sense,” therefore she must detect any surveillance of her by “instinct.” “Myrna” sometimes used her apartment for secret meetings with agents. Some probationers have her phone number (at home).Myrna talked about herself to “Nelly” (Elsa) in Dec. 1943 (pp. 61-63) and Vadim in Dec. 1944 (190-192). She wrote her autobiography.

p. 212 AutobiographyElizabeth Terrill Bentley (known as “Mary”) Address: 58 Barrow Str., N.Y.C. Tel.: Watkins 9-7838.Mother: Mary Charlotte Terrill (Charlotte Terrill).Mother’s father: Frederick Turrill.6 Died in 1918. Comes from Scottish-English lineage, descendant of a family that came to America aboard the ship Mayflower and settled in New Milford, state of Connecticut. Family was among the first settlers of that town in the 1600s7. The family of my mother’s father played an outstanding role in the history of New England--

p. 213 several of its members participated in the war of independence in 1776, and one—Roger Sherman—signed the Declaration of Independence from the state of Connecticut.My mother’s mother was Julia Smith. She descended from an Eng. family that arrived in the US on one of the first ships.

p. 216 My father’s father: Edwin L. Bentley. From a family that arrived on the Mayflower.Father: Charles Prentiss Bentley.Described all relatives: pp. 220-223.

p. 223 I was born 1 Jan. 1908 in New Milford, Connecticut.p. 224 1932-33, fall 1934—Columb. Univ.

1933-1934—Univ. of Florence, Italy.Summer 1931—univ. in Perugia, It.Performed with a drama club in college.

p. 225 At the Foxcroft School. When she taught, she led the drama club.At Columb. Univ. in 1932-33 led the drama club at the International House.Changed places of employment: sales clerk at a dept. store, librarian, secretary, typist. (pp. 226-227).

p. 226 Foxcroft School, Middlebury, Va, taught English, French and Italian.p. 229 “As a child I was lonely and an outcast8 (lonely, withdrawn), spending most of my time at

home reading various books that I came across. I often got sick. We often moved from place to place, è I had no friends. When I was 12-13, I had few friends, since my mother didn’t allow me to be friends with girls my age who drank, smoked and went to nightclubs.

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p. 230 “In college I made friends with many girls—but I didn’t know any men. My roommates promised to find a “suitor” for me, but I refused every time, since I was too poor to purchase an appropriate dress, and also because I was shy and innocent.”“My first affair, a very youthful one, was with a British engineer who was returning to the US on the same ship as I was in the fall of 1929.” The affair ended when the ship docked, although he continued to write letters. The second affair was

p. 231 in the summer of 1931, in Italy, a Hungarian officer who was much older than me.Between 1932 and 1938 there were only 2 serious affairs: an Arab student at Columb. Univ., we lived together and wanted to get married. Circumstances got in the way: in the fall of 1933 I went to study in Italy, and when I returned I found out that he wanted to return to Baghdad for good. I didn’t think that Iraq was suitable for an American, especially if she was married to an Arab. We broke up.

p. 232 The second was a Greek worker. In the same party cell at Col. Univ. The first Communist I had met. I fell in love because I attributed to him all of the qualities that I assumed Communists possessed. We lived together for 6 mths., then broke up in the fall of 1935.In the fall of 1938 I met “John” (So.) and soon fell in love with him. I didn’t know anything about him, but he seemed to be the best

p. 233 revolutionary. He asked me to marry him, and I agreed.“Later he explained to me that he was in a very complicated position—that in the early 1920s he had been asked to declare that one of the women in the same party cell with him was his wife, because she needed a passport to enter and exit the country. He didn’t marry her with all the formalities, but slept with her, and she gave birth to a boy against his wishes. Neither she nor the son is here. He said that in order to get a divorce he had to return home, so as not to blow the cover off the whole business. So he asked me to live with him and wait to get married until everything can be straightened out. He also said that after we got married I would have to transfer to another party cell, since it was against the rules for a husband and wife to work together.I accepted his explanations, since I loved him very much, and lived with him for five years until his death. I was as deeply in love with him when he died as when I first met him, and I still feel the same way, although when I found out certain things after his death about his polit. life, my feelings diminished somewhat.

p. 234 No man has interested me since John died. My interest in the left movement was stirred up twice: during the depression of 1920-23, when I was outraged by the treatment of the steelworkers in the town of McKeesport; the Sacco-Vanzetti case. I realized from reading the court proceedings that the trial was rigged. I was almost kicked out of the house for discussing this issue.During the last year of my studies I joined L.I.D.—the only left organization that existed there at the time.

p. 235 During the same period I studied drama at Vassar College together with Hallie Flanagan, who was greatly enthralled by Sov. drama and the Sov. Union in general. I wanted to go to the USSR in the summer of 1930, but my father didn’t permit it. At Foxcroft9 I read literature written by Thomas and Laid-

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ler. I didn’t understand everything. My friends began to call me a “Red, even though I really knew nothing about either socialism or communism.

p. 236 I had become so mixed up about everything that I mistook Italian fascism for one of the forms of socialism.”During my first visit to Italy (summer 1931) I socialized with Americans and other Europeans, but not with Italians. The second time I spent a year there (1933-34), speaking Italian and living with Italians. I learned that conditions under fascism were indeed similar to conditions under socialism, but I still think this situation prevailed only in Italy. In the fall of 1934 I returned to the US and moved into a house where my neighbor was a Communist. She began to explain and provide Marxist literature. In Jan. 1935 I joined the CP. I was brought into the Columb. cell.

p. 237 Party assignments: work in labor unions, continued to attend meetings at the Casa Italiana and did work for the city committee of the American League.

p. 239 In the spring of 1935, shortly after I joined the party, Pauline Rogers, who headed the city committee of the American League, got in touch with me.

p. 240 She asked whether I would agree to perform “special” antifascist work. I agreed, and she introduced me to Juliet Stuart Poyntz-Glazer. Juliet spoke about illegal work in Italy, emphasizing the fact that, while doing this work, a woman must often do unpleasant things, such as sleep with men, in order to get information and so forth. I didn’t like it. I told her that that didn’t interest me.Then she asked me to give her Italian lessons for her work. I agreed, but soon realized that this was merely a pretext. I was in her home twice. There I met a well-known person who had been mentioned in the newspapers in connection with her. He tried to flirt with me, and she tried to get me drunk. I told her that I would not meet with her.

p. 241 She called me at night, wanting to meet on an urgent basis. Then she left me alone. In the spring of 1936 I ran into her by chance on a bus, and she asked me to come see her. I went to the Harlem cell and asked that she be investigated. The response I got was that she was an “imposter.” I was sent to her together with a representative of the cell. He chewed her out and told her to keep away from people at Columb. Univ. Two days later she came to me together with Pauline Rogers, called me a Trotskyite and other names and threatened to kill me. I haven’t seen her since.A few days later a man from the Harlem cell told me that everything is OK with Juliet. A couple of months later somebody from the committee of the Amer. League said what organization she belonged to.

p. 242 In the spring of 1936 I met somebody from the City Committee of the Amer. League (I don’t remember the name) and she asked me whether I would agree to do “special” work. I refused. But they persuaded me, saying that I didn’t have the right to refuse. In November 1936 she introduced me to one of the “neighbors’” operatives, who was involved in obtaining planes for Spain. Two meetings, then he left until the late spring of 1937. He was interested in getting into an Amer. aircraft plant, but his plan failed. He continued to keep in contact

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with me, but in the fall of 1937 he said that the work was finished and he was going home. p. 243 He was called “Joe.” He left in Jan. ’38 after turning me over to his assistant, “Marcel.”

“Marcel” left for Florida. In March he left for France. I tried to get a job with the Romanian consulate or at the Romanian World’s Fair. In June 1938 I got a job at the Italian Information Library. I tried to re-establish contact through various people. F. Brown of the National Committee (located on 12th Street) got me in touch with “John.” From then on I worked with “John.”

p. 193 The NKGB sent an inquiry to the Red Army Intelligence Directorate in Dec. 1944. “Joe” is an old GRU probationer who is living in NY and is in the active network. Marcel, too. He lived in Europe for a few years.

p. 194 Also considered active.No information about Pauline Rogers.

p. 198 Memo on Poyntz (Juliet Stuart Poyntz).Comintern data:Juliet Poyntz, alias Glazer Stuart. Born in 1886 in the US, American, of peasant background, higher education, knows English, French and German. Trade-union member since 1915.

p. 199 From 1909 to 1921 belonged to the US Socialist Party.In 1921 joined the CP USA. In 1928 was a delegate from the CP USA at the Sixth Congress of the Comintern. In Dec. 1929, on a recommendation by the CC of the CP USA, came to the USSR to work for the Profintern, where she was hired as a deputy department head. Moved to the US in March 1931.

p. 207 In Dec. 1944 the Amer. department of the GRU initially reported that J.P. was not in the GRU’s agent network and nothing was known about her.

p. 208 Second check in 1947.In Oct. 1934 was recruited by the RU RKKA and in November of that year traveled to the US with an assignment to recruit agents. In November ’36 arrived in Moscow and in Feb. ’37 returned to the US again. An RU representative met with Poyntz twice before her disappearance in early June 1937. The circumstances of the disappearance are not known to us.It is known from the correspondence with Poyntz that from 1931 to 1933 she worked on the INO GPU line.In one of her letters Poyntz stated that she had given Yakov Serebryansky,10 her chief on the INO GPU line, a 20-page report on her work. In 1933 she was apparently relieved of carrying out assignments on the INO GPU line and returned to party work.

p. 244 C to Vadim 16.12.44Myrna should not be told that direct contact has been established with Ruble. Ruble

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p. 246 In Dec. 1944 we reached agreement with “Helmsman” that “Scott’s” company would shift totally to our control, while W.T. would remain his. Myrna is to be removed from both companies.

p. 247 In Dec. 1944 M. was ill. She traveled to a health resort for a week at our expense.

p. 249 In Dec. 44 Vadim met with M., gave her a small Christmas present, and she gave him one. She said that “Vadim” in many ways reminded her of “Sound.” Then she said that it’s hard for a young, single woman to live without a man and described her physical suffering as a result of this. She told Vadim that she didn’t have a personal life, but like any woman, she finds herself thinking more and more about family, kids and so forth.Vadim feels that M. needs to be married off. So far he doesn’t have a suitable candidate. Ovakimyan’s decision to Graur: Think over the question of “Myrna” getting married. 25.12.44.

p. 253 Message from X dated 30.10.44 re meeting with M.She said that Helmsman had changed his attitude toward Sov. intel. activities. He called her work “dirty blackmail” and maintained that people

p. 254 should be kept as far as possible from this work. He also expressed dissatisfaction with us, since, in his view, he gave us enormous assistance, but we didn’t do anything for him.

p. 277 Message from M.: my relationship with So. 11.12.44. Received through “X.”“Besides a strong physical attraction to “Sound,” as well as a strong sense of comradeship—since we had common ideas and we were working for the same cause—I admired him as a hero, since to me he was the best type of revolutionary.”

p. 278 “During the early years of our acquaintance “Sound” deliberately trained me a lot, saying that I was the same kind of soldier as on the front lines, and that I must work a lot and produce good results. He said that because he loved me he wanted to be proud of me and my work. He supported me during moments of fatigue and disappointment.”

p. 279 [In the spring of 1940 the authorities failed to find evidence against “So.” and offered a deal: one of the organizations under investigation would plead guilty in order to save the others. The one that pleaded guilty would get a suspended sentence. It was decided at a conference of the management that So. would plead guilty.]“He was very upset by this whole affair, saying that this was the worst thing that had ever happened to him—pleading guilty in a bourgeois courtroom. He has developed a real contempt and hatred for most of the members of the National Board who took part in this, as he called it, “kangaroo court”.”

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p. 280 “In the early spring of 1941 “Sound” and I began working with a large number of CP people, and I got my first people in Wash. “So.” instructed me to treat them like Communists, and in addition to getting information from them, accepted dues and educated them.“So.” also insisted that I take copies of their materials, since he wanted to keep them in order to show “Helmsman” when the latter comes out of prison. Until then I had never taken copies.The year from the spring of 1941 to the spring of 1942 proved to be a very unfavorable one for “So.” He was developing heart disease, and he was forced to turn over more and more people to me. “Helmsman” was in prison, and “So.” couldn’t get along with the CP officials downtown and his relations with them seemed to be very strained. He especially got into debates with the CP officials handling financial matters, who were trying to get money from his company, whereas his company needed every cent it made.Moreover, in June 1941 Germ. attacked the Sov. Union—“So.” worked day and night and declared that this was real war, that Sov. people were giving all of themselves, that his son was fighting at the front and that he didn’t have the right to rest, either.In the spring of 1942 “Helmsman” was released, and “So.’s” relations with the CP seemed to improve. His heart condition, however, worsened, and he seemed to start declining physically and mentally.

p. 281 He was worried about his son, wanted to return home and be with his people, took the Germ. offensive very hard, etc.About 6 months before his death “So.” seemed to get into squabbles with our organization. Apparently he didn’t like the people who were in contact with him—he stated that they were young and inexperienced, didn’t work hard, that everything was done carelessly, etc. He kept telling me that “H.” was his only friend, the only person who understood him.About three months before “So.’s” death all of his squabbles with our organization seemed to reach their peak. He constantly and bitterly complained about the lack of cooperation, about the inadequate materials, about the people who were being sent. He constantly talked about the fact that he was old in the organization, that he wasn’t getting appropriate treatment, that he would like to go home and do something g about this matter. He told me that Russians don’t understand Americans, that they treat them badly—that he is the only person in the organization who is capable of dealing with Americans.Just before “So.’s” death they proposed that several people who were his contacts be transferred. This was the last straw for him. He became depressed, and he didn’t care whether he lived or died. He had constant disputes with the person with whom he was in contact. When he returned from those meetings, he would sadly say that they didn’t understand him, that the organization considered him not Russian but American, that nobody in the organization cared about him, that they wanted to ruin him by taking the best people away from him and downgrading him to the disgraceful task of training new people. He went to Wash. to meet with the head of the organization,

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but came back even more disappointed.“So.” continued the struggle over the issue of transferring people and kept telling me that Russians don’t know how to treat Americans, that they will destroy them since they don’t trust them. On this basis he expressed the view that the Russians would have to bribe Americans in order to work with them.

p. 282 Eventually he threatened that he would rather retire than turn over his people.Finally, after receiving instructions that I turn over the materials of “Albert’s” group to “Albert,” “So.” became completely depressed. He complained that they were not content with the desire to take the best people away from him, they were also taking away his assistant and that this was the last straw. When I began to turn over the materials to “Albert,” he warned me that the Russians were cruel people, that I should take a firm position in dealing with them if I wanted to work well with them. He asked me not to tell them anything I didn’t need to say. He even went so far as to worry that I might be invited to somebody’s home and forced to turn over his people to that person. He sat by the phone waiting for my call after I returned from meeting with “Albert’s” wife so as to make sure I was safe.During these final days of his life the only bright spot seemed to be his friendship with “Helmsman.” When “Helmsman” gave him a new group, he bitterly told me: “He’s the only person who trusts me.” I think during those days he even turned against me, since I disagreed with him. Just before his death we had a very bad argument, since I declared that even if he quit the organization I wouldn’t follow him. Then he turned to me and said: “If I become a traitor, destroy me.” He said that if anything happened to him, I should continue the work in his stead. Then he said bitterly that he didn’t know what would happen to me when he died—that I was completely unprepared to work with the “rude Russians.” The day after his death he was supposed to meet with his courier and decide once and for all what he should do—retire or give up the people. I don’t know what he would have done if he had remained alive…

p. 283 …Remembering the past situation, I sincerely believe that he was a good man—until the moment when he developed heart disease. I know that he trained me well and made me into a good person. And in point of fact I am indebted to “Sound” and his training for a large part of what I am now.I think that after his heart condition deteriorated “So.” felt that he was sliding downhill, but he didn’t want to admit it—and in my opinion most of his negative attitudes can be reduced to that fact. I know that he cared about the work until the very end—he continued to work for a long time after he outwardly changed into a different person.I think the biggest problem for him was the fact that he worked mostly as an individualist—even during the early days of our acquaintance.It seemed that, on the basis of his experience both at home and in this country, he felt that he was the only person who knew how to behave in various situations. This pertained both to his

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company and to his work for the organization. He managed the company as a one-man operation, without turning over authority to others or training them for it. He took the same approach to the organization’s affairs—he did most of the work himself, he was very secretive and said very little to others about his actions. And only when he became ill did he turn over to me—out of sheer necessity—many details.That’s how I assess “So.” now: I don’t know, maybe I’m wrong. Until recently I was unable to judge him dispassionately—partly because I loved him, partly because I didn’t know much about his activities in our organization and in the CP.

p. 284 Message from “Myrna” re “Helmsman” 11.12.44.“Two months before “So.’s” death I had absolutely no idea what “Helmsman” had to do with our work. All I knew was that the people who were my contacts were members of the Communist Party. “Sound” would tell me that they should be treated as members of the CP, that in addition to working with them on our line I should work on their political education, collect dues from them and give them literature. It seemed to be about that time that I learned that they had proposed to “Sound” that he turn over certain people to someone else. Then he told me that he couldn’t turn them over, that they were “Helmsman’s” people—lent to us—and that their transfer required permission from “Helmsman.”After “So.’s” death “Helmsman” asked me not to transfer people without his permission, stressing that he didn’t object to their transfer, but that he wanted to be sure that they would be handled well, etc.—that he wanted first to discuss the situation with your people. I passed this along to “Albert”—my contact after “So.”—who asked me not to do anything that could offend “Helmsman.” Apparently one of you had met with “Helmsman,” and he gave his consent to the transfer of one big group of my contacts to “Albert.”[In June 1944 “Helmsman” met with “Dir” and said that she could quit her job and lead a normal life.


p. 285 He said that he would incorporate her into a legal group. But M. continued to use her house for meetings and to carry on a friendship—to meet for lunch, to go to the movies, etc.

p. 288 Message from X re M.’s work 7.12.44[What needs to be done is not to make certain changes but to completely change the basis of the group’s work.]M. “is precisely the type of person who should not be involved with this group, let alone controlling it.”

p. 289 “The whole organization is now in a situation such that if anyone begins so much as a cursory investigation, the whole group with their direct contacts will immediately be exposed.[She was closely tied to So. She doesn’t follow the rules of konspiratsia.]

p. 292 [She doesn’t see tails: when she was on her way to meet with “Raid,” “X” was following her, but she didn’t notice it.

p. 294 The members of the group know each other.

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p. 297

p. 298

p. 302

[X speculates about why they haven’t been exposed so far: the general polit. situation doesn’t favor this. Or: the information obtained is inaccurate or, in the FBI’s view, doesn’t cause great harm. In any case everything needs to be changed.][M. must be detached from the group, there needs to be a hiatus in the work, the group needs to be broken into smaller units.]

[X told M. fabricated information about himself.]

List of M.’s contacts (prepared by her 25.1.45)

p. 303

Cover name “Muse”




New group“Raid”







Party cover nameHelen










NameHelen Tenney

Lt. Julius Joseph

Major Duncan Lee

Maurice Halperin

Victor Perlo

Donald Wheeler

Harold GlasserHarry MagdoffAllen Rosenberg

Charles KramerGeorge Perazich11

Joel GordonSol LeshinskyStanley GrazeEdward Fitzgerald

Bernard Redmont

Robert Miller

Place of employmentOSS — Span. section of secret intel. departmentOSS — Far East section of research and analysis departmentOSS — Japanese section of secret intel. departmentOSS — Lat. Am. section of research and analysis department

War Production Board — Statistical DepartmentOSS — manpower section of research and analysis departmentTreas. Dept.—asst. to Harry WhiteLabor Dept.FEA (VILLA)—occupied territories department—Germanycurrently seeking work with FEA (VILLA)currently in Yugo. with the UNRRA missionUNRRA—Balkan departmentUNRRAin the army.FEA (VILLA)—occupied territories department—Germany.

Office of the Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs. Press Department.State Dept.—intel. section—according to latest data, was working on F. East

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p. 314 Vadim to C 1.02.45Lieutenant Murphy of the NY police recently visited the “Complex.” He asked questions about the company. The formal pretext was a letter to the police complaining that an addressee hadn’t received a parcel.

p. 315 C. replied that Myrna needs to leave the Complex. But she shouldn’t be frightened by Murphy’s visit.

p. 334 C to Vadim 29.5.45In view of X’s departure another operative must be selected for meetings with M.


p. 319 In Feb. 1945 M. moved to the St. George Hotel.

p. 338 Message from “Vadim” dated 27.06.45“A while ago “Irma” reported to us with great outrage that Myrna had proposed that she become her lover. In this regard “Irma” remarked that “M.” had attempted to establish an intimate relationship with her “despite the fact that she has a male lover.” This latter fact intrigued us, since M. had always complained in her conversations with me and “X” that she had no boyfriend to satisfy her natural needs. We gave “X” a special assignment to have a cautious and tactful chat with M. on this topic. After the usual whining and refusal to admit her guilt “M.” told first “X” and then me that in early May she became acquainted with a man in her hotel who was waiting for a room, and on the same day she got into an intimate relationship with him and began to meet with him from time to time. “M.” was gushing praise about the man and declared that he would be

“Irma” works for U.S. Shipping

p. 339 a perfect husband for her. Then “M’s” infatuation apparently began to cool, and she told us a number of details about her lover that left no doubt that he was an agent for the “Hut” or “Arsenal” counterintelligence, possibly planted especially for “Myrna.” We suggested that M. break off the “affair” and go away for a couple of months on vacation. She did both, but to what extent she left her lover—P. Heller—is hard to say.We are sending “M.’s” messages about P. Heller together with this one. As you know, “M.” has not been in contact with our probationers for a long time already.“M.’s” behavior in this whole business was exceptionally bad. For example, she told me at the outset that she had gotten involved with H. on “X’s” instructions. Yet she told “X” that I was the one who had permitted her to live with H. When both statements were rejected as patent rubbish and nonsense, “M” told us that “the Amer. fellowcountrymen were venal riffraff and all of them, beginning with “Helmsman,” could be bought and sold for a couple of cents,” whereas she felt very good with H., like someone very close to her.” Later M. apologized for those phrases under the pretext that she said them without thinking, under the influence of wine (she could

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never be called a teetotaler).p. 340 In short and on the whole, “M” as of today is a serious and dangerous burden for us here. She should

be taken home, but to tell the truth, I don’t know how to do this, since she won’t go illegally.

p. 341 Message from Myrna (May (?) 1945)Described Peter Heller. “He is unattractive, completely the opposite.” About 40 years old.

p. 342 Worked for a newspaper in Miami. Then studied law and got a law degree. Father and sister live in Brooklyn.

p. 343 Works for some government agency as an investigator: checks the qualifications of people who want to take a new position in the army.

p. 344 Has contact with the FBI based on his line of work. Doesn’t work for the FBI himself, nor for the Civil Service Commission.

p. 345 Circumstances of how we met. Met him Sunday evening at the St. George Hotel in the radio-listening room. He sat next to me. I began to sneeze, since I had a bad cold. He started giving me advice about how to cure the cold. He said he wanted to get a room for two weeks, since he had already stayed there. But the director wasn’t there. It’s too cramped with his father and sister. Lives in Miami.

p. 346 We went to the movies. It was bad film. He suggested that we take a drive. We drove to Sheepshead Bay, had a meal and came back.As we were saying good night he said that he’d like to invite me to go dancing and to the theater. He gave me a telephone number where he could be reached. He said he would move to the hotel as soon as a room was vacated.“He may be an innocuous type, but he could also be dangerous.”

p. 347 Message from M.Met two more times with Heller.He’s an officer in the reserves and he’s with the NY police.

p. 348 His car has a NY police license plate on it. He’s a Dewey man and landed there thanks to him, when Dewey was a special prosecutor. He attended Columb. Univ. and St. John’s college. He worked for the FBI, I think. Also for some state investigative agency. He mentioned that his agency at one time conducted investigations of Communists, and he told me that he knows a little Russian, in which he is now improving himself.

p. 351 Cipher cable from Vadim to C 4.07.45The award and the medal book were shown to Myrna.

p. 353 Cipher cable from Vadim to C 1.9.45We have removed M. from the “Complex” and sent her to a seaside resort for treatment and rest.

p. 358 Cipher cable from Vadim to C 10.9.45“Scott” is unhappy over the new contract with Intourist. The station doesn’t interfere in the “Complex’s” affairs and suggests that Scott negotiate with Intourist himself. M. wants to stay on vacation until 15 Sept. While on vacation

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she has met with Heller twice, although now she’s convinced that he is investigating her. p. 359 “A while ago already we began to prepare “Myrna” for a move from NY to another city or

country to continue working there on our line.We raised this matter again in connection with the approaching end of her vacation. In particular, we mentioned a trip to one of the countries where entry visas are not required for Americans—Canada, Mexico, Brazil, etc.M. refused to leave NY illegally. She immediately pressed us in an insistent manner to consent to her return to the “Complex,” declaring that that is the only work that interests and suits her. It seems to us that M. should be taken to the USSR, but she won’t go there illegally of her own accord. Myrna could be permitted to return to work at the “Complex,” then summoned to the Union officially for negotiations with Intourist. We doubt, however, that this is advisable.”(Fitin’s notation: Inadvisable.)

p. 360 C to Vadim 14.09.45You are conducting yourself correctly with Scott. “It is very desirable that “Myrna” break off her liaison with Heller. Her game with him could turn out badly both for her and us.

p. 361 It won’t be possible to take “Myrna” out of the US, and don’t talk with her on this subject. She understands what is at issue. An unnecessary conversation on this subject may only make her wary about our attitude and trust toward her. Let her relax for now. Since they obviously have her under active investigation, try to meet with her more seldom so as not to blow the cover of our comrade and you especially. For “M.” to go back to work at the “Complex” is highly undesirable. This affair has become dangerous and drawn-out. Amer. counterintelligence will follow it closely, and for a long time to come we will have to be under strain regarding the use of “M.” in agent work. If you are unable to persuade M., give her assistance in getting another job. If necessary, give “M.” financial assistance.After M. returns from vacation, use her only for new leads and recruitments, keeping in mind all precautions and her expansive personality, which shows up especially in regard to new and indiscriminate contacts. It’s important for us to give “Myrna” a workload such that she doesn’t have time to reflect too much, she doesn’t have time to get involved in romance, etc. Try to avoid using “M.” in contact with old agents whom she knows and who are valuable to us.

p. 362 It would be nice to marry off “M.,” at least with the help of the Communists.For the future the best outcome seems to us to transfer “M.” to the Communist Party for active work on the latter’s line (with constant supervision of her by us).

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p. 363 Cipher cable from “Vadim” to C 27.09.45““Myrna” has returned from her vacation, and I’ve met with her. She was half-drunk. When I suggested rescheduling the meeting for another time, she declared that if I broke off the meeting, we wouldn’t see her anymore. She said that she had had a drink so as to relate something to me while intoxicated that she couldn’t bring herself to relate while sober. This intrigued me, so I stayed for the meeting.“Myrna” asked whether we really don’t want to finance the “Complex,” enter into a “human” contract with it and reduce customs import duties on parcels. I confirmed our decision on this question, and declined to discuss the contract with Intourist and other matters.“Myrna” stated that our refusal to finance the “Complex” “compels” her not only to break off relations with us but also spurs her and “Scott” to resort to assistance from government

p. 364 agencies.“Myrna” showed a story in a newspaper she had with her about the latest summons of Communist Party leaders—Browder and the brother of Cde. Molotov’s wife—to appear for questioning before the Un-American Activities Committee.“Myrna” declared threateningly that her and “Scott’s” testimony would be very interesting for the committee and American newspapers. When I commented that “Scott’s” threats don’t scare us, “Myrna” corrected herself, saying that she completely supported him, because he was not only her business partner (I took that to mean that “M.” was sleeping with “Scott”), and went on to say: “So.” and I created the “Complex” and used it for 10 years for you and against you. Now you’re not going to get rid of this business so easily. We have no choice but to liquidate the “Complex,” but neither “Scott” nor I will ever again have any dealings with any Russians, because they are all gangsters and care only about Russia.” When I tried to clarify what she meant, M. couldn’t say anything that made sense, she just assured me in a drunken monotone that she has hated us for 10 years, but at the same time she “hasn’t sold out and won’t sell out” our people, mainly because they are “Americans.”Then “M.” went off to the ladies’ room, rummaging in her handbag on the way. As I watched her, I saw her step into a

p. 365 telephone booth, but didn’t close the door all the way. I heard from the adjoining booth that, after dialing some number, M. asked for a Colonel McAllister to come to the phone (“Scott” had previously mentioned this name as his future assistant—see cable No. 739).“Myrna” told McAllister about our position regarding the issue of the Complex and asked him to pass this along to Scott. She didn’t utter the word Russians, but one could figure out who she was referring to. I couldn’t listen to the end of the conversation, since I returned to the table.“Myrna” returned to the table a few minutes later. I suggested it, and she did drink a couple of glasses of a sober-upper; then we continued our conversation“M.” reported that at “Scott’s” direct suggestion she had returned to the “Complex” three days earlier to the same job and intended to stay there until the “Complex” was liquidated. When she saw my surprise, she responded that she doesn’t care at all now whether we agree with this or not.

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Then M. said that a while ago Heller had made her an indirect offer to become an FBI agent for the investigation of the “Complex.” Supposedly she rejected the offer.“M.” stated that the fact that for 10 years So. had repeatedly told her it was impossible to work honestly with the Russians was not the only thing

p. 366 she had concealed from us. “M.” declined to clarify what she meant. During the discussion “M.” attempted several times to get into obviously slanderous comments about the Amer. Com. Party (“a band of foreigners”), about “Sound” (“only death prevented him from making an extremely important decision that the whole country would have found out about,” or otherwise “only death prevented us from moving to South America, where you would have never found us”), about “X” (“as soon as I see him, I’ll kill him”), about “Albert” (“he tried to rape me”), but she said all this in a disjointed and confused manner. So as not to aggravate relations with M., I turned the conversation to neutral topics, and after a while concluded it altogether. I scheduled the next meeting for the beginning of November; she quietly agreed to this.Our conclusions from the foregoing discussion with “M.”:1. M.’s shenanigans are not accidental, and they attest to the fact that, although she has worked with us for a long time, she is a person who is alien and hostile to us.2. Judging by her behavior, she hasn’t betrayed us yet, but we cannot rely on her. Unfortunately, she knows a great deal about us.3. The latest “eruption” occurred as a result of our firm

p. 367 position with regard to the C-plex—the refusal to finance, the “insulting” (in her words) contract sent by Intourist, the failure to mention in the contract that the C-plex has the exclusive right to send parcels to the Sov. Union and so forth.“M.” is dragging in all these extraneous “arguments” in order to break off with us.4. Considering that M. won’t go anywhere voluntarily, and could cause serious harm to us here, there is only one way left, the most radical one, to get rid of her.”

p. 368 Cipher cable from Merkulov dated 11.10.45“In working with an agent, we must always be prepared for the possibility that, under the influence of the most diverse factors that we often don’t have a chance to take into account or control in the conditions of illegal contact and relatively infrequent meetings with him, he may betray us. As he revolves in an environment that is alien to us, even an agent who is highly dedicated to us may take the path of betrayal or, at best, vacillate and “review” the line of his relationship with us.This points to the need to work systematically on educating the agent and to keep him under our influence.It is not out of the question that M. is now at a turning point, caused mostly by the peculiarities of her personality, with which you’re familiar, the shattered state of her nerves and her unsettled personal life. It’s also possible that the fact that M. came to the meeting with you

p. 369 while intoxicated and her unpleasant discussion about our affairs are a consequence of “Scott’s” influence on her (Scott wants to improve his affairs at the Complex).

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Taking the foregoing into consideration, we believe that for now M. won’t take the step of betraying us. As for her behavior at the meeting, we interpret it as an attempt to pressure us into securing a contract with Intourist that is advantageous to Scott.Certainly, however, M.’s threats to tell the Amer. authorities information that she knows about our work are a real danger, and in determining the line of our behavior we must take them into account.In order to prevent a further worsening of our relations with M., you must do the following:1. Without putting it off until November, meet with M. again very soon and have a discussion with her in a friendly, tactful, but fairly firm and confident tone. Interpreting M.’s comments at the previous meeting as a consequence of her agitated and nervous state, tell her that you would like to talk with her again about her situation in a calmer and mutually amicable atmosphere. At the meeting with M. create an atmosphere so as to draw out M. into a candid conversation and to ascertain the true reasons for her behavior, as well as her wishes in

p. 370 her future work with us. Point out to her that her many years of productive work with us, which have been appropriately honored with a government award, obligates us to provide her with not only moral but also material support. Tell her that we are prepared to provide necessary financial assistance to her personally (up to 3,000 dollars).Also explain to her that since we never used the Complex in our work, we have decided not to interfere in the relations that the Complex and Scott have with Intourist. However, in appreciation of M.’s personal work for us, we are prepared, for her personally, to exert possible influence on Intourist in a favorable direction for the Complex. 2. If M. makes new attempts to pressure or threaten us, deflect them firmly and confidently and say that we don’t advise her to employ means of that kind, first because the Americans among whom she enjoys such great trust will never forgive her for this, to put it mildly, disloyal act and will stigmatize her for the rest of her life, and second because it’s not only not beneficial to her, it’s dangerous. Suggest to her at this point that in the current political situation the American government agencies are unlikely to take the step of using M.’s “exposés” against us. Therefore the consequences of M.’s impetuous act will fall personally on her and the Americans.

p. 371 3. Make contact with “Irma” and find out from her what the sentiments of M. and Scott are in regard to the Complex affair, while concealing from her, of course M.’s behavior at the last meeting and her threats.4. Take all necessary precautionary measures for yourself, as well as other agents M. knows, especially if you have other facts besides the reported conversation with M. that point to the possibility of a betrayal by her. 5. While reducing as much as possible the extent to which you use M. in our work, you must keep in mind that under no circumstances is she to be released from our influence or let out of our field of vision, yet at the same time the impression must be preserved that we trust her fully and take a friendly interest in her personal life.”

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p. 387 Vadim to C 29.10.45.[Following Merkulov’s instructions, V. had an extra meeting with M.]“She arrived completely sober and was upset about her behavior at the last meeting.First, she apologized for appearing drunk the previous time. She attributed this to the fact that she had spent a few hours with “Scott” before the meeting and had drunk “much too much.” When “Vadim” tactfully pointed out that it was dangerous to come to a meeting intoxicated, M. responded that she agreed with that.M. anxiously asked whether she had said “anything excessive” at that meeting. V. didn’t answer directly, but shifted the conversation to the subject of her situation, attributing all of her previous comments to an agitated and nervous state, fatigue and so forth. M. said she didn’t remember a single word from that discussion. She “recalled” only what pertained to the “Complex” and “Scott.”[V. repeated Merkulov’s words regarding the Complex.]

p. 388 M. put forth a number of demands all at once: a reduction of import duties on parcels, insuring them against loss inside the USSR, inclusion in the contract of a provision that the “Complex” is the sole representative of Intourist, and so forth…“M. said she had returned to the Complex and has been working there since 21 Sept. in her old job. She did this in response to requests from “Scott,” who couldn’t work with Jewish women like “Irma.” “M.” was admonished that by returning to the “Complex” without our permission she was upsetting all our plans for her future use.”

p. 389 [M. was given 2000 doll. She provided a receipt.][The conversation touched on the case of the traitor Budenz.]“M. reported in this discussion that Budenz had been very close to “So.,” knew that So. was working for Sov. intelligence and was performing the functions of group leader for So. Who Budenz’s contacts were on our line, M. doesn’t remember, but she pointed to Adamic and some Amer.-Czech intelligence operative.After So.’s death M. was in occasional contact with Budenz, and in Sept.-Oct. 1944, on our instructions, she broke off contact completely. M. asserts that B. knows her last and first names, her place of employment and the fact that she is working for us. M. doesn’t know which other probationers of ours he knows. In this connection M. asked how she should behave if she is summoned somewhere as a result of Budenz’s testimony regarding her involvement with

p. 390 us. (Incidentally, M. is sure that even if B. wasn’t an old FBI agent, now he has already told them everything.) “V.” gave M the appropriate instructions about how to behave and so forth.V. remarks that B.’s betrayal and his knowledge of M.’s work for us did not particularly alarm M.“Irma” was dismissed from the “Complex” on 8 October. She said that M. is now drinking a lot, often complains about Intourist’s “bureaucratism,” the lack of gratitude that is typical of the Russians, etc.”

p. 391 On 11.10.45 Sergey was asked what M. knows about “Albert”: address, surname, etc. In connection with M.’s abnormal behavior, there is a danger that his cover could be blown.

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p. 392 Note from “Albert” dated 20.10.45M. doesn’t know my name, identity or phone number. She knew that I am an Amer. citizen and a businessman.

p. 393 “Bob” from London sent “S’s” data in a cipher cable dated 20.11.45:On 19 November the “Back Street” received from Neville Butler, an assistant under-secretary of the “Back Street” who accompanied Attlee to the US and Canada, various materials pertaining to the agreement reached in the US between King and Attlee on the Canadian case:1. Beginning 26 November (the precise date to be determined) persons who are mentioned in the Canadian case in Canada and “May” will be detained for questioning.2. King and Attlee feel that the detention of a large number of people will reveal this fact. After all, they don’t want relations between Britain and the USSR to deteriorate. Therefore they are trying to control such openness.On the day the suspects are detained King will announce that the Canadian authorities have uncovered a major intel. network; many of the suspects work at Canadian govt. agencies, and all of the trails lead to the Sov. Embassy in Canada.

p. 394 In addition, King will announce that the Canadian government has already taken appropriate police and diplomatic measures.“Police measures” consist of the detention of people who are mentioned in the Canadian case and who are known to the Canadian and British authorities.“Diplomatic measures” consist of the agreement between King and Attlee that the Canadian authorities will invite the Soviet ambassador in Canada and notify him that Zabotin and his entire staff, which was involved in intel. work, are “personae non gratae.” They have decided not to demand that the Sov. ambassador himself be recalled.King in his announcement will appeal to public opinion not to use this case to set off an explosion of anti-Sov. propaganda. At the same time King may send a personal message to Cde. Stalin regarding this matter.3. The persons on whom there is evidence they engaged in intel. work will be convicted. A royal commissioner will be appointed for the judicial hearings. This case may be heard behind closed doors. King will name the commissioner in his announcement.4. According to Butler’s report, the Americans are currently investigating another Soviet intel. organization in the US. Therefore they don’t want to take

p. 395 any actions regarding the Canadian case since this could harm their new investigation. They also made a request to the British about this.5. Truman reacted favorably to the actions that King and Attlee proposed. He approved the proposal at a meeting with Attlee and King on 14/XI-45.6. The “Hotel’s” station chief in the US, Stephenson, reported to the “Hotel” that FBI chief Hoover said that Truman was poorly prepared on this matter when he met with Attlee and King. Hoover is sure that the actions against the Zabotin network will cause harm to the Americans’ new investigation in the US. On 15/XI Hoover talked with Byrnes about this matter, but no decision was made.7. Re the Americans’ new investigation the FBI reported the following to Stephenson:

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During the first few days of November 1945 Elizabeth Terrill Bentley (Elizabeth Terrill Bentley12) came to the FBI and reported on her work at an international travel corporation in NY. The head of that agency until 1943 was Jacob Golos. This agency and the United States Service and Shipping Corporation were used by Soviet intelligence for intel. work.An investigation of Golos’s network by the Federal Bureau of Investigation showed

p. 396 that Golos’s agents infiltrated government circles. The FBI assumes that this network is controlled by the NKVD. So far they have succeeded in identifying 30 Soviet agents, whose names the FBI has not yet conveyed to Stephenson. The only ones identified have been Peter Rhodes (Rhodes) a journalist, and someone named Cedric B. Stephenson assumes that Cedric B. is Cedric Belfrage, a BBC announcer, and Peter Rhodes is Peter Christopher Rhodes, a journalist who works for United Press.8. “S” expects that the position taken after the 14 November talks between Truman, Attlee and King may change the actions of the Canadians and the British.If the Federal Bureau of Investigation carries out the new investigation quickly and successfully, the Americans will be able to take actions simultaneously against the persons who are mentioned in the Canadian case and are in the US.

p. 397 Comrade I. V. Stalin “ V. M. Molotov “ L. P. Beria[Summarizes the content of “S’s” message regarding Gouzenko and so forth. May is a Ph.D. in physics, a professor at Cambridge Univ., a GRU agent, information on atomic energy.][Gouzenko reported on the GRU source in British intel. “Elly.”]

p. 399 “In connection with the Gouzenko affair Amer. counterintelligence (the FBI) has lately intensified surveillance of employees of Soviet offices in the US and is actively investigating members of the Amer. Com. Party suspected by the FBI of cooperating with Sov. intel. In October Louis Budenz, the editor of the Daily Worker, the central organ of the Amer. Com. Party, as is well known, became a renegade.From 1935 to 1939 our station in the US used Budenz to cultivate Amer. Trotskyites, and from 1940 until November 1943 he was in contact with our agent Jacob Golos for intel. work.J. Golos, a member of the US Com. Party, was the chairman of the so-called International Tourist Corporation (World Tourist), which at one time was used by the US Com. Party as a cover for receiving money orders from the Comintern. He was in contact with a substantial group of informants, members of the US CP who were working at various Amer. agencies.By using this group, whose members Golos kept secret from our station in the US, he began in 1935 to pass various secret information to us.

p. 400 In November 1943 G. died and the management both of World Tourist and of Golos’s informant network passed to his closest assistant, Elizabeth Bentley.E. Bentley, 37, a member of the US Com. Party since 1935, was an agent of the Chief Intel. Directorate of the Red Army General Staff from 1936 until 1938,

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and in 1938, with “Helmsman’s” permission, was transferred to World Tourist and used by Golos to conduct communications with his informant network.Since the NKGB USSR found it abnormal, for security reasons, that Bentley was in contact with a large group of informants whose identities were unknown to us, and since it considered that Bentley, based on her personal qualities, did not fit the role of the group’s controller, it took measures to find out who the people in Golos’s network were and to detach them from Bentley. With the permission and on the instructions of “Helmsman,” Bentley in early 1944 told us the makeup of her network, after which the informants with whom she was in contact were gradually transferred to contact with other persons. In February 1945 Bentley was relieved of the duties of controller of that group and began to work for the United States Service and Shipping Corporation, which was established with US Com. Party funds and under a contract with Intourist shipped various kinds of parcels from private individuals in the US to the USSR.Bentley had periodic contact with the NKGB USSR station in the US, receiving material assistance from us.At the last meeting in late October Bentley told an operative of our station that, in her view, the renegade Budenz had been connected to Amer. counterintel. (the FBI) and had probably told the FBI what he knew about Bentley’s work for Sov. intelligence, since Budenz was in contact with her for intel. work from Dec. 1943 until November 1944. Agent “S” reported:“In early November Bentley visited the Federal Bureau of Invest.

p. 401 (the FBI) and stated that World Tourist and the United States Service and Shipping Corporation were being used by Sov. intelligence for intel. work. What else Bentley told the FBI and which agents she knew were given up by her to the FBI, we don’t know yet.However, according to the information of agent “S”:“The FBI’s investigation of Golos’s network showed that his agents had penetrated deep into Amer. government agencies and the FBI believes that this network was controlled by the NKVD.”It should be mentioned that World Tourist and the United States Service and Shipping Corporation were not used by us in intel. work.We believe that Bentley’s betrayal may have been caused by her fears of exposure by the renegade Budenz, who, as was mentioned above, knew about Bentley’s involvement with Sov. intelligence in the US.In connection with the foregoing we have issued a directive to the stations of the NKGB USSR in the US to cut off contact immediately with all of the persons Bentley knows about through our work, to warn agents about Bentley’s betrayal and to instruct them regarding their line of behavior and necessary precautionary measures.Measures have also been taken to recall to the Sov. Union the two staff officers of the NKGB USSR whom Bentley knows about. V. Merkulov24 November 1945

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p. 402 Cipher cable from C to Vadim 22.11.45:According to reliable information that has been received, M. has betrayed us. A directive has been issued to take the appropriate precautionary measures and not to meet with her anymore.

p. 403 The same to Sergey in NY.

p. 405 Cipher cable to Vadim dated 23.11.45The following operational actions are to be taken:1. Break off contact with: “Ruble,” “Mole,” “Izra,” “Raid,” “Sid,” “Tan,” “Page” (“Vim”), “Gor,” “Muse,” “Hare,” “Adam,” Arena,” “X.”2. In the strictest secrecy inform “X,” “Mole,” “Ruble,” “Raid” and “Adam” that the break-off of contact is due to M.’s betrayal. Warn them that if Amer. counterintelligence summons them or takes any measures against them (questioning, threats, arrest and so forth), they must deny any covert contacts with “M.” and assert that her statements are lies and a provocation by the authorities.Since counterintel. could have several meetings with “M.” on record, it’s impossible to deny a simple acquaintance with her.3. The above sources must break off all contact with their subsources; the real reasons for breaking off these contacts may not be disclosed. They can cite the increased attention by counterintel. to the activities of Commun. and progressive elements in the US.

p. 406 4. Documents of Amer. govt. agencies and other documents and notes that could compromise our agents and their subsources must not be kept by them at home. If such documents exist, they are to be destroyed immediately. Personal meetings in public must be minimized.5. Arrange passwords and methods of contact with the agents named in item 1; warn them not to seek personal meetings with us at their initiative.6. Suspend contact with other active agents, but arrange passwords and the time and place of meetings.7. When agents who receive compensation from us are deactivated, issue it for 3-4 months in advance. 8. Nobody but Vadim must know about M.’s betrayal (the reference is to operatives—A.V.13). Without explaining the reasons, warn operatives of the need to increase vigilance, adherence to rules of konspiratsia and caution in their behavior.9. Review all files and notes in the office, and “Vadim” personally is to destroy anything that is unnecessary. 10. Let us know your opinion as to what measures must be taken with regard to M. As we [learned]14 from reliable sources, M. came to the FBI and informed it that W.T. and the Complex were being used by Sov. intel. We don’t know yet which of our agents M. named.

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p. 407 The same to Sergey.1. Inform Albert of M.’s betrayal.2. Through Albert, inform Robert. Warn them that nobody must know about this.3. “Robert” and “Pilot” are to stop agents’ use of their sources and reduce meetings in public with their contacts: “Aileron, Richard, Zhenya, Acorn, Sachs, Peak and others.4. Destroy all govt. documents.5. Break off contact with agents: “Art” Richard “Echo” and “Berg.”6. Stop meeting with Aileron.7. Warn Art and Berg about M.’s betrayal. (Same recommendations.)

p. 408 8. Brief Echo on M.’s betrayal, explaining that it is a result of Budenz’s betrayal. Instruct Echo to inform Helmsman.9. Arrange passwords and methods of contact for the future with the aforementioned sources.10. Suspend contact with active agents.11. Send “Albert” home immediately.12. Issue compensation for 3-4 months in advance.16. Sergey is to leave for home with his family after carrying out all instructions.

p. 410 Vadim to C 25.11.45Received cipher cable re M. on 22.11 after returning from NY, where he had a meeting with M. at 4 p.m. on 21.11.The meeting took place on the street. M. suggested going into a restaurant, but V. declined and suggested going to another one.M. began the conversation with the statement that Lem Harris, a representative of the Com. Party leadership, had supposedly come to see her at the Complex in early November and demanded the repayment of 15,000 dollars or the transfer of the whole business to the CP. Scott has no money. He asked whether her “Russian friends” would agree to pay it. M. supposedly replied that we wouldn’t pay. After that, at

p. 411 Scott’s request, she met with Helmsman to ask him to persuade the CP to drop its demands. “H.” responded that he couldn’t do anything. M. asked whether we could influence the CP. V. replied that they didn’t have any contact with the CP.

p. 412 V. said that Scott could do anything he wanted to with the Complex.p. 413 M. asked whether V . had heard anything new about Budenz. V. replied in the negative and

asked the same question. M. said that all she knew was from the newspapers, but she was “sure that this business will still come out.” M. asked about “X.” V.: I haven’t seen him for a long time. [X was gone; V. saw him on 17.11.]V.: how is Heller acting. M.: since the last meeting with V. she hasn’t seen him. She said she had done “a little detective work” and had determined from the phone number he had left her that he nominally ran a men’s wear store and had a wife and 2 children.

p. 414 The conversation lasted about an hour. They left the restaurant together. They arranged the next meeting for January.M. acted very calm.About 15 minutes after parting with M., V. spotted a tail: a car with 3 people in it.He managed to lose it only by going into the subway, about 35-40 minutes later. He is sure he came to the meeting clean è she was the one who brought the tail.

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p. 415 Cipher cable from C to V 26.11.45We assume that the meeting was photographed by counterintel. V. is instructed to return to the USSR on the pretext of going on vacation.The main thing is not to blow Homer’s cover. Stop meeting with him, but arrange a password and a method of contact for the future.

p. 416 Bob from London 26.11.45Mackenzie King cannot bring himself to implement the steps in the Canadian case that were laid out by him and Attlee. The British keep putting pressure on him. King is waiting for actions in the US.

p. 420 Vadim to C 27.11.45The only measure to be taken in regard to M. is her physical liquidation. V.’s ideas:1. M. lives alone in Room 759 in the Hotel St. George, which houses permanent tenants. She takes the subway from and to work. After work she sometimes goes to a women’s athletic club, which is located on the opposite side; once or twice a week she goes to nearby movie theaters. Until recently she hasn’t had any close friends with whom she often gets together.2. The suggestion is to use poison that takes effect after 10-20 hours and doesn’t leave any traces. Soak a pillow or handkerchief or food that would be delivered to M.’s room and left there. But V. doesn’t have such poisons, and he isn’t able to obtain them.

p. 421 V. has firearms: an Amer. Colt obtained by X and kept by him; a captured German Browning that Vadim received from deputy people’s commissar Sergeyev, and a Belgian Browning that Vadim brought from home. But against M.—it would be too noisy. A car accident or pushing her under a train would be unreliable.Who can carry out the sentence?“X.” M. won’t refuse to go to see him for a meeting. Give her some wine and drop in the poison. Just to make sure, have a lady’s compact dabbed with the poison in the necessary spots. Make it a gift—a normal thing to do. M. can open the compact and scratch her hand.

p. 422 Another option: “X” uses a matching key (he’s a master of such things) to slip into M.’s room beforehand. A cold steel weapon or stage a suicide. That’s unreliable, since M. is a very strong, tall and healthy woman, and X. lately has not felt well.

p. 423 Decision: Don’t take any measures against M. This is been agreed on with Cde. Beria. Merkulov. 27/XI-45.

p. 424 Communicated the same day to V.

p. 432 V to C 3.12.45“Muse” was supposed to have a meeting with “Adam.” “Muse” was tailed by X. When she exited from her building, Muse walked up to one of the cars parked in front of her building and said something to the person sitting in it. At the meeting place X spotted the same car with the same person in it. The car was parked so that the entire meeting site could be surveyed from it. This place had never been used before.

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p.433 X used a prearranged signal to warn Adam not to come to the meeting. In the past Muse was very close to Myrna.

p.436 “Bob” from London “S’s” information 27.11.45Amer. pressure è it has been decided not to carry out any actions in the Canadian case for 2 weeks after 16.11. They may be put off longer.

p.438 The FBI is still not giving the British information related to the Bentley case. In addition to the message on Golos, Cedric B. and Rhodes, the FBI has sent the following names: Michael Greenberg, a British national, supposedly a member of the British CP, and the sisters Mildred and Mary Price. According to the FBI, Bentley first contacted the FBI in early November. But last April the FBI asked MI-5 to identify Michael Greenberg è one can assume that the Bentley case is not a new one, but the FBI decided only now to inform the British.


The postponement has been reported to Stalin, Molotov, Beria + the text of Mackenzie King’s statement that he will make on the day the agents of the GRU’s Canadian station are arrested.

pp. 446-448

4.12.45 Bob from London—“S’s” information:The FBI has sent the “Hotel” the names of the Sov. intelligence agents given up by Bentley


1. Golos 15. Joseph Gregg (Gor) 29. Pelipenko 2. Silvermaster (Robert) 16. Duncan Lee (Koch) 30. Leon Erlich3. Helen Silvermaster (Dora) 17. Maurice Halperin (Hare) 31. John Spivak (Grin)4. William Ullmann (Pilot) 18. Julius Joseph (Cautious) 32. Abe Brothman (Chrome Yellow)5. George Silverman (Aileron) 19. Helen Tenney (Muse) 33. Peter Rhodes (Paul)6. Harry White (Richard) 20. William Remington (Fedya) 34. Leopold Arenal (Alexander)7. Sonia Gold (Zhenya) 21. Mary Price (Dir) 35. Rose Arenal8.William Taylor (Odysseus) 22. Mildred Price (Cio)15 36. Cedric Belfrage (Charlie)9. Sol Adler (Sachs) 23. Ruth Rivkin (Flora) 37. Victor Perlo (Raid)10. Lauchlin Currie (Page) 24. Louis Adamic 38. Donald Wheeler (Izra)11. Bill Gold (Acorn) 25. Albert Kahn (Eddie) 39. Edward Fitzgerald (Ted)12. Irving Kaplan (Tino) 26. Louis Budenz (Buben) 40. Charles Kramer (Mole)13. Robert Miller (Mirage) 27. Tkach (Perch) 41. Bernard Redmont (Mon)14. William16 Park (Mushroom) 28. Stepankowsky17 (Blue Tit)

p.455 Memorandum re “Brit”In late 1945 a number of materials from the Foreign Agents Registration Unit of the US Dept. of Justice were obtained through agents. Summary reports by FBI special agents on the investigation of individuals, the CP USA and Sov. organizations.It is obvious that in 1941 So. and M. were incorporated into the FBI investigation of Armand Labis Feldman (FBI NY office file No. 65235, No. 741A). On “Brit”—Iosif Vladimirovich Volodarsky. From 1930 to 1932 was assigned to Britain through Soyuzneft.

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p. 456 Recruited to work for the Lond. station. In November 1932 was arrested for buying information and sentenced to 52 days in prison. The punishment was replaced with a fine of 105 pounds. Was sent back to the USSR. In the middle of 1933 was sent to the US for illegal work. Beginning in 1936 used Canadian passport No. 3931 under the name Labis Feldman.On 25 Apr. 1938 Brit disappeared after first cashing checks from his company.

p. 457 Cde. Ovakimyan is mentioned in the case.p. 458 In Feb. 41 So. was included as a contact of Ovakimyan.

p. 472 On 16.08.47 a cipher cable was sent to “Tikhon” in Paris asking him to meet with X and discuss the case of M. How will he react to the idea of liquidating M.? Preparations are under way for the trial, which will cause damage to Sov.-Amer. relations and the CP USA.

p. 473 Can he take on this task? But do it in a way that the idea for the suggestion comes from “X.”

p. 474 On 25.08.47 “Tikhon” reported that X is taking on the task. He suggested using Ray Elson (“Irma”) for preliminary coverage of M.26.08. Tikhon was informed that first “X” must study the situation, then a decision will be made.

pp. 551-552 The NKVD continued to search for M. in 1955.According to some accounts, M. in 1954 was living in the state of Louisiana (the town was unknown) and was working as a college instructor.

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p. 1

File 70548 (“Helmsman”) “Shaman”

Wife—Raisa Berkman Browder. Arrested 13 Aug. 1940 for arriving in the US without an immigrant visa and staying beyond the authorized time limit. Released on bail. Case was heard on 13.08.40 at Ellis Island, NY.

p. 2 She arrived in the US on 1.11.33. p. 3 Father—Boris Berkman. p. 3 Born in St. Petersburg on 1.01.1897. Lived in St. Petersburg until 1919. Attended the univ. p. 5 Moved to Moscow. From 1919 to 1933 taught Russian for societies: homeless children and a society at

Moscow Univ. p. 6 Married Earl Russel Browder on 15.9.26. Browder was previously married to Gladys. Had 1 boy. Raisa

never saw them. p. 7 Raisa and Earl have 3 children: 2 boys were born in M., 1 in NY. In 1933 Raisa traveled to her uncle, a

surgeon, in Warsaw for a month to give birth (p. 6). He arranged her move to the US. p. 11 He worked for her husband as his secretary. p. 23 Raisa was deported. p. 26 Earl was imprisoned for 4 years for passport forgery. p. 31 On 24.12.43 “Maxim” reported that Vardo’s meeting with Helmsman had taken place. The discussion

was conducted through notes. p. 32 Dimitrov asks H. to send these reports once a month through us and H. wants to know whether we will

take and forward these reports through our mail. H. says that they will be general political overviews on the Country and on

p. 33 the workers’ and fellowcountryman movement. They will neither be signed nor contain anything highly classified. In cases in which he will have highly classified messages for D., he will ask us whether we can accept them. H. would like to pass them through “Clever Girl” or “Echo” when the latter begins working. H. is waiting for an answer from us on this question, and it’s apparent that he will be offended if we refuse. H. said that he had received a warning from Dimitrov to exercise caution in collecting information and to make sure everybody who provides it knows that it is only going to H. personally.

p. 37 There have supposedly been setbacks in Sidon (London), where one fellowcountryman’s cover was blown and he got 7 years.

p.41a Message from a source “Helmsman” dated 3.2.44:Secret material of the “Cabin’s” research department, dated 2 October 1943, on German armed forces casualties during the period 1-30.9.43. It is documented material, but based solely on information from the official German press and therefore cannot be of any operational interest, and besides it is outdated. Total of 20 pages.


p. 42 +confidential materials of the “Cabin’s” research department from November 1943.1. The manpower situation of the European axis2. The population of Germany3. Germany’s labor reserves4. The losses and availability of German armed forces.The materials contain comparative tables on the above subjects. The material is documented, may be of informational interest, although it is outdated.

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Office’s note: We cannot verify the accuracy of the above data. The material may be of interest to you in terms of what kind of information the “Cabin” possesses on this subject. Total of 19 pages.

p. 45 May from NY to C 2.5.44C. requested a double-check of America’s role in Finland’s rejection of the Sov. Union’s peace proposals. May requests approval for an inquiry on this question to Helmsman through the Informer-Echo connection.

p. 47 NY to May and Wash. to Maxim 27.05.44When Vardo meets with H. she must find out his opinion about Jurist. The question of warning J. regarding the meeting with our man should not be raised through H.


p. 48 Memorandum with a cipher cable dated … May 1944 to May and Maxim.In order to arrange a personal meeting with Jurist and utilize him more actively in your work, a spec. operative from the C. will shortly travel to your place. We therefore instruct:1. Maxim. If the meeting between Vardo and Helmsman hasn’t taken place yet, order the latter to warn J. that very soon he will be contacted by our man from among official representatives, whom J. must tell everything candidly and assist in every possible way. Arrange with H. that he will promptly inform us how J. reacts to this request.2. May. If the meeting between H. and Vardo has already taken place, and it is impossible to warn J. through H., in that case assign Mer to meet with Pal, through whom the aforementioned request should be passed to J. Mer should meet again Pal and find out from him how J. reacts to our request. In order not to cause resentment on Pal’s part, it should be explained to him that the reason for our direct contact with J. is that at this particular time we attach great importance to having him work more actively. We categorically forbid informing Clever Girl about this matter.3. Maxim and May. Define between yourselves your duties in carrying out these actions and avoid parallelism in implementing them and duplication.We will communicate separately the procedure by which our operative will make contact with J.

p. 51 To Maxim (Wash.) ← C (Memorandum 28.5.44)“Jurist” was a probationer for the mil. competitors from 1935 until 1940, and was in direct contact with their operative. In 1940 “Jurist” was turned over to our contacts through “H.”Considering that the meeting between Vardo and H. has already taken place, “Maxim” has been instructed not to handle the affairs of Pal and J. anymore.

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p. 52 Memorandum: Maxim (Wash.) to C. 4.6.44“According to information that So. once passed along, Jurist was not an agent for the neighbors. The situation was different: J. has a relative—a doctor by the name of either Volman or Volper, who used to be in contact with the neighbors. This doctor would supposedly receive information from J. and turn it over to the neighbors. J. knew that the doctor was a fellowcountryman and believed that the information received from him was going specifically to the fellowcountrymen. The doctor once mentioned in passing that he was working for us and would like to get J.’s help. After that incident J. kicked out the doctor and barred him from coming to his house. Later the doctor supposedly had his cover blown, in which someone named Paul Sheffer was involved. This gave J. a big scare. According to So., we have all this information.Since all this came from Pal, we will carefully double-check this story and let you know the results before having a substantive discussion. In any event, prior to a substantive discussion with Pal of J.’s contact with our man, Helmsman must be informed about this. This must be done because otherwise Pal himself will tell Helmsman about this and we may ruin our relationship with the latter.I’m confident that if we speak candidly with H., he will agree and will personally direct Pal to act as we want it and he will thereby strengthen “Mer’s” authority, since H. will tell “Pal” that Clever Girl must not know about this.In a cipher cable in response C. agreed to Maxim’s proposal.

p. 57 Memorandum from “Maxim” re several matters (May 44)[Helmsman has already turned over Kramer’s group to Clever Girl, and she has had several meetings with them. We told Helmsman that he acted too hastily.]“Helmsman doesn’t remember the details about the makeup of this group and therefore he was unable to answer all the questions that were posed to him. The only thing “Helmsman” is sure of is that the group consists of reliable people.He promised to find out within two weeks all the facts related to the group, and to discuss at the next meeting, in practical terms, the possibility of turning it over to us. For a rather long time, on H.’s instructions, “Steve,” a.k.a. “Peters,” was in contact with Kramer’s group. Eight or nine months ago “Steve” was relieved of this work on “Helmsman’s” instructions because

Kramer’s group—PetersSteveStorm

p. 58 “Steve” isn’t a local citizen. During this period Kramer has had no contact and no controller. To maintain contact with the group, for a while “Steve” has used “Reyna’s” brother, the deactivated fellowcountryman John Ant (Abt?),18 who is the attorney for Sindey (Sidney?)19 Hilman. “Mastiff” reports that “Steve” is known to us as “Storm,” who knows “Mer” personally: he used to be in contact with him. “Helmsman” has assured us that “Steve” is a reliable person and a good fellowcountryman, “H.” has no doubts about “Steve.” For about three and a half years “Steve” didn’t do any fellowcountryman work besides his connection with “Kramer’s” group. Now he is gradually getting involved in work for trade unions and other mass organizations. He has worked at the same factory in Tyre for many years. “Helmsman” doesn’t remember exactly when “Steve”

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was in Smyrna, but he believes it was in 1935-1936. “Steve” was sent to Smyrna by the fellowcountryman leadership, but specifically by whom and for what purpose, “Helmsman” doesn’t remember exactly. “Helmsman” knows that “Steve” worked in the administrative department of “Le” for roughly about a year. What surname “Steve” used while he was in Smyrna, “Helmsman” doesn’t remember. “Helmsman” promised to find out all the information of interest to us before the next meeting and pass it along to us.”

p. 65 Rules for contact with “Helmsman” in 1944If the office needs to make contact with H., our person calls the wife of Helmsman’s brother, Rose Euler (Rose Euler), on her office phone, tel. A146995. Rose works in the editorial office of the magazine In fact as a secretary. Our person identifies himself or herself: if it’s a man, as Henry Jacobs, if a woman, as Ann Jacobs, and says during the conversation that he or she “is grateful for the book and hopes to get together soon.” If possible, the call is to be made in the first half of the day. This call signals that the next day Rose will wait for our person at the entrance to Schrafft’s café on 23rd Street between 5th and 6th avenues at 6 p.m. Our person approaches and says: “Hallo, Rose, Peter will not come.” She replies: “What a pity, I saw him last in July.”) Rose and our person must be holding Life magazine. Rose is a very tall—6 feet—and rather plump woman, blonde, blue eyes. Her height and figure make her quite conspicuous among other women. If “Helmsman” needs to see our person, Rose on his instructions calls the consulate and identifies herself as “Miss Schwartz.” She asks for Cde. Yakovlev (Yatskov?)20 and inquires of him whether there has been any answer regarding the search for her relatives. This call signals that the next day she will wait for our person at the aforementioned place at 6 p.m. The password and magazine—as specified above. If the meeting could not take place on the scheduled day for any reason, skip one day and then appear again at the same place.

p. 65a Vadim to Center 11.07.45Re the situation in the CP and its June plenum.“ “Reyna” says that Br. is now out of the leadership of the Com. Party and is living in the countryside. The leadership is now in the hands of the secretariat, consisting of Foster, Dennis and Williamson. Br. stated that he will not do anything. He refuses to receive anybody, but believes that the Com. Party will call him back to the leadership in less than a year. As “Reyna” noted in her account, Br.’s wife, who is attempting to be a “real American,” is exerting a bad influence on him.

p. 69 C to Sergey (NY) 7.8.451. Instruct probationers Echo, Reyna et al. to obtain transcripts of reports and speeches, as well as the resolutions of the congress.2. Complications are possible in our work as a result of the position taken by H. and he may have supporters in our network. Carefully check out all probationers acquired

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on H.’s recommendation and think over what measures should be taken with regard to these individuals (breaking off contact, temporary deactivation and so forth).

p. 73 Memorandum1.9.45 Sergey reported on Helmsman’s meeting with Bull. + A few days ago Albert happened to run into Helmsman’s brother, who asked him whether he could pass along a letter from H. to us. A. said he couldn’t do that without spec. permission. Sergey requests approval.

p. 74 Inquiry to Dimitrov.“In late August former American Com. Party leader Browder met with attorney Edwin Aronoff, a secret Communist, in order to get a consultation regarding the application procedure for Amer. citizenship for his wife.In a discussion of intraparty issues with Aronoff, Browder stated that the criticism that had been leveled at him was unfair and that in a year or two everybody would acknowledge the correctness of his policy line and would give him an opportunity to re-establish his position in the party.Regarding the intraparty debate, Browder made derogatory comments about Foster, calling him a “feeble-minded schemer.” Browder discussed the same issue with the publisher of Reader’s Scope, the Communist Gleason.He told Gleason that if he were given an opportunity to go to the Soviet Union for talks, those talks would result in his position in the party being restored.A few days ago Browder’s brother made a request to our illegal operative, whom he happened to run into, to forward a letter from Br. to the Sov. Union. Our operative hasn’t accepted the letter yet, pending our instructions.Please let me know whether Br.’s letter should be accepted. (Fitin) … Sept. 1945

p. 75 To Comrade P. M. FitinIn response to your inquiry of 6 Sept., No. 1/3/17304, I am informing you that, in our view, the letter from Br. should not be accepted.

A. Panyushkin 11 Sept. 1945

p. 76 A cipher cable dated 14.9.45 to “Sergey” informed him that it should not be accepted.

p. 77 Annotation of message from source “Reyna” dated 2 November 1945.“Browder plans to travel to Paris and Moscow. To this end he has already appealed to Eleanor Roosevelt for help in obtaining a passport. He still holds the view that his position was misunderstood and misinterpreted, that he will be understood in Moscow, where he is considered the only well-trained Marxist outside the Sov. Union.Eleanor Roosevelt is prepared to help him, because she never liked the communist methods of punishing people who have done something wrong and now she sees him as another victim of communist persecution. Br.’s plans have become known

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in the CC of the CP USA, whose members were highly concerned about it, since such a trip would serve as proof of the existence of the Comintern, etc.This message suggests that Br. is still continuing his flirtation with E. Roosevelt and, in all probability, has contact with his old connections in Wash. and, in particular, with Josephine Truslow Adams, the sister of the reactionary historian James Truslow Adams (descendants of Pres. Adams). Josephine is about 40 years old, a blonde, was closely acquainted with E. Roosevelt and with Roosevelt himself, and often spent time at his residence at Hyde Park and at the White House. She was one of Br.’s favorites—he adored her. When he was an inmate in Atlanta, Josephine expended a lot of energy and effort, especially using connections at the W.H., in order to secure his release.

p. 78 After his release she worked as a messenger between the CC of the CP and the White House, in fact she told her friends about her work. It’s incomprehensible how Browder could have used her for such secret work.

p. 80 “Sergey” (NY) to C 5.02.46Information from the CP è

p. 81 è Message from Fitin to Panyushkin 7.02.46:“The Amer. Communist Will Weiner, who is close to the party leadership, told our source the following: During a conversation with the illegal Communist B. Josephson, manager of the Café Society cabaret (a NY business that funds the Com. Party), Earl Browder said that he would soon travel to Europe and the USSR and would be away for about a year. Br. intends to use the trip to “expose” Foster. On his return to the US he expects to become head of the Com. Party.Br. demanded that while he is gone Josephson provide material support to his family out of funds of Com. Party enterprises.Br. went on to say that he knows where secret party funds totaling 540,000 dollars are kept, and that he “will do everything necessary so that the Com. Party cannot make use of them.”According to the source, Weiner informed the leadership of the Amer. Com. Party about this matter.”

p. 86 Memorandum.Browder, Earl Russel, born 1891, Amer., native of the city of Wichita, Kansas. Education: 3rd grade in elementary school and correspondence courses in the law (graduated in 1914). Then engaged in self-education.Until 1919 belonged to the left wing of the Socialist Party of America. In 1919 took an active part in establishing the Communist Party. In the same year was convicted for antiwar actions and was incarcerated until 1920. In 1921 was elected to the Central Committee of the CPA. In 1927-28 was general secretary of the Pan-Pacific Trade Union (the center of that organization was located in China). In 1930 was elected gen. sec. of the CPA. Was the Communist Party candidate in the presidential elections of 1936 and 1940.

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Traveled to Spain illegally during the civil war there. As a result of this, in 1940 he was investigated and sentenced to 4 years in prison for using a false passport during the trip to Spain. After serving 14 months in prison, was released under an amnesty thanks to Roosevelt’s personal intervention.”

p. 119 Memorandum.In a cipher cable dated 2 May 1946 “Nazar” reported that he had been contacted by the Communist T. M. Bayer. He said that “Helmsman’s” trip to M. had caused great consternation among the fellowcountrymen. Bayer is afraid that Moscow, since it doesn’t have enough material about H.’s activities in the US, may be misled by him. Bayer suggested that briefing material on Br. be passed along for forwarding to M.Decision: Fitin to Graur: we have nothing to do with the fellowcountrymen’s affairs and cannot accept briefing material.

p. 120 A response was sent to Nazar on 5.5.46, saying that we cannot provide assistance.

p. 149 Memorandum (undated)“Our stations began to use “H.’s” capability on the leadership line of the fellowcountryman organization around 1933. In organizational terms this was done through highly trusted individuals who were personally handpicked by “H.” and with whom the heads of our stations maintained illegal contact at various times. “Steve” (a.k.a. “Storm”), “H.’s” brother “Bill” and “Sound” were used as such trusted representatives. a) “Steve” was seldom used by our station chiefs until 1936, after which “H.” relieved him of this work. “Steve” was used much more actively by GRU operatives. “Steve” had his own group of agents comprised of illegal fellowcountrymen working at various govt. agencies, through whom he would receive information both for “H.” and for the GRU.b) “Bill” was used sporadically during the periods 1936-1937 and 1942-1944 only by our station chief “Maxim” for contact with “H.”c) “So.,” who was our important group leader of a large group of agents consisting of local citizens, was the principal trusted person for contact with “H.” from 1937 until 1940. But he had no relationship with GRU operatives and didn’t meet with any of them.The chiefs of our stations received through the aforementioned trusted representatives of “H.”:1) Persons who had been checked out from among local fellowcountrymen for use as agents,

illegal couriers and illegal group leaders;

p. 150 2) Background information on persons of interest to us for recruitment;3) Leads for the purpose of recruitment to so-called illegal fellowcountrymen working at various govt. agencies, private companies and defense plants and laboratories.The persons who had been recommended by the fellowcountryman leadership and checked out were used by the stations for various intel. purposes: for infiltration into local Trotskyite organizations, as illegal couriers, owners of apartments for konspiratsia and secret meetings, group leaders21 for obtaining passports and other citizenship papers, for direct

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use as agents and, finally, to carry out various special assignments.Trough these trusted representatives the stations sporadically also received information, various documents and other intel. materials.Note: In certain cases the chiefs of our stations, with special permission from the center, personally met with “H.,” in especially secretive conditions, to conduct important discussions.

p. 152 To Cde. Stalin“On 12 February 1946 the National Committee of the Amer. Com. Party, on a recommendation by the National Council (Politburo) and low-level party organizations, expelled Earl Browder, former secretary of the National Committee of the Com. Party, from the party. Browder was expelled from the party “for flagrantly violating party discipline and decisions, for active opposition to the policy line of the party leadership, for launching factional activities, for betraying the principles of Marxism-Leninism and switching to the side of the class enemy—Amer. monopoly capital.” (Taken from the published decision of the National Committee of the Amer. Com. Party.)In this connection the NKGB USSR deems it necessary to report the following to you:Beginning in 1933 and until 1945 Br. provided assistance to the NKGB USSR and the GRU of the Red Army Gen. Staff in recommending to our representatives in the US a number of illegal members of the US Com. Party for agent work.Eighteen people were recruited for agent work on the NKGB USSR line on Br.’s recommendation. On the Red Army Gen. Staff line, … people. In addition, Br. knew, through CC officials who controlled illegal party groups, about the work of more than 25 people on the NKGB USSR line, and of … people on the GRU line of the Red Army Gen. Staff, for the Sov. Union as agents

p. 153 who were illegal member of the US Com. Party.As a result of the Canadian case and the betrayal by one of the NKGB USSR agents in the US, which was reported to you on 14 November 1945 in No. 7698, we temporarily suspended agent work in America and deactivated a large segment of the agents, who had become known to the Amer. authorities, as a result of that agent’s betrayal. Among the deactivated agents, the majority were recommended to us for our work either by Br. personally or were people whose work for us he knew about from leading officials of the CC.Contact with Br. on the line of our work between 1933 and 1945 was occasionally conducted by responsible officials of the NKGB USSR in the US. He knows 3 Soviet citizens on the NKGB USSR line, and … people on the GRU line of the Red Army Gen. Staff.Before Br. was expelled from the Com. Party, during the Amer. Communists’ discussion of Cde. Duclos’s article, he sought opportunities several times and tried to pass along personal letters to the CC of the VKP(b).In addition, he sounded out the possibility of traveling to the USSR in order to provide explanations of his policy line of behavior to the CC of the VKP(b). We reported this to Cde. Panyushkin.

p. 154 The NKGB USSR believes that the expulsion of Br. from the party may prompt him to turn to extreme means of struggle against the Com. Party and cause harm to our interests. The NKGB USSR therefore deems it expedient to permit Br. to come to the Soviet Union. If this is impossible, then take the appropriate steps

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to recommend to the Executive Committee of the CPA, under a convenient pretext, that Br. be reinstated in the party and that a more tactful line of behavior be adopted toward him. I request your instructions.USSR People’s Commissar of State SecurityArmy Gen. Merkulov

p. 155 On 12.04.46 Merkulov asked Molotov to issue Br. a visa for the USSR.

p. 156 On 6.5.46 H. met with Zarubin and Ovakimyan at the Moskva Hotel. How he got a passport to travel to the USSR, the situation in the CP, in his family

p. 163 how he was released from prison, about old agents. He didn’t meet with anybody.

p. 165 On 7.5.46 H. was delivered to the Sovinformburo for a discussion with Lozovsky.

p. 170 Later the Chekists talked with Lozovsky[How should H. be treated from here on?]“Comrade Lozovsky replied that he reported on the entire “H.” affair to Comrade Stalin and basically one question stood out: whether he would defect to the enemies’ side or not. Comrade Lozovsky, having known “Helmsman” for more than 20 years, holds the view that “H.” had become confused, but hadn’t become a renegade. In this connection Comrade Lozovsky has received instructions to support “H.” financially for the first year until his commercial enterprise is capable of supporting him. It has been decided to pay “H.” 300 dollars a month for a year.

p. 171 “H.” signed a five-year contract here with a number of publishing houses to publish our books in his country, and is taking two photocopies of these contracts with him to submit to the State Department.When he was asked whether there was a conversation with “H.” about his political delusions, Comrade Lozovsky replied that there were no in-depth or fundamental conversations on this matter. “H.” himself tried a few times to address this subject, but Cde. Lozovsky didn’t answer these references seriously, merely ridiculing the non-Marxist viewpoint regarding the progressiveness of Amer. capitalism. “H.” stated in response that some of his formulations, of course, may be incorrect, but Cde. Lozovsky didn’t delve deeper into this topic, stating that since the Comintern no longer exists, he didn’t think it was his place to interfere in the internal affairs of the Com. Party of “Helmsman’s” country. When Comrade Lozovsky was asked whether he considered it advisable that we have a talk with “H.” before his departure about his behavior, Comrade Lozovsky replied that he felt that such a discussion would be essential. In his view, it must be made clear to “H.” in a comradely tone what kind of line of behavior by him in his country would be desirable, but this needs to be done in such a way as not to impose our opinion on him…

p. 172 Cde. Lozovsky concluded by saying that the main task is, by providing financial support for the next year, to give “H.” an opportunity in connection with his publishing activities to entrench himself in his country’s broad democratic circles and, if he conducts himself correctly, to provide22 him an opportunity in the future to rectify his mistakes, i.e. return to the party organization.

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p. 175 Report to Col.-Gen. Abakumov, USSR Minister of State Security.Report“H.” arrived in Moscow on 6 May. On the instructions of the directive echelon, talks with “H.” regarding the purpose of his visit to the USSR were assigned to Cde. S. A. Lozovsky, and talks about our interest in operational matters in connection with “H.” in the past, to Cdes. G. B. Ovakimyan and V. M. Zarubin. Comrade Lozovsky’s talks with “H.” ended with a business agreement on the line of USSR publishing houses. By decision of the directive echelon, until “H.” can establish a profitable enterprise for himself that can serve as a financial source for him to earn a subsistence wage, material support is to be provided to him through us in the amount of 300 Amer. dollars for one year.23 During his meetings with Cdes. Ovakimyan and Zarubin, “H.” proposed that both he himself and his contacts be utilized in our work.Considering “H.’s” special status “in the country” by virtue of his polit. position and bearing in mind the well-known case of “Myrna,” in which he should

p. 176 turn up as the principal figure, as a result of which the “country’s” competitors will inevitably keep him under close surveillance, we deem it inadvisable to use him in agent work. We consider it advisable, however, when giving him money and during official meetings, to consult him on issues of the country’s general polit., international and domestic situation.Chief of the 1st Dir. of the USSR MGBCol.-Gen. Fitin 18.06.46

p. 203 On 19.06.46 Br. took off for Paris.

p. 265 In the spring of 1948 Br. proposed that Nation magazine be bought. Met with “Snegirev.”

p. 272 In May 46 “Shaman”: signed a contract with Sovinformburo on the distribution of Sov. lit. in the US. “Snegirev” uses Sovinformburo as a cover.

p. 283 “Snegirev” inquired about Br.’s view of US domestic politics.

p. 300 On 3.08.48 passed along 2 memoranda on labor unions and their relations with the CP.p. 323 In Jan. 1949 Br.’s materials were judged at the Center to be tendentious and to discredit the CP USA.

p. 344 On 8.6.49 Gromyko instructed Panyushkin to ascertain the attitudes of Br., the representative of Sov. publishing houses in the US. Cautiously and without meeting with Br. himself.On 5.7.49 Panyushkin replied that “in the view of friends of the emb., Br.’s official connection with Soviet publishing houses is keeping him from making anti-Sov. statements and from disclosing secrets he knows. Our friends don’t rule out the possibility that if we officially break with Br., this could prod him in the direction of reactionaries and complete betrayal.Taking this into account, Cde. Panyushkin believes that we should continue to maintain contact with Br. for another year or year and a half, until the spy mania campaign and the uproar over the Com. Party and “Sov. spy centers” die down.

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p. 375 In 1948 “Snegirev” issued 1500 dollars to “Shaman” for his wife’s treatment.

p. 379 In Feb. 1951 the KGB received information that “Shaman” had offered his services to the Yugoslavs and had expressed a desire to work for Tito’s benefit.

24We all gathered together and he introduced me very tactfully as the group leader to the other participants in our operation. At the same time he gave me the instructions for meeting with the New York station chief, to whom funds for our expenses were transferred. In addition, I was given the instructions for meeting with one of our operatives, an American, who was also assigned to our group. In NY we purchased a car, deciding to drive a distance equal to that between Moscow and Vladivostok in order to save money and to get acquainted in detail with the country. The trip was very interesting. We drove through all the states and got to know the everyday life and customs of Americans in a leisurely manner, which was certainly of interest to us. Naturally, we stopped at motels for the night and rested from the day’s travels. We arrived in San Francisco in 8-9 days. We saved a lot of money, since traveling by railroad is more expensive. We drew matches for the car, the American won it, and after arranging meetings for the coming week, we went off in different directions to organize our private lives. The absence of a passport system in America afforded wide latitude for organizing our routines. At this point the joint meetings stopped. Each person was supposed to act according to his own

Heifetz’s memoirs“I visited the US twice. In 1932, when Soviet-Japanese relations had deteriorated to the extreme, an attack on the USSR could have been expected. Our intelligence agencies faced the highly complex tasks of restraining Japan from attacking the USSR and in the event of war of blocking the shipment of ore and scrap metal from America’s ports. It is well known how brilliantly Richard Sorge fulfilled the first task, but paid for it with his life. To accomplish the second task, a group of comrades consisting of three people was assembled. The plan was for me to travel to Vienna, and there, through the appropriate channels, I would acquire an appropriate passport for travel to the US. My assistant was supplied with a Canadian passport and, in addition to Japanese, was brilliantly fluent in English. The third was an Amer. comrade, with whom I was to get acquainted in Paris. The Soviet station chief in Vienna established contact with the owner of a Jewish store that sold religious items, who agreed not only to fabricate an Austrian passport but also to send me to America on assignment from the Jewish community, supposedly for a bookkeeping audit. This business became drawn out in Vienna. The American consul was supposed to request an entry visa for me from the State Department. I asked the consul to transfer the visa to the Americ. consulate in Paris, where I was ostensibly going to be held up for some commercial matters. In Paris I met with old friends from Constantinople and with my assistant, who was worn out from waiting for me after being cooped up in his hotel for two weeks in anticipation of my arrival. Shortly thereafter, my superior from Moscow, Cde. Serebryansky, arrived in Paris.

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p. 13 File 14449 Vol. 1 “Liza”Excerpt from letter to “Arkhip” from C. dated 28.3.34“Tell Boris Vinogradov that we want to use him to carry out a project that interests us. It has to do with the fact that, according to our information, the sentiments of his acquaintance (Martha Dodd) have fully ripened for her to be recruited once and for all to work for us. So we request that V. write her a warm, comradely letter summoning her to a meeting in Paris, where an operative of ours whom V. knows personally will come.In Paris they will take the necessary actions to recruit Martha for our work.

p. 14 From “Alexander’s” messages about his meetings with M.D.On 25.5.34 M. D. told me that tense relations have taken root inside the Amer. Emb.On 11.7.34 M. shared with me her plans to leave soon for the USSR as a tourist.On 29.10.34 M. told about her father’s trip to Switzerland to meet with the Amer. secy. of agric.Note: “Alex.” is B.V., a staff member of the Sov. Emb. in Berlin. Was later arrested as an enemy of the people.

p. 15 From “A’s” letter dated 5 June 1935“…The situation with the American woman (Martha Dodd) at present is as follows: She is currently in B., and I have received a letter from her in which she writes that she still loves me and dreams of marrying me. It is possible to work with her only with the aid of a “good relationship.”

p. 16 From a letter from “Rudolf” dated 16 Jan. 1936“… On my instructions Cde. Bukhartsev25 (an Izvestiya correspondent) established contact with M. D. They got acquainted at a reception in our mission. Martha (in future “Liza”) willingly agreed to the suggestion by Bukhartsev (in future “Emir”) to get together outside the mission. “Liza” continues to inform “Emir” along the same lines that she did when she was meeting with “A.”

p. 17 “Emir’s” report on meeting with “L.” on 16.1.36“I have seen L. several times over the past 2-3 weeks. At the first meeting she described to me Bullitt’s “swinish behavior” during his visit to Berlin. According to her, Bullitt scathingly excoriated the USSR at the Amer. Emb., arguing that in the next few months the Japanese will take over Vladivostok, and the Russians, he said, won’t do anything about it. Then, according to26, Bullitt had a discussion with François-Poncet, where he tried to convince the latter of the necessity of cooperating with the Germans against the USSR.All this greatly angered the Amer. ambassador D., who sent an appropriate

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letter to Wash. The conversation with Bullitt gave François-Poncet grounds to write to Paris that Alphand’s optimistic reports on the situation in the USSR were apparently based on “poor information sources.”During subsequent meetings Liza candidly expressed her wish to help the Sov. Emb. with her information. She is now intensively studying the theory of communism, poring over Stalin’s “The Issues of Leninism,” and her teacher is Harnack, whom she visits often. According to her, she is now compelled to conceal her communist convictions because of her father’s official position. This year her father will retire and then she can engage in communist activities more openly.

p. 18 This fact, however, doesn’t prevent her from maintaining a rather intimate relationship with the crown prince’s son, Louis Ferdinand.According to Liza, this is a wonderful cover, because those who were previously suspicious of her because of her overt relationship with Vinogradov now consider her past infatuation to have been from the “heart” rather than “political.”

p. 20 In March 36 L. earnestly asked Emir to get her several volumes of Lenin’s works in English.

p. 21 There was a meeting with “Emir” on 12 March 1936. Of the greatest interest was Liza’s information on Krupp’s conversation with the Amer. consul in Cologne.

p. 24 Sept. 36: “Emir” didn’t meet the station’s expectations regarding the work with Liza, and it was decided to put her in contact with Gnedin (“Pioneer”).

p. 25 Memorandum on M. D. (apparently 36)“Martha asserts that she is a committed supporter of the Com. Party and the USSR. With the State Department’s knowledge Martha helps her father in his diplomatic work and is up to date regarding everything he is doing. The entire Dodd family hates the National Socialists. Martha has interesting contacts that she uses to obtain information for her father. She has intimate relationships with several acquaintances.Her contacts are:1. P. Hirard—a secretary at the French Emb. in Berlin. He is in charge of intelligence.2. Diels. 3. Berger. 4. Jung.Martha says that the main interest in her life is secret assistance to the cause of the revolution.She agrees to use her position to work in this direction, provided that the possibility of blowing her cover or discrediting her father is eliminated. She said that a former staff member of the Sov. Emb. in Berlin—Boris Vinogradov—had an intimate relationship with her.In the summer of 1934 Martha traveled to the USSR as a tourist.

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p. 27 Letter from Liza to Vinogradov dated 25.10.36Boris. This week marked a year since I last saw you. I kissed you goodbye at the train station on the 8th, and we haven’t seen each other since. But never for a minute have I forgotten you or everything you gave me in life. Every evening this week I thought about you—every evening—and that evening, when we had such a foolish and unseemly quarrel—did you forgive me? I was scared and in a weird frame of mind that evening, because I knew that I wouldn’t see you for such a long time. I wanted terribly for you to stay with me that evening and forever, and I knew that I would never be able to have you. What have you been doing all this time, did you think about me, and did you wonder what course my own life took?I know from various sources that you will soon go home. Will you pass through Berlin? Write me and let me know your plans. I would like to see you again.On 8 December I will be home the whole night. Won’t you call me, won’t you talk with me from Bucharest for a few minutes—I want to hear your voice again so much—and the 8th will be the anniversary of our foolishness, we must curse our cowardice for this separation. Please call me that night.You may have heard about me by indirect means. I have lived through and thought over many different things since I last saw you. You must know about this.Armand is still here—but you should know that he can’t mean anything to me now—as long as you’re alive—nobody can mean anything to me while you’re alive. (Following phrase in German.)27 I still love you, and I always will, and I will go with you if you have the courage to take me with you. Now everything is different, but you should know this.Martha.”Decision: We need to put an end to this immoral behavior.

p. 28 “Rudolf” to C 29.10.36“Liza” was very pleased with our little gift—we gave her the book “Chapayev” from her friends in Moscow. “ “Liza” said she is ready to follow all of our instructions. She agreed that if her father moves away she will stay here, if we find it necessary, to work for us.

p. 30 Letter from Martha to Vinogradov 29.1.37“Darling. I was so glad to hear from you and find out that you are finally in Warsaw. Yes, I called you then late in the evening… my brother was in Berlin and we thought that it would be nice to chat with you. He left this morning for Brussels and Paris. In a few days he will move the offices of the International Peace Conference to Geneva. Then later, I think, he will travel to America for them…You cannot image, darling, how often you have been with me, how I constantly thought about you, worried about you, and sought

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to see you, how I adjusted to the inevitable when I heard the initial news, and how happy I was when I learned the truth. I want to see you so much, darling. Could I come before the end of the month? I would like to come on the 6th of February, a Saturday I think, and stay for about a week. It’s extremely important for me to see you, and I promised to do it as soon as possible. I’d like to stay somewhere in a small hotel not far from you, and I don’t want anyone to know I’m there, because I don’t want any diversions. I only want to see you, and as incognito as possible.Maybe we could leave Warsaw for a day or two and drive into the countryside. I would come by myself, of course, and my parents completely agree that I do as I wish—after all, I’m 28 years old, and I’m very independent!

p. 31 In Feb. 1937 “Alexander” reported that Liza was shocked by the Bukhartsev (Emir) affair, since it’s obvious from the trial materials that he was linked to the Gestapo.

p. 33 Memorandum re Liza[The correspondence between V. and L. is conducted only through us. They are discontinuing correspondence by regular mail and conversations on the phone.]“Basically there are no objections (on our part) to V. marrying “Liza,” but this matter will be resolved much later. For the time being, in the interests of the cause “Liza” will not even meet with V. for six months…“Liza” is discontinuing all contacts with members of Com. parties, as well as with antifascist individuals and organizations. Contact will be kept only with us.With regard to the Amer. ambassador in Berlin “Liza” is doing everything she can to keep Ambassador D. in Berlin. If there is strong pressure for a recall of Ambassador D., “Liza” uses her influence to accompany the ambassador’s departure with a conflict with the German govt., so as to create strained

p. 34 relations between the Amer. and Germ. govts., for which the Amer. press will also be utilized. (In coordination with us.)If Ambassador D. leaves, “Liza” selects and tells us the name of a person who could be appointed to replace the departing D., and for our part we must also focus on choosing a candidate for ambassador, so that by utilizing the influence of “Liza” as well as Ambassador D., we can promote a person of anti-German views to the post. In the short term, however, “Liza” checks in Ambassador D.’s files on his reports to Roosevelt and gives us a brief summary of the reports whose numbers we gave “Liza” here. “Liza” continues to supply us with materials from the Amer. Emb., trying mostly to obtain information on Germany, Japan and Poland.…During “Liza’s” visit here we gave her 200 Am. dollars, 10 rubles and bought her 500 rubles’ worth of gifts.

p. 35 Liza herself requested permission to come to Moscow for a few days in order to arrange her future work in America. (cipher cable from “Alexander” dated 3.3.37.)

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p. 36 Letter from “Alexander” dated 9 March 1937“… “Liza” left today for Moscow, since her father will retire sooner or later, she wants to work in her own country (in the US). She established contact with Browder, who invited her to work for him. She has also established contact (through her brother) with the World Peace Committee in Geneva, and has become close to Comintern officials Otto Katz and Dolivet.In order to persuade her to stay in Europe and work only for us, we need to arrange for an authoritative comrade to have a talk with her.

p. 37 To the Soviet Government Statement.I, Martha Dodd, a citizen of the USA, have known Boris Vinogradov for three years in Berlin and other places, and have agreed with him to officially request permission to get married.

Martha Dodd, Moscow, 14/3-37

p. 38 To People’s Commissar of Internal Affairs of the USSR General Commissar of State Security Cde. Yezhov

Report.Some time ago we recruited Martha Dodd, the daughter of the Amer. ambassador in Germany. We made use of her brief trip to the USSR for detailed talks with her and determined that she has highly valuable capabilities and can be actively used by us on a broad scale. At our request, she has set forth herself her position in society, her father’s position and the prospects for her future work for us:1. “Needless to say, my services, of any nature and at any time, are available to the party for it to use at its discretion.

p. 39 At present I have access mainly to the personal confidential correspondence of my father and the State Department, as well as the President of the US. The source of information on military and naval matters, as well as aviation, is solely personal contact with the personnel of our embassy. I have lost almost all contact with Germans, except perhaps for chance encounters and meetings in society, which yields almost nothing. I still have contact with the diplomatic corps, but on the whole this doesn’t produce much. I have established very close contact with journalists.The Germans, foreign diplomats and our own personnel are suspicious, hostile and (with regard to the Germans) insulting toward us. Is the information that I get from my father, who is hated in Germany and who is isolated among foreign diplomats, and therefore access for him to any secret information is closed, important enough

p. 40 for me to stay in Germany? Couldn’t I do more valuable work in America or for some European organization like the International Peace Conference, or the Spanish

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Agency, which have a bourgeois cover and use bourgeois contacts?In America I’m not suspected of anything, except for the Germans, and I have countless valuable contacts in all circles. In other words, is my potential work valuable enough to stay in Germany, even for the time that my father is here?I’ve done everything possible to make my father stay in Germany—I’m still going to continue doing everything I can in this direction—I’m afraid, however, that he will retire in the summer or fall. He has been of great use in turning the opinion of the Amer. govt. against the Nazis. At any rate that applies to Hull and Roosevelt—most of the State Dept. staffers are working with the Nazis, for example, and for the most part, Dunn (West. Europ. section), Phillips (currently in Rome), Bullitt

p. 41 and others. My father tried to block trade agreements, he refused to cooperate with bankers, business people, etc.He recently cabled Hull and Roosevelt regarding a proposed loan for Germany, the idea for which is supported by Bullitt and Blum in France, Davies, Phillips and England, which shows the naiveté of Davies in connection with his conversation with Schacht and his trust of the latter. With the exception of Roosevelt and Hull, the State Department, representatives of Amer. capitalist circles and the Germans are trying to force out my father. He personally wants to quit. Shouldn’t he make a commotion over his departure when he decides about the timing? Shouldn’t he provoke the Germans into demanding his recall or creating a squabble, after which he could openly speak out in America, both orally and in the press? For example, a month ago Hitler publicly insulted him—in front of German officials and the diplomatic corps, and now, in connection with Dr. Goebbels’s attacks on a democratic state, couldn’t he use him when he leaves? Retire and lodge a protest? He could be persuaded to do this if it was of importance to the USSR.

p. 42 Roosevelt must grant positions to many diplomats and capitalists who financed him. Among them are Davies (who is seeking a post in London), Hugh Wilson (Switzerland), Messersmith in Austria, Cudahy in Poland, Thomas Watson (International Machines Corporation, a big friend of Germany), not to mention govt. officials like Roper (secretary of commerce, a fascist) and members of business circles in NY and other places. Since he has little experience with regard to European politics, Roosevelt will probably name one of these people, or from these groups, who will be, in the final analysis, dangerous now as well as during wartime.Nevertheless, my father has great influence on Hull and Roosevelt, who are slightly antifascist and could exert influence in terms of a new appointment without suspecting the reason for the behavior of my father, who would be a conduit for my instructions.Do you have in mind anybody who would prove to be at least liberal and democratic in this post? Which of the

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p. 43

above-mentioned groups would prove to be the least damaging? My father has certain guidelines regarding people and will exert pressure in order to make them follow hisinstructions, but if there is information regarding our candidates, it would be important to find out whose candidacy for the post in Germany the USSR would like to push, if this person has at least the slightest chance, I will try to persuade my father to push his candidacy.If I stay in Berlin until my father leaves, then what will I do after he departs?The possibilities, in addition to those mentioned above, are these:A) Stay in Germany, which I sincerely consider inadvisable. My father’s successor will have a negative attitude toward me for two reasons: the daughter of a former ambassador and of a radical. Most of our diplomats know this. As soon as my official position changes, in the absence of wealth and an aristocratic background the Americans, Germans and foreign embassies will stop inviting me. For these reasons my contacts will be lost and I will turn out to be useless.B) Studies and work in the Sov. Union. This, of course, is not up to me.C) Independent work in Europe or in the Far East.

p. 44 This must be tied to my abilities, which lie mostly in journalistic, public-affairs and general literary activities. To this point my training has been specifically of this nature. Of course, I could always be used as an intermediary between various social groups—regardless of the work that I am doing at the moment.Should I accept the invitation from Prince Sapieha to visit his estate in early April? Will the information that I may be able to get be worth it? During my visit to Warsaw General Fabrizi told me that he hates Goering and would prefer an eastward orientation to a westward one.”28.III.37 Slutsky.

p. 45 Letter from “Alexander” dated 21.03.37[Martha arrived in a good mood. Calls her Juliet No. 2.]“Everything went well with Juliet No. 2, and I think you did a good thing by approving her visit to Moscow. But I don’t quite understand why you have taken such an approving stance regarding our wedding? I asked you to tell her that this is completely impossible and in any case will not work out in the next few years. Yet you, according to her, spoke highly optimistically on this subject and

p. 46 decided on a postponement of only 6 months or a year. We are keeping our promises. I assured her in Warsaw before her trip to Moscow that if they tell her “yes” there, then that’s the way it will be, since she is dealing with highly authoritative people (“Manuilsky”).If no, then it’s no. Six months will fly by quickly and who knows—she could present a bill of exchange, which neither you nor I intend to pay. Wouldn’t it be better to make your promises somewhat less categorical if you indeed made them.

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Here a reference could be made both to the interest of the cause and to the necessity of adhering to the rules of konspiratsia.”

p. 45 [M.D. took a staff member of the C. whom she met in Moscow to be Manuilsky.]

p. 48 29.III.37

Top secret. Eyes only. To Cde. Stalin Secretary of the CC of the VKP(b)Department 7 of the GUGB of the NKVD has recruited the daughter of the American ambassador in Berlin, Martha Dodd, who arrived in Moscow in March 1937 for business talks with her.She has outlined her position in society, her father’s position and the prospects for her to work for us in the future in her own report. In forwarding a copy of the latter, I request instructions regarding the use of Martha Dodd. Yezhov.

p. 50 “Alexander” to C 5.11.37“… In her letter to me “Liza” writes about marriage again. When she left for Moscow I wrote you that such promises shouldn’t be made. Yet such a promise was made to her and now she expects the promise to be carried out. Her dream is to be my wife, at least a de facto one, and for me to work in America, and she would help me.

p. 51 Alexander to C 12.11.37“…The meeting with “Liza” was successful. She was in a good mood. She is leaving on 15 December for NY, where a meeting has been arranged with her…“Liza” continues to be occupied with marriage plans and is waiting for me to carry out our promise, despite the fact that her parents have warned that nothing will come of it.The journalist Louis Fischer, who is not unknown to you, has proposed to “Liza.” She is not giving her consent, since she hopes to marry me. But if we tell her that under no circumstances will I ever marry her, then she will not be averse to accepting Fischer’s proposal.I don’t think she can be left in the dark regarding the real state of affairs, because if we mislead her, she could become embittered and lose faith in us.At present she consents to work for us, even if it becomes clear28 that I won’t marry her.I offered “Liza” money, but she refused it.”

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p. 52 C to Jung dated 8.1.38“…We are informing you that our source “Liza,” Miss Martha Dodd, daughter of the former Amer. ambassador to Germany Dodd, is currently in your city.You must make contact with her upon receiving a special cable regarding this.Her address: Irving Place, New York City. You need to come to her home early in the morning between 8 and 9 o’clock and say: “I want to give you regards from Bob Norman.” “Liza” was recruited by Boris Vinogradov on the basis of the close relationship that formed between them.She still loves V. and dreams of marrying him. “Liza” is known to you as Martha Dodd. She is very left-oriented and knows that she is working for the Comintern.”


p. 53 Nikolay to C 25.5.38“…Upon receiving your message that Vinogradov denies “Liza’s” participation in his criminal activities, we decided to make contact with her. Contact with her will be maintained by “Igor.”

p. 56 Letter from M. D. to B. V. 9.7.38“Boris, darling! I finally received your letter. You’re working in the press office, right? Are you happy, have you found a young woman to love instead of me?Did you hear that my mother died at the end of May all of a sudden? You can imagine how tragic it was for me.You, of course, know better than anyone else how much we loved each other, and how close we were in every respect. The three of us had a wonderful time together, and I remember how, when you were in Berlin recently, she was so affectionate toward both of us.She knew very well how deep our love was and realized how important you have been and will be in my life. She knew that I didn’t love anybody before and thought that I would never love again, but she hoped that I would be happy somehow.You haven’t had a chance yet to hear that I really did get married. I got married on 16 June to an American, whom I love very much. I wanted to say a lot, but I’ll wait until we meet29.We expect to be in the USSR at the end of August or the beginning of September. I hope you will be there or will let me know where I can meet you.You know, darling, that you meant more to me in my life than anybody else.You also know that if I’m needed, I will be ready to answer the call. Let me know your plan if you get another post. I look to the future and I see you in Russia again.Your Martha.”

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p. 57 Memorandum re “Liza”[“Liza” has sent embassy counselor Umansky a private letter in which she has requested assistance in obtaining a visa for the USSR to meet with Vinogradov.]“Umansky stated that she shouldn’t go since Vinogradov is under arrest. We are trying to convince “Liza” that her trip to the USSR is inadvisable from the standpoint of the interests of our work. She continues to stand her ground and to demand reasons that are persuasive to her. She and her husband should be denied permission to enter the USSR.”

p. 60 [V. was first secretary of the Sov. Emb. in Berlin, then the USSR chargé d’affaires in Poland. Has been exposed as an enemy of the people.]

p. 61 Memorandum re “Liza”“She considers herself a Communist and states that she recognizes the party’s program and statutes. In reality, however, “Liza” is a typical representative of American Bohemia, a woman who has become sexually depraved, ready to sleep with any handsome man.”

p. 70 Message from “Chap” re meeting with Martha 24.09.41[First they discussed the prospects for a trip to the USSR as journalists—by her and Bill (her brother). It’s not working out.]“I led Martha into a discussion of Vinogradov, Bukhartsev, Gordon and Gnedin30 by asking her how she began this work. The gist of her account: she introduced herself to Vinogradov at some social gathering at the Sov. Emb. She asked him to drop by to see her sometime, since she wanted to discuss certain matters with him. He said he would drop by, and soon thereafter made a date with her. She herself told him that she sometimes has information that could be of interest to the Soviet Country, and asked him whether this was of interest to him. It was of interest to him and after that they were in regular contact. (To which I could also add that this contact “was not only political.”) He soon became her lover—Martha mentioned him several times as her “lover” and Martha became very anxious (this is in reference to the past, now she isn’t anxious), since she loved him terribly, and he her as well. They usually met outside Berlin and drove around the outskirts in his car. One time a car passed them, cut them off in front and forced them to stop. In the back of the car she saw a man with a black box that he aimed at them through the rear window. And that was all. Then the car drove off. Apparently the black box was a camera, and somebody had taken a picture of them, although I must say that this was a pretty crude method of obtaining such a snapshot.It seems that not just one letter was written to Uncle Joe (regarding permission to get married), but a second letter was also sent

Acquaintance with Vinogradov

p. 71 to Uncle Joe. This second letter was handed to “a young, nice-looking blond man” in the Hotel Savoy. Vinogradov set up Martha in the Hotel Savoy in Moscow and told her to wait for this young man, who would come for the letter. Vinogradov told Martha to describe her life and contacts (connections)

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to Stalin; that marrying Vinogradov should not be considered something impossible, since they would be a good couple in the United States (my emphasis). Martha included this in her second letter. (In light of what Walter Duranty told Martha—that Vin. had been executed—it’s obvious that Vinogradov was looking for a chance to go into hiding far away from the S. Union. In other words, Vin. was attempting to get a transfer to the Sov. Emb. in the US. That is my view. I didn’t express these thoughts to Martha.)… Martha: Do I have a weakness for Russians?Me: Why for Russians?

p. 72 Martha: I don’t know. There’s something about them (with glowing eyes). Maybe it’s because I have such a hot-blooded nature. I react easily. Me: Sometimes we must discipline ourselves. It’s undesirable for people who have our kind of relationship to allow emotions to interfere in the relationship.Martha: Why? What’s wrong with that?Me: It can be demoralizing. The work can suffer. The relationship will suffer because it becomes too intimate. People in love talk too much, especially in bed.Martha: Yes, I suppose so.

Martha mentioned again that if we didn’t permit Alfred to join the party, there would be a divorce.It seems to me that M. is ready to divorce him as it is. Her apparent excessive preoccupation with sex may reflect a stormy sex life. (If the reader is more than 40 years old, he should skip the following section.) Alfred is more than 40 years old. He isn’t old, but he isn’t young, either—

p. 73 a middle-aged man. A middle-aged man “isn’t what he was.” It may be that Alfred can’t satisfy Martha. I firmly believe that if she is unable to go to the USSR, she will be disappointed, if for no other than sexual reasons.”

p. 75 Meeting with “Chap” 1 Oct. 1941“I asked a question of Martha—bluntly and frankly. I asked her if her sexual relationships with her husband were satisfactory. She, of course, asked “Why?” I had an answer ready. I explained that I was interested because I recalled that she had twice remarked that she would divorce her husband if she stood in his way—in the way of his political development. I suggested that one does not talk of divorce quite so casually unless one wanted a divorce. Martha explained: She loved her husband very much. Their relationship was quite satisfactory in every way. She loved him—not the wild love she felt for Boris Vinogradov,31 but still a satisfactory love. No, going to the S.U. was not an escape—she could escape, if she so wanted to, by retiring to her home in Connecticut and write.Having once started Martha, as in the past, talked quite freely although once or twice I had to ask questions quite bluntly in order to get the desired information.Martha’s life in Berlin can be summed up in one word—“sleep”. Seemingly, she spent most her time in bed. In addition to the Russian or Russians, she slept with a full blown fascist—General Ernest Udet, second in command (next to Goering)

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p. 76

of the German air force; Louis Ferdinand, grandson of the Kaiser; and some guy in the French Embassy in Berlin. (A real internationalist.)The information about Udet, Martha offered herself. Louis Ferdinand I had to press her on. (Noticed his name mentioned several times in “The Diary”.) She hated to admit having had slept with Louis Ferdinand. She was most embarrassed—her face flushed red and she smiled in a most silly manner. But immediately she added—this coyly—“I had a contact in the French Embassy too”. (Perhaps it was the gin I was drinking but at this moment I felt slightly overwhelmed. I considered for a moment to excuse myself and retire to the washroom, stick my head in a basin of water—cold—and in general overhaul myself. But realizing, seriously, that I must show poise to Martha, I called over to the waiter and ordered another drink—for Martha. I was under control).(Perhaps I should look over the Diary for other “contacts”. Surely there must be other countries represented in this International Brigade—including the Scandinavian.)I asked her why she slept with Udet. Her answer: Boris (Vinogradov) had told her to get next to every important Nazi. Udet she considered important—so she slept with him. And, so she says, she learned much from him. Vinogradov had not been in Berlin while she was having this affair with Udet. When she told him (Vinogradov) about it he did not object. (He sure must have loved her). I did not ask her why she had slept with Louis Ferdinand or the “French contact”. The girl seemed to be suffering under my direct questions. I actually felt sorry for her. (She is honest to say the least—she didn’t have to admit to these promiscuous relationships.)

I somewhat exposed myself to this very intelligent and alert girl. In her mind she put two and two together and came to the conclusion (this aloud) that this was the reason for the delay. (She was waiting for a visa for the USSR.—A.V.)32 She asked me if it was now a rule that people in our work were not to have a sexual life. Of course not, no such rule, I answered. We are interested in personal morals only when they reach the political plane. Then followed a discussion of when and when not were morals morals33 to be considered political. Martha’s attitude was not belligerent or defiant but rather one of a student listening to a Professor lecture. A most difficult situation to find one’s self in—lecturing on a subject never studied. But I was in it and I had to see it through in a manner befitting my position. Externally presenting a cool and confident appearance, I lectured on middle class morals, proletarian morals, when sex is permissible in our kind of work, when not, discussion of hormones and sheep ovarian extract influence on humans, etc. I lectured on more than I knew.

The above may sound most silly but it had a good effect on Martha. She became very sober. And she remarked: “I should have been told these things in Berlin. Nobody taught me anything

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there. I see your point”. And then later: “I don’t want to seem to be trying to impress you but I don’t want you to have the wrong impression of me. I am not weak on these matters. If you tell me not to have a sexual affair in the S.U. I won’t”.

p. 77 Sometime during our conversation—I don’t recall exactly when—Martha made the remark that all men were vunerable (vulnerable?34 ) somewhere. Does this mean, I asked her, that you feel that you could sleep with most any man if you so chose? “Yes”, she said. And then: “It might be advantageous at times”. (This she meant in terms of political work). Although my presentation of my discussions with Martha may sound as if they were light hearted, I believe that a frank, hard hitting campaign will get the best results as far as preparing her for future work is concerned. This is a worldly wise girl. She bounces back from each blow—and I wasn’t pulling my punches—with an attitude of: “O.K. I can take it. Perhaps I deserve it”. She can take criticism. I believe her to be sincere”.

p. 78 [Problems with a passport: the State Dept. isn’t issuing passports to M. and W. Dodd. Because of the war. (Oct. 41)]

p. 86 C to “Sergey” 29.10.41“… Proceeding from the interests of intel. work, there is no point to “President” and “Liza” coming here at the present time. It’s preferable to utilize them in the US or in the Middle East.”

p. 106 Message from “Liza” dated 26.12.41 re contacts“Louis Aragon in France is of course too well known for me to add anything further. I do know that Lion Feuchtwanger (living on North Amalphi Drive, Los Angeles) is a very reliable and able worker and writer. Having lived in France for many years after his exile from Germany, he must have at his fingertips many many

p. 107 French names useful for us. I am sure he would not hesitate to cooperate fully if he knew the source asking for it.In England I unhesitatingly recommend Jurgen Kuczynski, who can be reached through the London School of Economics. He is a brilliant scholar, a Jew, and economist of deep Marxist conviction, who was exiled (or left I am not sure) from Germany around 1936. I know him to be perfectly reliable from the Harnacks and from my own observation and experience with him. He worked for the Freedom station at one time and as far as I know has never deviated an inch on any matte whatsoever. At the outbreak of the war the English sent him to an internment camp. Through my pressure and others, Lord Lothian exerted himself to free Kuczynski and

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succeeded. He has not since been in any trouble with the British authorities and is working quietly in London on a seven volume history of labor. He knows not only Germany but the continent and England and would be more valuable and trustworthy for us than anyone I know besides the Harnacks in Berlin. He is tall, slender, dark, ugly, very brilliant and very stable politically. (35 years approximately).

p. 118 “Liza” re “Louis” 5.02.4235

In regard to my husband. When my husband was in Washington he saw L. Henderson (who believes that the Germans will attempt a spring offensive) about a job in the diplomatic service.Henderson said that no Ambassador had yet been chosen for the Soviet Union. In any case Gen. Burns is out. My husband had already applied for this job through Marvin MacIntyre (who was to speak to the President), and Secretary of State Hull who wrote Alfred a friendly letter.There are two points I would like to talk over with you about Alfred. I want to say that I think it would be a great mistake if he were not obtained for our work.As it is now, careless behavior of the Communist party members compromises my husband. They meet with him publicly, call him, use his office, etc.1. Alfred could I think, in a period of six months, become a valuable and very active person for us. For fifteen years he was connected by marriage with the Rosenwald family which was one of the wealthiest families in America. During this period he met

p. 119 and knew most of the wealthy and influential Jews and gentiles. There is however a psychological problem here.Alfred hated the society he was a member of and was only happy when he became acquainted with Marxism and knew what real mass work was (which was four years ago).When he got divorced he was condemned for this act by some of the wealthy Jewish families who never permit such a breach in convention. I am sure he could recapture many of his past friends over a period of time but he would not be productive or happy if he had to accept the social pleasures of the whole group.In other words, though it would take time to get him back on a social footing with these people, he could do it if some exceptions could be made. I am sure he would be anxious to and successful in maintaining friendly relations with political and social leaders and some intelligent (not progressive necessarily) people he used to know.If he were forced to meet useless “high society” people, the dregs of the capitalist system, he would be thrown back into the miserable state he was in when he was married to Rosenwald’s daughter. I think in our conversation I can make clear how

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important it is that the matter be understood in order to get the best work out of him. p. 120 He must have some kind of job both for the good of our work and for his own satisfaction. He

could not leave the Labour Party suddenly or even gradually unless he had another job. People would become suspicious of what he was doing if he were idle. He is known as a person of energy, patience, productivity, integrity. What he lacks in brilliance and imagination he has always compensated with honesty, conscientiousness, hard work, and a critical approach to people.He would not want to be considered disloyal or a traitor. If he were doing good work for us and had a job I am sure he would not mind having people think he had got a little tired of progressive work, or impatient etc. Because his real happiness has been in his identification of himself with the masses and with Communist theory and work.I think it would be demoralizing to him if he knew all his class-oriented friends thought of him as a traitor. Anything less than that I am sure his self-discipline would accept.There is one final point.Alfred joined the Party a few months ago and has been going to a Marxism study group. This group has been very good for him in developing his Marxist thought and I feel it should be continued somehow. If the group he now belongs to seems inadvisable because of size

p. 121 (it has seven members) or for other reasons, perhaps it would be possible to have him study with one or two other people regularly. I think he needs it and I am sure something could be arranged.With Alfred I feel constantly that he is growing and developing intellectually.He is clever, solid, loyal to the extreme with excellent contacts and abilities.I am sure that he is not being used to his fullest capacity by the Party and is at the same time being exposed by them. Therefore again I urge, after full discussion of all the above points, that he be accepted for work with us.

p. 122 Message from “Liza” dated 11 March 194236

“I approached my husband Wednesday night about our work. Then we had a long weekend in the country to discuss all of the details. He was enthusiastic about the work and wanted to do something immediately. I told him there were communists among our group and that of course there was no divergence from the position of the Soviet Union. He repeated several times that he must feel that he was doing something constructive and useful and that he was not yet sure how he could function in illegal conditionsI suggested the idea of a business firm to

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further protect him. He raised two objections. One was that no business could be established now without a very large sum of capital, around a quarter of a million, that he could not put his money into something as uncertain as that. He said any small sum like 20,000 to 50,000 would be useless to establish any business. As for getting for this amount a large share of stock in some other business, the stockholders and managers would go to the government to borrow such small sums.I told him I would try to arrange it as soon as possible. I also asked him to get the names of as many business firms as possible who still traded with neutral countries or had men who travelled to Europe who could be considered reliable in every way.

p. 123 I told him this was to establish a means of getting money and messages to people in occupied countries. He fully understood this. He is having lunch with Fr. McCann tomorrow and will sound him out on this question. I think he understands in general our tasks and may sense, though he did not say so, what the work is. He asked all sorts of detailed questions of business and finance which I was unable to answer and presented many problems which I think should be discussed as soon as possible with our man. He recognizes the secrecy of the work and is anxious to help. I think it advisable, considering his responsibility and impatience to do something, that he meet with one of our people, possibly “Helen” (so we can all three discuss the problems of the work), at the end of the week or at latest the beginning of next week. He also asked if he would have to discontinue his class in Marxist theory.I told him that somehow or other we could arrange for him to have a two hour conference once a week discussing what he has read with one of our underground workers. He agreed to this, urging only that he continue his studies, otherwise he would be a less effective person in every way if he did not master the theory of Marxism which he has been practicing for so long.

p. 124 “Liza” re “Louis” 194237

“I must again insist that my husband be taken in to our work. If he is not soon I must divorce him,38 as he is exposing both of us. Several days ago Bill B. and his wife came to dinner. I suggested that we take them out but my husband thought it impolite as he (Bill) is his political teacher and friend. My husband thinks I am carrying my caution so far that it only serves me as a cover for not doing any active work. He says that as long as he works with the American Labor Party he simply must be in touch with Communists for political help and advice. I could argue with him only on certain points and then even my logic breaks down, being unable to tell him everything. I know however if he did know what I was doing and that he would be doing the same work, he would be a highly

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disciplined person and of definite value to us, as he is practical, business-like and realistic. p. 125 We could do perhaps really important political work together. But as I said before I cannot

continue my work further unless a decision is made regarding him. Even if he does not have a government job right away he should be firmly aware of what he will do in the future. As it is now, I personally and our work are imperiled. The American Communists seem surprisingly indifferent to caution and discretion, so much so I think it advisable to speak to them about it.

p. 126 Message from “Liza” 19 March 194239

“To have it on record I will briefly state my husband’s reaction to our latest conversation.I told him that the organization with which I was connected was not composed of émigrés but rather of very serious political people who were working primarily for the overthrow of Hitlerism in occupied countries and doing anything else that would help end Fascism. Their activities, where necessary, are illegal. I told him that the policy of this organization was directed by the Soviet Union and that there were Russians in it. As I knew he would be, he was extremely enthusiastic and extremely thankful that the work was in such reliable hands. He had been skeptical, he said, when he heard of émigrés working with us, as he has had some unfortunate experience with them. He recognizes fully the secrecy of the work as he once worked with the Freiheits Partei and understands why

p. 127 I have been so cautious in revealing details to him. He also said that he understood perfectly why I had not mentioned this work before to him, and added that he would have been useless a few months ago even if someone had contacted him—precisely because he himself was in such an open radical position. He said that he wanted to know more about the organization before he spoke to Fr. McCann (Frazier McCann), as he could better present the conversation to him.40 He told me that he had mentioned to Frazier McCann that he was interested in an organization compiled of various anti-Fascist émigrés who were trying to get money for underground work in Europe. He thinks that Fr. showed a really deep interest and agreement to help underground workers in Europe to overthrow Fascism and that Fr. is completely reliable and should be contacted by someone soon. I asked my husband only to find out names of business firms still doing business in Europe—he himself decided to speak of the émigré organization, not realizing that Fr. had not perhaps known this much. However no harm is done as the way my husband presented it to Fr. would give no cause for suspicion and only activized McCann. Furthermore, as I said before, McCann is a very trustworthy person. He seemed

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to think that International Business Machines and other companies with which he is in contact or could be, still carry on

p. 128 this sort of business.I told my husband not to mention anything further on these subject to anybody until he met with one of our people and received instructions. He had readily agreed. But my husband believes that something should be done quickly about Fr. He is only a part of the party here in the sense that he gives a great deal of money to various progressive organizations. He has not been active in organizational work of any sort and has not been compromised by his left views. His contacts are not being used now. We think he can be of great use. He himself has about 15 million dollars and has contacts among the middle and high mercantile and other aristocracy.

p. 129 (in envelope)“Liza” 5.02.42In regard to my husband. When he was in Washington he saw Loy Henderson (who believes incidentally that the Germans will attempt a spring offensive) about a job in the diplomatic service. Henderson said that no Ambassador had yet been chosen for the Soviet Union. Apparently Gen. Burns is out. My husband had already applied for this job through Marvin McIntyre (who was to speak to the President), and Secretary Hull who wrote Alfred a friendly letter. He asked Henderson if there were any posts open in South America. The latter replied that he thought not since so many people in foreign Embassies and Ministries now, closed, would have to be placed down there. However he said there is now another service being organized called the Foreign Service Auxiliary. This is to employ men, preferably at no salary or very little, to go to Embassies all over the world to study the economic conditions and resources of the country they are assigned to. This looks to me like the State Department’s answer to the Donovan Committee in Europe and the Nelson Rockefeller Committee in South America. Alfred in any case is going to apply for a job in this field, asking only for travel expenses. He is going to send a copy of…There are two points I would like to talk over with you about him. I want to say however that I think it would be a great mistake if he were not obtained for our work. As it is now, he is being ruined by the carelessness of the Communist party people. They see him publicly, call him, use his office and phone etc.1. Alfred could I think, in a period of six months, become a very active and valuable person for us. For fifteen years he was connected by marriage with the Rosenwald family which was one of the richest families in America. During this period he met and knew most of the wealthy and influential Jews and gentiles wherever he went. There is however a psychological problem here. He hated the society he went in and was only happy when he embraced Marxism and knew

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what real mass work was (which was four years ago). When he was divorced he was ostracized by some of the wealthy Jewish families who never permit such a breach in convention. I am sure he could recapture many of his past friends over a period of time but he would not be productive or happy if he had to accept the social amenities of the whole group. In other words, though it would take time to get him back on a social footing with these people, he could do it if some exceptions could be made. I am sure he would be anxious to and successful in cultivating the political even social and somewhat intelligent (not progressive necessarily) people he used to know. If he were forced constantly to meet useless, worthless high society people, the dregs of the capitalist system, he would be thrown back into the frustrated miserable state he was in when he was married to the Rosenwald family. I think in discussion I can make this clear as it is important the matter be understood to get the best work out of him.2. He must have some kind of job both for the good of the work and for his own satisfaction. He could not leave the Labour Party suddenly or even gradually unless he had another job. People would become suspicious of what he was doing if he were idle. This is because he is known as a dynamo of energy, patience, productivity, integrity. What he lacks in brilliance and imagination he has always compensated with honesty, conscientiousness, hard work, and a keen scientific, analytical sense about people. He would not want to be considered disloyal or a traitor. If he were doing good work for us and had a job I am sure he would not mind having people think he had got a little tired of progressive work, or impatient etc. Because his real happiness has been in his identification of himself with the masses and with Communist theory and practise, I think it would be demoralising to him if he knew all his close friends thought of him as a traitor. Anything less than that I am sure his self-discipline would accept.There is one final point. Alfred joined the Party a few months ago and has been going to a study group. This group has also been very good for him in developing his Marxist thought and I feel it should be continued somehow. If the group he now belongs to seems inadvisable because of size (it has seven members) or for other reasons, perhaps it would be possible to have him study with one or two other people regularly. I think he needs it and I am sure something would be arranged.With Alfred I feel constantly that he is growing and developing in every way. He has the material of an organizer and a leader. He is clever, solid, loyal to the extreme with excellent contacts and abilities. I feel that he is not being used to his fullest capacity by the Party and is at the same time being exposed by them. Therefore again I urge, after full discussion of all the above points, that he be accepted for work with us.

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“Liza” dated 11.3.42.I approached my husband Wednesday night about our work, and we had a long weekend in the country to discuss further all of its ramifications.41 He was enthusiastic about the work and wanted to do something immediately…He agreed that Europe and the underground movement were the most important aspects to the fight against Fascism at the present and said he was not unfamiliar with underground work since he had been connected with the Freiheits Partei. He felt he had many contacts that would be valuable in this sort of work, if we were given time etc. to develop them. It couldn’t be done too abruptly without arousing suspicion. He did not ask too many questions about the organization. Those he asked I answered by saying that I was working with a group of refugees of all nationalities who had worked in the underground before they escaped and still had contact with it. He however stated that he could not work for any organization that did not include Communists and that did not follow the policy of the Soviet Union. I told him there were communists among our group and that of course there was no divergence from the position of the Soviet Union. He repeated several times that he must feel that he was doing something constructive and useful and that he was not yet sure how he could function in a covered position. I suggested the idea of a business firm to further protect him. He raised two objections. One was that no business could be established now without a very large sum of capital, around a quarter of a million, that he could not put his money into something as uncertain as that. He said any small sum like 20,000 to 50,000 would be useless to establish any business and as for getting for this amount a large share of stock in some other business, the stockholders and managers would go to the government to borrow such small sums. He also pointed out that for him to set himself up in business except in war industries in a critical time like this would be interpreted as selfish and disloyal for a patriotic American to think of. It would look he said as if he wanted to make money out of the war and most people would frown on him and even ostracize him for that. He said this would apply to reactionaries as well as to progressives. He finally added that it would be too obvious for a man in his position to shift suddenly from the American Labor Party to a money-making firm of his own. He thought he should try to get a job in one of the government agencies, as he has been trying to do for several months. He said however that he would not close his mind to the idea of going into business if I could suggest how it could be done without arousing suspicion and adverse criticism, and without jeopardizing42 his funds. He argued that if he lost his money he could be of comparatively little use to the progressive movement and would not be able to maintain a covered social and moneyed position to attract other contacts. He said he was anxious to do a specific job and would like to meet one of the refugees whom I mentioned to discuss all these matters. I told him I would try to arrange it as soon as possible. In the meantime I asked him to get the names of as many business firms as

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possible who still traded with neutral countries or had men who travelled to Europe who in any way could be considered reliable. I told him this was to establish a means of getting money and messages to people in occupied countries. He fully understood this. He is having lunch with Frazier McCann tomorrow and will sound him out on this question. I think he understands in general our problems and may sense, though he did not say so, what the work is. He asked all sorts of detailed questions of business and finance which I was unable to answer and presented many problems which I think should be discussed as soon as possible with our people. He recognizes the secrecy of the work, is anxious and enthusiastic to help. I think it advisable, considering his response and eagerness to do something, that he meet with one of our people, preferably Helen (so we can all three discuss in privacy the problems of the work), at the end of the week or at latest the beginning of next week. He also asked if he would have to discontinue his class in Marxist theory. I told him I thought so but that somehow or other we might arrange for him to have a two hour conference once a week discussing what he has read with one of the underground workers. He agreed to this, urging only that he continue his studies, otherwise he would be a less effective person in every way if he did not master the theory of Marxism which he has been practising for so long._________________

“I must again insist that my husband be taken in to our work. If he is not seen I must resign, as he is exposing both of us. Several nights ago Bill B. and his wife came to dinner. I suggested that we take them out but my husband thought it unfair as he (Bill) is his political adviser and friend. My husband thinks I am carrying my caution so far that it only serves me as a cover for not doing any active work. He says that as long as he works with the ALP he simply must be in touch with party people for political policy and advice. I can argue only up to a certain point with him and then even my logic breaks down , being unable to tell him everything. I know however if he did know what I was doing and would be doing the same work, he would be a highly disciplined person and of infinite43 value to us, as he is practical, business-like, hardhitting and realistic. We could do perhaps really important political work together. But as I said before I cannot continue my work much longer unless a decision is made regarding him. Even if he does not have a government job right away he should be aware of what he must do in the future. As it is now, I personally and our work are imperiled.44 And the American Communists seem surprisingly indifferent to caution and discretion, so much so I think it advisable to speak to them for the sake of everyone doing covered work of any sort whatsoever.

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“Liza” 19.03.42.“To have it on record I will briefly state my husband’s reaction to our latest conversation. I told him that the organization with which I was connected was not composed of refugees but rather of very serious political people who were working primarily for the overthrow of Hitler in occupied countries and for doing anything else that would help end Fascism—their activities of necessity being illegal. I told him that in the Soviet Union the policy of this organization was directed and that there were Russians in it. And I knew he would be, he was extremely enthusiastic and extremely thankful that the work was in such reliable hands. He had been skeptical, he said, when he heard of refugees working with us, as he has had some unfortunate experience with them. He recognizes fully the illegality of the work as he once helped with the Freiheits Partei and understands why I have been so cautious in revealing details to him. He also said that he understood perfectly why I had not mentioned this work before to him, and added that he would have been useless a few months ago even if someone had contacted him—precisely because he himself was in such an open radical position. He said that he wished he had known more about the organization before he spoke to Frazier McCann,as he could have better presented his conversation to him. He told me that he had mentioned to Frazier that was interested in an organization compiled of various anti-Fascist refugee groups that he was trying to get money into Europe for underground work. However he thinks that Frazier showed a really deep interest and concern to help underground workers in Europe to overthrow Fascism and that Frazier is completely reliable and should be contacted by someone soon. I asked my husband only to find out names of business concerns still doing business in Europe—he himself decided to speak of the refugee organization, not realizing that Frazier should not perhaps have known this much. However no harm is done as the way my husband presented it would give no cause for suspicion and only activized McCann. Furthermore45 as I said before McCann is a very trustworthy person. He seemed to think that International Business Machines and other companies with which he is in contact or could be, still carry on business. I told my husband not to mention anything further on any subject to anybody until46 he had of course readily agreed. But my husband believes that something should be done quickly about Frazier. He is only a part of the party here in the sense that he gives a great deal of money to various progressive organizations. He has not been active in organizational work of any sort…

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(Kheifets continued from p. 45)

according to his47 legend and be responsible for himself, while remembering to take strict measures of konspiratsia. It was simplest of all for our American. He was in his own country and could do anything he wanted. Comrade Japan expert joined some Christian youth organization. With my cover I had to delay until I established contact with my American friend (the arranged terms of contact with whom were received in Moscow). He managed to get in touch with an anthropologist who was in contact with a colleague in Japan, who readily agreed to take me on as an assistant. He realized, of course, that my “assistant’s job” justified my residing in SF.

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p. 17

File 14449 Vol. 2 “Liza”

“Vladimir” (Wash.) to C 4.2.1948[“Bob”] established contact with “Snegirev,” who reported that he had become acquainted with Martha Dodd, who herself had sought contact with him and said that she would like to meet with one of the Sov. operatives who knew her from Berlin. How should “Sn.” behave?]

p. 18 On 12.02.48 C. sent “Vladimir” information on M. D. and asked Sn. to determine how M. D. feels about us, what capabilities she has for work as a talent-spotter. + his opinion regarding the advisability of resuming agent meetings.

p. 21 “Sn.” got acquainted with M.D. at a party given by Harry Freeman on 10.1.48. She was with her husband. + also there were Howard Fast, James Allen, A. Magil and other left journalists and writers. M. started asking questions about journalists and diplomats she had known in Germany.

p. 22 She asked what you are helping Browder for. After all, do you know how much harm he has done to us?” On 27.1.48 he met with Martha again with Freeman acting as intermediary. M. was with her husband.

p. 23 “What are you helping Browder for? Why don’t you take him in for six months and put him in a sanatorium in the Crimea? You must realize how he is hampering us. He has a lot of influence. Not among the workers, no, but among the middle strata and the bourgeoisie that sympathizes with the left. As long as he is here, they won’t give us money, but they’ll give it to him anytime he wants.”

p. 24 [M. herself began to play at being secretive. Let’s arrange the next meeting.—I let you know when I’m coming to NY through Freeman.—Don’t do it through 3rd parties. Call on the phone. Use some Polish name, like Michael. The phone is tapped. They decided on the restaurant in advance.

p. 25 [“Sn.” was given the assignment of carefully studying them.]

p. 29 On 18.3.48 they met in the lobby of the Commodore Hotel by the Central railroad terminal. They went to a nearby restaurant.

p. 31 M. said that she had inquired about Sn. from consul Lomakin. “After all, we don’t know whether you’re a good Sov. cit. or some Kravchenko, maybe after the meeting with us you’ll go to the FBI and tell them everything.”“Are you meeting with us as friends or to get information and pass along something to us?”—“Above all I am meeting with you as friends, and in addition, socializing with you will allow me to expand my conception of America, especially in the field of literature, of which Martha is a representative.”

p. 32 [They went to their place, where Martha called him Michael. She tried to persuade him to break with Browder.]

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p. 33 They started talking about Wallace. M. said that they know him well, that Alfred has influence on him. Wallace

p. 34 asks him to prepare materials for him, for example, on the housing issue. To use W. in the struggle against reactionaries.“Is it really possible they don’t know anything about this in Moscow? Why aren’t there any instructions from there? Do they really think nothing should be done or nothing can be done? It’s possible to do a great deal through Wallace, but we need to receive direction.

p. 47 [“Sn.” was given an assignment to gather through M. D. information about New Republic magazine and its publisher.]

p. 50 “The magazine is financed by Michael Straight, a prominent millionaire, who in the past was a member of the American Young Communist League, then broke off his connection with it and is now hostile toward Communists.” [No indication that it is “Nigel.”]48


p. 57 Meeting on 10.05.48 at Martha’s apartment.

p. 61 Sn. asked M. to compile a memorandum on Amer. writers. p. 62 Alfred was asked to the same about the 3rd party. When M. left the room.

Martha walked in. “Well, there,” Alfred said laughingly, “I got an assignment, too.”“Alfred went on to say: “Regarding this kind of business I don’t like relationships to be unclear. When we had contacts in the past with other individuals the relationships were clear. We knew about them and knew that we could deal with them. That’s not the case with you. As long as it was a matter of talk and discussion, that was one thing, but writing for you is something else. In the first case everything remains words. Nobody can prove that we were the ones who said this. A document is different.Fine, I said, but a document that’s not signed and is typed is not proof, either.Alfred countered that that wasn’t quite true, because, first, Martha’s style would be recognized right away. And based on the content experienced people could determine right away that such a document could have been prepared only by one of 12-15 people, that using the method of elimination they could establish who wrote it.Alfred said that they knew that the Germans had had a file on them and they were proceeding on the assumption that these materials had fallen into the hands of Amer. intelligence, that they could be followed, not merely as ordinary progressive US citizens,

p. 63 so we can only prepare the documents if we have confirmation on your part…Maybe they don’t want to have contact with us right now, since we have been permitted up to a certain point to participate in the progressive movement. Then it will be clear to us. This doesn’t mean that we are breaking off our acquaintance with you. We will be glad to continue it, but we want to bring total clarity to this matter, which it doesn’t have right now. I’ll be glad to write a report. It should have been done 6 months ago already. We spent the whole summer with Wallace, established a friendly relationship with him, but there was nobody to pass materials to.

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p. 64 Meeting on 8.7.48 at their summer house in Lewisboro, NY. M. asked whether there was news from M. Sn. didn’t have anything.

p. 66 Alfred said that their phone conversations were tapped at the summer house as well. It was hard to hear, and a couple of weeks ago he called in an electrician, who said that another wire had been connected to theirs.

p. 71 [We constantly discussed the situation in the 3rd party. According to them, p. 72 Wallace and the whole movement are being adversely influenced by Lillian Hellman. A. said

she was connected to Catholic circles, in particular to the famous Sheen. She shares the fashionable preoccupation of the Communist leadership with psychoanalysis, who are connected to the Catholics. Information is being leaked. The Communists go to them as they would to priests for confession, in order to reduce stress.(Browder told Sn. the same thing.)

p. 76 “Vladimir” to Center 12.08.48Wallace proposed to Liza that she write his campaign speeches. “Liza” asked through “Sn.” whether we could supply her, if not with drafts for speeches, then at least with the basic tenets that should be developed or mentioned in Wallace’s speeches. “Vl.” asked to let him know whether we are interested.

p. 77 C to Wash. 14.08.48Using Liza for contact or work with Wallace is inadvisable.

p. 78 W to CNegative aspects of Liza:1. overt contact with the CP and reps. of the new democracies in NY, “talkative, not completely serious and not secretive enough. Keeps trying to impose herself for establishment of an agent contact.We don’t think an agent relationship should be established at the present time.

p. 79 Meeting on 6.10.48“ “Louis” said he thinks they will garner as many as 3 million votes. He made it pretty transparently clear that they need help at least in the form of a speech by Cde. Vyshinsky in which he would recall the joint struggle by the USSR and the US against fascist Germany and precisely what the USSR did, what casualties it suffered in order to save the world and in particular the US from German fascism. This would make an impression. We need this right now.”

p. 81 Meeting on 16.10.48“ “Liza” and “Louis” are terribly upset about the incident involving Kasenkina. We are doing everything here to ease the “cold” war, to prevent unfavorable commentaries about the USSR from appearing in the press, and your representatives themselves are helping the DOS to wage this war. I never had a high opinion about Lomakin, said Martha, but the Kasyenkina affair showed me

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him in an even worse light. It is completely incomprehensible why he needed this whole affair involving the imaginary kidnapping of Kasenkina, injections given to her and other attributes that can only be found in the stories of “Superman.” But “Superman” is an invention, and he is viewed as such by readers. Why on earth did such rubbish, which nobody here believed, have to be presented to Molotov and put him in such an awkward position. As a result the Kasenkina affair lingered on the front pages of the Amer. press for two weeks, relegating everything else to the background, whereas by acknowledging the fact itself that Kasenkina and Samarin had fled right away and had betrayed the Motherland, it would not have caused a particular sensation and would not have lingered49 in the press…

p. 82 The Kasenkina affair, “Liza” continued, convinced me that from the standpoint of the interests of the cause it is essential to resume the activities of “our group.” We used to think that besides us there were other sources of additional information that would give Molotov or Vyshinsky an opportunity to compare various sources and draw the correct conclusions. The latest incident showed that Molotov didn’t have such additional sources of information.”

p. 83 “Liza” showed me a copy of her letter addressed to W. some time ago. The problem was that W. had formed the impression (in “Liza’s” opinion, under Lillian Hellman’s influence) that the USSR wanted W. to garner as few votes as possible in the election. What the USSR was aiming for in this regard, according to W., was to prove that fascism had come to the US.“Liza” argues to W. in six pages how absurd such an idea is and argues that he (Wallace) is shouldering the great mission of rallying America’s democratic forces and preventing fascism from coming to power.”

p. 86 Liza and Louis were turned over as contacts to “Kostrov” in NY in July 1949, so that “Snegirev” wouldn’t have to travel out of Wash.

p. 87 On 30.6.49 Liza gave Sneg. a list of individuals whom she recommended for the establishment of contact. 53 people. In the form of a script.

p. 88 The main characters are two friends: Stephen Will (Stephen Will) and Tony Barromeo (Tony Barromeo). Will is of lower middle-class background, after his father’s death he was left without money to live on, did various jobs and gradually began to engage in literary activity. In 1936 he leaves for Spain, where he fights on the side of the republican govt. There he meets with Tony, the leader of the Italian Brigade.Upon returning to America Stephen, after a number of political quests and disappointments, joins the left movement and subsequently becomes an active member of the Progressive Party and a progressive poet. Barromeo, meanwhile, slides into the reactionary camp, writes reactionary books and leads an idle, demoralizing life. There are 54 secondary characters.

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p. 90 12. Howard Fast (Howard Fast)—a good but overly prolific writer, arrogant, productive in work, difficult as a person, hard-working. He has a neurasthenic wife.

p. 92 22. Charles Kramer—tall, slender, redheaded man without refined manners, serious, theoretical, knows the laws well. 25. Michael Uris—screenwriter of ordinary talent, steady, not too capable, displays a sense of resentment, not lacking in boldness. His wife is Dorothy Tree (Dorothy Tree)—a dark-complexioned, attractive, ruinous wife who is a performer, smart and acerbic. Californians.26. Herbert Biberman—a mediocre screenwriter, producer and director, a pompous, “major theoretician,” difficult, bold, nice man. His wife is Galya Sondergaard (Gale Sondergaard)—a fine actress of Danish ancestry, graceful, modest, easy-going and beautiful, intellectually somewhat limited, which is constantly noticeable about her.

p. 94 35. John Abt—an interesting, dark-complexioned man, with a high voice, sensitive and bold, with a bigger reputation than he deserves. Married to a warm-hearted but somewhat limited woman who is much older than he is. They look like mother and son.

p. 99 “Kostrov” established contact with Liza and Louis on 26 Aug. 49.

p. 100 The station wanted Louis to find out from Wallace and Marcantonio whom they are using as informants on polit. issues in Wash. Try to use them through Louis.

p. 104 Memorandum from Gorsky 8.12.49 (head of Dept. 1 of the PGU)In Dec. 1945 contact with Liza was broken off. A password was not arranged. On 10.6.49 she gave Sneg. a survey on the situation in the Progressive Party of the USA, and on 30.6.49, a list of contacts.We told “Kostrov” that the contact must be of a social nature.

p. 105 “Louis” was occupied in the Marcantonio’s mayoral campaign committee. “Liza” was ill.” Meetings were not held. Contact was restored on 7.11.49.

p. 111 Memorandum (October 1953)“Subsequently, due to the fact that “Liza” and “Louis” did not have the capability to do our work and their progressive activities had become widely publicized, contact with them was broken off, and they were deactivated as agents.

p. 117 In March 1955 the C. decided to reactivate her. Kostrov, who was on temporary assignment in NY, was supposed to restore contact.

p. 129 The station in NY found out that L. and L. were living in Mexico and came to NY only a few times a year to oversee the operations of their company.

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p. 130 The 2d Chief Dir. of the KGB USSR intercepted a letter from Liza to Henry Shapiro, a correspondent for the United Press agency in Moscow, and sent a copy to Colonel A. S. Feklisov, head of Dept. 1 of the PGU of the KGB under the USSR Council of Ministers.

p. 132 She asked Shapiro to determine what had happened to Boris Vinogradov.

p. 133 Ostap to MoscowLouis visited the USSR Emb. in Mexico on 26.01.56 and delivered a letter from Liza for Ilya Ehrenburg. The letter dealt with her latest book.

p. 137 Center to Mexico 14.05.56“Since “Liza” and “Louis” may currently be of interest to us and will probably live in Mexico for a long time, the station should take the following actions:1. Making use of official capabilities or a plausible pretext, establish contact with “Liza” and have several routine conversations with her, in the course of which discreetly find out what she and “Louis” are now doing, their political attitude and contacts, as well as the reasons that they moved from the US to Mexico and their future plans.2. If “Liza” doesn’t shun contact with us and has interesting contacts and agent capabilities, she should be cultivated for the purpose of re-establishing a confidential relationship with her. The work with “Liza” should be done in such a way that she doesn’t think you know something about her previous work with us. This is necessary because we aren’t sure that “Liza” and “Louis” don’t have some unpleasant memories of their previous connection with us, considering that one

p. 138 of the reasons that she agreed to be recruited was strong personal feelings for our operative, whom she intended to marry.”

p. 142 Ostap reported from Mexico on 8.6.57 that M. D. had made a request to “Skipper” that he find out through the USSR ambassador whether a move to the USSR would be possible.The risk of extradition to the US. They have received several subpoenas in recent months to appear in a US court to give testimony in the cases of individuals accused of spying for the USSR. The US is putting pressure on Mexico.

p. 143 They replied to Ostap on 11.6.57 that it would be better for them to go to the GDR:1. Martha knows the country; 2. a move to the USSR could be used in a trial in the US.

p. 144 Ostap met with them on 18.06. They want to go to the USSR, but if that is impossible, then to Czechoslovakia, China or the GDR.They are financially secure: 1 million doll. in Mexico, which they plan to transfer to Switzerland. They don’t have Amer. passports. They only have birth certificates and Mexican papers entitling them to live in Mexico.

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p. 145 They sent inquiries to Berlin and Prague (p. 147). p. 148 The reply from the GDR was that they don’t think there will be any obstacles.

p. 150 “Ostap” from Mexico 9.7.57A trial in the Soble case will take place in the US in Sept.-Oct. The Sterns are afraid that the Amer. authorities will secure their extradition.Paul O’Dwyer, the Sterns’ attorney, said that Soble had stated during an interrogation that Boris Morros along with the Sterns had established a music (commercial) company in 1946 that was supposed to serve as a cover for the work of Sov. agents in Lat. America. The Sterns decided to move at the first opportunity, leaving their property in M. to Maurice Halperin. Halperin

p. 152 A message came from Prague on 12.7.57 that the friends are prepared to grant asylum. p. 153 “Ostap” reported on 13.07:

Through attorney Carmen Otero the Sterns reached agreement with the Paraguayan ambassador to Mexico for the Sterns to be naturalized as Paraguayan citizens and for Paraguayan foreign passports to be issued to them. They will pay 10,000 doll. for this. The passports will be delivered to them on 16 July.

p. 156 In 1943 Stern invested 130,000. After the bankruptcy the loss was 30,000. pp. 158-159

They took off on 20.07 on KLM to Amsterdam. They were given tickets to Prague by a staff member of the Czech emb.

p. 160 France-Press: the case of Jack and Myra Soble, Jacob Albam and the Zlatowski couple. For refusing to testify the Sterns have been sentenced to a fine of 25,000 doll. each

Zlatowski is apparently “Czech” .or Soble?

p. 164 In Aug. 1957 the news media reported that the Hollywood composer Morros told a House of Representatives committee that the Sterns were Sov. spies.

p. 165 Before their departure the Sterns promised “Ostap” that they would continue cooperating with us, and in gratitude for the care given them they promised to transfer to the Sov. govt. free of charge, by conducting a fictitious transaction, a villa in the city of Cuernavaca, which was valued at 1 million pesos.

p. 170 “Peshekhonov” reported from Prague on 5 Aug.:1. The Sterns want to settle in to M. before September, since they have to put their son in school (12 years old). If that is impossible, authorize a move to China. As a last resort, remain in Czechoslovakia.2. The Paraguayan citizenship is only for leaving the country. They want Sov. or Czechosl.3. They want to give a villa to the Sov Emb. as a dacha.4. To transfer paintings to Sov. and Czechosl. museums.5. Maurice Halperin must be moved out. He helped to arrange the departure and compromised himself. The FBI knows him as a Sov. agent. He has been expelled from his institute,

p. 171 and he is left without a job.

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p. 173 In regard to the questions raised by the Sterns.I) Permanent residence in Moscow is inadvisable:1. It will be hard to acclimate themselves in our conditions;2. their presence in the USSR will be used against them.3. It is recommended that they stay in Czechosl.II. We don’t object to a correspondence with friends, but after they are legalized in Czechosl.III. Until they receive citizenship, we strongly recommend against traveling abroad

p. 174 either to Switzerland or anywhere else. Amer. counterintelligence could abduct them and take them by force to the US. Over time their problem will be forgotten, and they will be able to travel.IV. Visits to the socialist countries as tourists—no restrictions.V. Don’t accept the dacha. It could cause polit. harm to the USSR and the whole progressive movement. “We don’t object if this gift is offered to the Czechosl. friends.VI. Don’t accept the paintings. Otherwise we will find ourselves indebted to the Sterns.

p. 175 V. Maurice Halperin was the head of the Latin Amer. department of the OSS. “He gave us valuable information, which he personally dictated to “Myrna” at their meetings. After M.’s betrayal he fled to Mexico.On 20.03.56 Halperin officially applied to our emb. in Mexico for citizenship and permanent residence in the USSR. Department 1 of the PGU gave instructions to handle the matter officially through the MID. There was no supervision on our part.We need to find out from the Sterns what the Halperins’ situation is and make an offer for the H’s to move to the USSR. (Prepared by Colonel Mikhail Korneev, who was assigned to handle the Sterns.)

p. 177 In Aug. 1957 they suddenly felt a desire to live in China. The climate is the same as in Mexico.

p. 179 On 19.8.57 we sent an inquiry to Peking. p. 184 In Aug. 57 the news media reported that the Un-American Activities Committee had accused

M. D. of spying for the USSR. Her activities were disclosed by Morros.

p. 186 Report by Korneyev dated 17 Aug. 1957They categorically refuse to live in the GDR.Financially they are free people. A portion has already been transferred to Switzerland.Alfred brought with him 10,000, which they are exchanging with friends.

p. 187 They can’t comprehend why we aren’t letting them into the USSR. p. 188 They don’t understand why there is still no resolution regarding their case. They are soliciting

for Halperin. He is very offended at us. p. 189 “In a conversation about “Czech” Alfred said that periodically about three times a year

“Czech” would take money from him that he supposedly needed for our work. In doing so he would refer to a request that we had supposedly made. Alfred remarked that he was talking about this not because of the money but simply by way of evaluating “Czech.” Alfred would give him


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three or four thousand at a time. One time, after we had already broken off contact with them, “Czech” raised the question of money in a conversation with Alfred, showing him, Alfred, a letter that “Czech” said he had received from Molotov as a new assignment. “Czech” supposedly needed money for this. The latter began to destroy this so-called letter from Molotov in the fire in front of Alfred. Alfred wonders where “Czech” could have squandered the money. He lived modestly with his family, as far as Alfred knows. “Czech’s” wife in fact was forced to earn a little extra on the side. She made dresses to order. Maybe, Alfred concludes, “Czech” had some woman on the side whom he supported?!

Based on a dispatch in The Times of London. p. 190 “John” stated on 12 Aug. in NY, probably in an interrogation or to reporters, that for the

past 12 years he was a double agent for Sov. intelligence. As an FBI agent, he made visits to Moscow. On assignments from the FBI he visited Europe 68 times, including trips to Moscow and East. Europe.President died of cancer 3 years ago.

Frost —John


p. 205 Memorandum from M. Korneyev dated 22 Aug. 1957“Martha is afraid for her son, whose real mother lives in Chicago. They adopted him when he was five days old. All the legal points in this regard are on their side. Nevertheless, a few years ago they had to go to court with this woman, who was demanding that her son be returned. The court took the Sterns’ side.

p. 206 The Sterns have almost no doubt that that trial was instigated by “John,” who took on all of the expenses in the case. “John” is personally taking revenge on the Sterns. He is taking revenge for the fact that he was a provocateur in our network while the Sterns honestly cooperated with us and, in addition, for the fact that the Sterns once gave “Czech” in writing a letter for us in which they evaluated “John” negatively and cast doubt on his loyalty to us. That letter, as the statement by “John” himself now makes clear, fell into his hands. “John” stated that “Martha Stern betrayed him to Soviet intelligence.”Martha says that “John” is a dirty and treacherous person, so he is capable of committing any dirty deed for the sake of revenge. He has the funds for this.”

Frost —John

pp. 210-211 On 28 Aug. 1957 the KGB petitioned the CC of the CPSU to allow the Sterns to settle in the USSR.

p. 212 Reply from Peking dated 31.8.57: the PRC leadership is opposed.1. they didn’t have any information about the Sterns before;2. they don’t know these people’s past and biographies;3. their contacts in Shanghai and in the PRC in general are not known;4. while residing in the PRC, the Sterns would communicate with foreign countries—it’s unknown who their contacts are and the purpose of the correspondence.

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5. the situation in Shanghai is very complicated.

p. 227 In Sept. 1957 the Sterns arrived in M. and lived in the Hotel Ukraina. p. 228 On 9.09.57 a federal grand jury found the Sterns guilty of spying for the USSR. p. 238 On 13.09.57 they visited Ilya Ehrenburg. p. 241 After Ehrenburg they went to the Aragvi Restaurant. p. 243 The Sterns were delighted by the open-hearted and cheery personalities of Muscovites. There was

a group of young people at the next table. One of the youngsters gave Robert a festival pin. A man from another table came up to them and offered a toast to their son’s health.The Sterns wanted to meet with Burgess and Maclean. Report by Vakhrushev, dep. department head on the Committee for Cultural Relations

p. 244 In Sept. 1957 the Sterns decided to return to Czechosl. as permanent residents. Stern was offered an interesting job in the export-import field. The main obstacle in the USSR is the language. In Czech. they can speak German.

p. 250 The Amer. newspaper Baltimore Sun reported in Sept. 1957 that the Sterns were in the USSR. This became known when an attaché from the Amer. Emb. visited the Tolstoy home in Yasnaya Polyana and spotted50 the name Stern in the visitors’ book (p. 270. They took a taxi. They paid 780 rubles.)

p. 255 Alfred was interested in construction in the USSR, went to an exhibition in Moscow and traveled to an experimental plant making prefabricated houses.

p. 263 They wanted to meet with Maclean’s wife, an American: to glean experience regarding housekeeping, shopping, etc.

p. 231 United Press 9.9.57:Morros stated in court that he had fallen out with Stern over the name of the song “Chattanooga Choo-Choo,” which their publishing house had released. Because of that Stern and Martha quit the publishing house, while M. continued working there.


p. 265 The Sterns were asked to prepare an article about Spellman and “John”: Liza and Louis responded on 30.10.57“We are not able to write an article based on the material about Spellman that was shown us, for the following reasons:1. We didn’t know Morros yet during the period about which he writes regarding the cardinal. In conversation with us Morros never even mentioned the cardinal.2. The messages Morros wrote about the cardinal consist of silly, unfounded gossip. Nobody at all, in the US in particular, will pay attention to this. This information was obviously written by Morros on orders from the FBI in order to dupe the Russians. What is very sad, if not tragic, is that the Russians attach importance to such “information.”

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p. 266 “Regarding the 5,000 dollars mentioned in the article I’m informing you that on Morros’s instructions I gave that money to “Vashch” (Vasily Mikhaylovich Zarubin) before he left for Moscow in 1944. I withdrew the money from our company’s account in NY and gave it to him in cash. In our view, this whole affair must be studied and investigated more thoroughly in order to try to determine how a character like Morros could have been trusted for such a long time.

p. 265 Decision: “They don’t want to take a stand against Morros, using the pretense that we don’t have sufficient grounds to expose him in the press. We won’t insist.”

p. 272 23.10.57 from Mexico:Halperin has changed his mind about leaving Mexico, since he is not threatened with deportation to the US.


p. 275 On 11.10.57 Liza and Louis came to the Czech. Emb. in M. and delivered a letter addressed to the president of the Czech. Republic.

p. 276 [They briefly summarize the history of their antifascist struggle.] p. 277 “After careful thought and experience we believe that Czechoslovakia is the country in which

we can best adjust for the following reasons:1. We are more familiar with the customs and way of life in Czechosl.2. Until we can acquire a working knowledge of the Czech language we are able to communicate more freely with many people with our limited knowledge of German.3. We are attracted to the quieter way of life and to the more western living conditions. Quite simply, we immediately loved the country and its spirited intellectual people!Czechoslovakia is a beautiful and extremely important country, a model in the heart of Europe of socialism in the making. We want to contribute to its future in whatever way we are qualified. My wife thinks she could be an editor and lecturer51 for a publishing house which translates and publishes books in the English language, or help in any other place where the understanding and writing of English is very important. She also wants to continue her own creative work. I feel I can fit into and contribute most to some aspect of the export-import field and perhaps advise in other lines such as housing.”

p. 278 Original:“After careful thought and experience we believe that Czechoslovakia is the country in which we can best adjust for the following reasons:1. We are more familiar with the customs, habits and way of life in Czechoslovakia.2. Until we can acquire a working knowledge of the Czech

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language we are able to communicate more freely with most of the people with our limited knowledge of German.3. We are attracted to the quieter way of life and to the more western living conditions. Quite simply, we immediately loved the country and its sturdy spirited people.Czechoslovakia is a beautiful and extremely important country, a model in the heart of Europe of socialism in the making. We want to contribute to its future in whatever way we are qualified. My wife thinks she could be an editor and reader for a publishing house which translates and publishes books in the English language, or help in any other place where the understanding and writing of English is very important. She also wants to continue her own creative writing. I feel I can fit into and contribute most to some aspect of the export-import field and perhaps advise in other lines such as housing.

p. 280 On 29 Oct. 57 Stern sent Khrushchev a letter in which he offered to discuss problems of housing construction with him.

pp. 282-289 Sent a note addressed to Cde. Ovsyankin regarding construction in Cherëmushki. The apartments are cramped.He has worked in this field for 30 years—built cheap houses in Chicago and in Mexico.

p. 285 “The rooms, in my opinion, are too small for practical use, and in rooms of more suitable dimensions the windows are too large. The kitchens I saw are too cramped, the bathrooms are too small, and in one case so unsuitable that when you climb out of the bathtub you are practically in the toilet room. These conditions can be remedied by making the houses that are being planned somewhat larger, although that will also increase construction costs.”

p. 325 In Jan. 1958 they left for Prague.

p. 346 On a lead from “Liza” the agent “Slang” was recruited, followed by “Slang’s” husband, the agent “Rector,” who once worked for Amer. counterintelligence in Austria.(Memorandum dated 26 July 1957.)

Slang — Rector

p. 349 Memorandum on “Louis” dated 26.07.57Alfred K. Stern, born 1897, Jewish, native of Germany, comes from a wealthy merchant’s family.The origin of Louis’s capital is unknown. We never spoke with him on this topic. There is one report that it came from his first wife, whom he divorced in 1938. She was the daughter of the Amer. millionaire Rosenwald. She has a daughter from Louis.

p. 350 By agreement with Trachtenberg (one of the leaders of the CP USA) Louis bought stock in a magazine for the party so that the CP could control the magazine’s policy.

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p. 362 From Prague 14.10.75From 1963 to 1970 they lived in Cuba, from where they returned to Prague in the spring of 1970. Negative changes in their views were noted there, as were contacts with rightwing elements expelled from the KPCh.

p. 363 Lately they have sought to find ways to return to the US after getting rid of the charge from the old case, since they are afraid of being arrested. They attempted through attorneys to negotiate a site to meet with FBI agents. The FBI proposed Vienna and London, but the Sterns are afraid of being abducted. The FBI did not agree to Prague, Warsaw, Bucharest or Belgrade.The Sterns informed the CC of the KPCh in writing of their intention to leave the CSSR.

p. 365 M to Prague 14.10.75“If the Sterns manage to reach an agreement with the Amer. authorities to drop the past charges filed against them, we will scarcely be able to block their effort to move to the US for permanent residence. In that case it cannot be ruled out that their return may be used by the adversary for propaganda purposes to whip up spy mania, even though those events occurred a long time ago and were widely publicized in connection with the trial of “Czech” and “John.” The information that the Sterns may possess about the activities of Sov. intelligence is outdated and mostly known to the adversary from the testimony of the traitor “John.”Based on the foregoing, if we receive an official inquiry from the relevant agencies of the CSSR regarding the Sterns we deem it possible to respond that there are no objections on our part to their moving to the West.

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p. 54

“Crook” Archive No. 15428

NY to Moscow 20.07.37New line of passport business (Congressman Dickstein)[On the recommendation of Mr. Simon, i.e. our source S/7, “Bubi” personally appeared at the private law office of the Dickstein brothers.

p. 55 [Conclusions]:a) “Bubi” will definitely be able to get the first papers through him in 3-4 weeks.b) D.’s office is a “store” with considerable capabilities and is undoubtedly selling all the passports it can.c) D. likes to make big money by asking 3000 dollars for each job. d) D. can prepare the paperwork especially easily for the so-called European refugees.“Bubi” cabled a request from Vienna for copies of birth documents and a certificate of trustworthiness.

p. 56 “Bubi” went to D. on 8 July to see S. D.’s brother Hyman52 Dickstein. He was forewarned by Simon.“Bubi” introduced himself and asked what H. D. could do for him and his wife to get Amer. citizenship.H. D. asked him to wait and went to S. D. A couple of minutes later B. was invited into S D.’s office.

p. 57 B. told S. D. about himself: “I am an Austrian citizen, a doctor, a specialist on cancer diseases, and came here to study new methods of cancer treatment. I have a temporary permit from the immigration commission for 9 mths. that runs out in September. During my work in NY at Memorial Hospital, I have become convinced that America indeed has the kind of enormous opportunities in the study of methods of cancer treatment that I will never have in my country and in addition Austria faces a future of Hitler coming to power, and I am a zealous enemy of fascism. So I don’t want to go back and would like very much to stay here permanently and obtain Amer. citizenship.”D. said that this was a difficult matter, since there are too many people from Austria and Poland who want the same thing. He requested a passport. It contained a visa from the Amer. consul in Vienna and a visa from the immigration commission.

p. 58 D. said it would definitely be necessary to travel out of the country to obtain an immigrant visa. Best to go to Canada.The quota is just 1413 people a year from Austria. Half of them are members of the families whose members already live in the US. Two quotas will have to be obtained through the consul in Austria.

p. 59 The quotas will be sent to the Amer. consul in Montreal—a friend of D. But it’s necessary to give the Canadian authorities 3000 doll. as a guarantee that you won’t be a burden if you stay there. When you get a visa for permanent residence in A., you’ll get the money back.

p. 60 As B. was leaving, D. clapped him on the shoulder: “I have set up dozens of people like you, and they are now Amer. citizens.”

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p. 61 The next day, 9.7, B. said that he couldn’t give 3000, since he didn’t have that kind of money, but brought only 1000.

p. 62 He dictated cables to Vienna and Montreal in front of B.“Dear consul, do me a favor and send the Amer. consul in Canada Montreal two quotas for an Austrian citizen (surname) and his wife.”

p. 63 B. paid 1000 doll. The rest, according to D., he guarantees himself. D. took 200 doll. for his services, saying, “Others take huge amounts for such things and they’ve become millionaires, but I, S. D., am a poor man.”

p. 64 “I said that it’s true, but he is a big philanthropist and does a great deal in the struggle against fascism, so is well known everywhere. He responded that just yesterday he had spoken on the radio for half an hour against Hitler and fascism, and that he devotes all his energies to this cause and showed me his typed radio speech from yesterday.

p. 65 Mr. Simon; Hyman Dickstein, Samuel.53

p. 1 NY to M 14.12.37[Gennady. Nikolay was in M.][D. came to plenipotentiary Troyanovsky.]“Congressman Dickstein, the chairman of the congressional committee investigating Nazi activities in the US (also known to you as “Optant”) came to the plenipotentiary and reported to him that in the process of investigating the activities of Nazis in the US his agents had uncovered a link with Russian fascists living in the US. D.’s agents had determined that Vonsiatsky, the Russian fascist leader in the US, was linked to the Germans and Japanese and through his people was conducting counterrev. work in the Sov. Union. The Congress has not released credits for the investigation of the activities of Vonsiatsky’s group. The counterrev. work of Vonsiatsky’s group should, in his view, be of interest to the Sov. Union, and since he (Dickstein) has friendly feelings toward the USSR, he decided to inform the plenipotentiary about the counterrev. activities of the Rus. fascists. If this matter is of interest to the plenipotentiary, he would agree, at the Union’s expense, to give the plenipotentiary the materials that he has. At the mission’s expense he was prepared to conduct a further investigation of the Russian fascists with his staff, while concurrently informing the plenipotentiary about the Nazis’ activities.The plenipotentiary told D. that the activities of Russian fascists in the US should primarily be of interest to the Amer. govt. While leaving the question open as to whether the materials about V.’s group were of interest to us, the plenipotentiary cautiously sounded out D. with regard to what amount of money he was actually talking about. D. said that an investigation of V.’s group would require 5,000-6,000 dollars.

p. 2 Since we know “Optant” well, we informed the plenipotentiary of our negative view of his offer, regarding it as an attempt to get money from us, which “Optant” currently needs very, very badly. While he knows in advance that the information he is offering is, for the most part, obviously general in nature, the plenipotentiary still considers “Optant’s” offer interesting.”

p. 1 Decision by Slutsky: “The people’s commissar has accepted Dickstein’s offer under the terms that you and I agreed on.”

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p. 3 Memorandum on D. dated 20 May 1938“Currently vice-chairman of the congressional committee for uncovering un-American activities in the US.D.’s activities are aimed at exposing the work of fascist organizations in the US. In his speeches in January and February 1937 he cited a number of facts about their work among naturalized Germans and Americans of German origin. In particular, he stated that a man named Fritz Kuhn, an employee of Ford, was Hitler’s rep. in Am., and more than 10,000 people of Germ. origin are currently undergoing military training in A.D.’s view is that fascism is a more serious threat in the US than communism.”

p. 5 The plenipotentiary met with “Crook” on 20.4.38 and said that we were interested in his offer. They arranged that it would be better to conduct further negotiations through the plenipotentiary’s private secretary, Igor. On 20 and 23 Apr. C. and I. had two conversations. C. promised to obtain materials on the activities of Vonsiatsky’s White Guards organization and provide the names and addresses of their people in the Union. At present C. has no materials. He said that he had to pay his people up to 2,500 doll. a month, and asked that this amount be given to him right away. I. offered 500 doll. to start with. C. refused and asked that the conversation be regarded as never having taken place. I. promised to “report to the plenipotentiary.”“We feel that “C.” could prove to be a useful worker if we could switch him over to carrying out our assignments. To this end we would deem it essential to give “C.” 1500-2000 dollars to investigate Vonsiatsky, with a view to proposing in a while that he switch over to matters that are more pressing for us. It’s quite possible that “C.” will refuse to carry out our assignments and two thousand Am. dollars may be wasted, but we feel that the attempt should be made, because if it’s successful “C.” could prove to be very useful.”

p. 6 NY to M 10.5.38:C. has received authority from the Congress to continue the investigation of fascist work. He said he will now have broad opportunities for access to govt. materials and to smash the fascist organizations on our orders. He has agreed to start work for 1500 doll. a month.

p. 9 Letter from NY to M 25.5.38[A meeting between Igor and C. took place on 23 Apr. in NY. He had prepared for I.’s visit a brief summary of the activities of the fascist V. The information is common knowledge. I. told C. that this information was of no value and that it could be obtained for 10 cents in the magazine Fascist. At first C. became angry, but later he agreed that the material was not serious.

p. 10 On 5 May C. himself phoned I. and thereby gave the signal to continue the conversation. On 9 May C. told I. that, based on a report by Congressman Dies, the Congress had adopted a decision to conduct an investigation of anti-American propaganda. C. hopes that he will be included in it54. He will smash the White Guard and fascist organizations.“For these services he is requesting for expenses half of the originally

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requested amount. (Again, not for himself—he is personally p. 11 prepared to help us just out “fondness for the Sov. govt.”)

18 May—a meeting between I. and C., at which our relationship was clarified once and for all and the direction of his work was arranged:1. C. will obtain for us documents on fascist work—both from govt. agencies and from private intel. organizations with which he is in contact.2. With regard to questions that we have on the basis of these documents, C. agrees to obtain additional data for us. 3. C. agrees to actively direct the committee’s attention to the instances of fascist and White Guard activities that we specify to him.4. C. shall receive 1,250 doll. a month from us.The first monthly payment was issued to him on the same day, for which an appropriate receipt was received from him.” …“We know from past materials from our former source Grin Grin

p. 12 that C. during his work in 1934-35 to expose fascist activity in the US relied on Jewish intel. agencies. The Jewish Committee at the time allocated a million dollars to support its intelligence among fascist organizations and the intelligence agency was headed by the highly qualified Amer. intelligence operative Prince…Without question, C. had access in 1934 to the archives of Amer. intelligence agencies, which he relied on in his investigations, but at the time we didn’t have access to them. Now we are counting on getting valuable material from Am. govt. and private intel. agencies on fascist work, and this alone could justify our expenditure on C.But beyond this program we plan to use our agreement with him on carrying out our assignments for an investigation of White Guard-fascist, fascist-Trotskyite and nationalist organizations (Ukrainian counterrev. organizations). We also intend to demand materials related to the Amer. Com. Party. This way we may be able to uncover agents provocateurs in the Comparty. (In this connection keep “Morris’s” materials in mind.) In addition, we have the objective of mobilizing through C. materials on the activities of Trotskyite organizations here. These materials could serve as a basis for dealing a powerful polit. blow to the Trotskyites, compromising them on the line of their ties with German and Japanese fascist organizations. We have based this on

p. 13 some fragmentary information that we had in our possession and reported55 to you at the time:1. Regarding the fact that there is contact between the Trotskyites and Ukr. counterrev. organizations (see our materials on the Ukr. organization in Canada)2. Regarding the fact that there is information about a link between Trotskyite organizations in Detroit and Ukr. counterrev. organizations.3. “Blue Tit’s” information about contact between Bochkovsky, a well-known figure in the Ukr. counterrev. organization, and Trotsky during Bochkovsky’s visit to the US in 1937.4. Information about the link between the Japanese Takahashi and the Trotskyite CC, a visit by that Japanese to leading officials of the Trotskyite CC and a lengthy conversation with them.Based on this data, we plan to do the following through C.:a) Direct the attention of the investigative committee toward uncovering

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the Trotskyites’ link with Ukr. counterrev. organizations and German fascism and exposing that link before world public opinion.b) Use the committee to prove that the isolationist position of the Amer. Trotskyites is no accident, that the Trotskyites’ propaganda about removing America from Europ. and Asian problems, etc., is an outright betrayal by the Trotskyites, who are carrying out the orders of Japanese and German imperialism. The congressional committee can find the relevant documents in the CC of the Trotskyites during a search. We have keys to all the entrances to the offices of the Trotskyite CC.We are perfectly aware of whom we are dealing with. C. fully justifies his cover name, he is an unscrupulous character, greedy for money, who has agreed to work because of

p. 14 the money, a very clever snake, etc. So it is hard for us to guarantee fulfillment of the program that has been planned, even the part of it that he presented to us himself. We will make every effort, however, to see to it that the program is fulfilled.”

p. 16 Nikolay to M 28.6.38On 7.06 the speaker of the Congress appointed a committee to investigate un-American activities. It consists of the following congressmen:Dies, chmn., Dem.; Healey, D.; Mason, D.; Starnes, D.; Dempsey, D.; Mosier, Rep.; Thomas, Rep.C. wasn’t named. According to him, before appointing the committee the speaker invited in C. and Hoover (FBI) to discuss the membership of the committee. The speaker said that C. shouldn’t be part of it for polit. reasons. His appointment could be taken as an anti-German gesture, which would complicate the committee’s work. The speaker proposed that C. be an unofficial adviser to the committee. C. shares the speaker’s motives. The rightwing press calls C. a Russian Jew and America’s chief antifascist. (He was born in Russia and was brought to A. as a child.)

p. 17 He pretends that nothing has happened from the standpoint of our work. He says that 4 of the 7 members are his people and he will be able to exert influence through them. “It should be mentioned that the local press keeps portraying the situation as if C. is the de facto boss of the committee. This, of course, doesn’t square with reality, although C. is very pleased with this position of the press and he seizes every occasion to show a newspaper article on this subject.”[The fact that C. wasn’t appointed is a total surprise to the press.]“We have become convinced that since he wasn’t included in the committee, he won’t be able to take the actions that we planned with him. We gave him an assignment to obtain the material from the grand-jury examination of people accused of German espionage, he promised, but he didn’t get it. We realized that he couldn’t get that material without being a member of the investigative committee.Without being a member of the committee, he doesn’t have access to the materials of Amer. intelligence and counterintelligence. The only thing he can

p. 18 do is to advise the members of the investigative committee to summon a certain individual to the committee for questioning, but this advice is not mandatory for the committee. In addition, Dies, the committee chairman, who is being goaded by the press suggesting that the de facto head of the committee is

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C., will want to display independence and drive away C. from participating in the investigation in any form whatsoever.”[Igor had several meetings with C. Materials from C.—White Guard and fascist elements. He obtains them through his people, among whom is the former Amer. intelligence operative Palmer, now a detective, who is known to us.]“The materials are, of course, of a certain value, but not of the kind that is worth the kind of money that C. is getting from us. So we told him that we don’t intend to work with him on this basis, that Palmer’s materials are not of great value, and that we won’t pay him until he carries out our demands. He flew into a rage and said that if we don’t give him money he will break with us, that he can’t get the work going without money, that he has people working and he is obligated to pay, that he isn’t demanding anything for himself, etc. Since we pushed very hard, and at the same time we made our demands specific, so that he couldn’t help but sense that the work was becoming dangerous, and meanwhile we weren’t giving him money, he apparently decided that you

p. 19 One can’t get money for nothing here, that one needs to work and perhaps risk one’s reputation (which apparently wasn’t part of his plan), he decided to break with us.22.VI. Igor called him at the office. C. replied that he doesn’t wish to deal with people who don’t honor their commitments (an allusion to the money) and that he is fed up with this business, which is causing him nothing but trouble. After saying this, he hung up. Igor called him back, saying that we were cut off, so he was calling again. C. replied that I. was wrong, that nobody cut off the conversation, that he had hung up the phone himself. I. responded to this by saying that, be it as it may, he wanted to meet with him and talk things over. They arranged to meet on the morning of 23.VI in C.’s New York office. Igor appeared at the scheduled time and after the usual greetings told him that C.’s behavior yesterday astonished him. It was him, not us, who wasn’t honoring the commitments that he referred to, and that if he had decided to break with us, that could be done in a loyal way. C. responded to this by saying that our demands went beyond the bounds of how he understood his relationship with us, that during the last meeting he had been asked so many q.’s that they were driving him crazy, that he wanted to work calmly and didn’t want any agitation, he was accustomed to asking q.’s himself rather than answering them, that since there was no trust, it was impossible to work.As an illustration he related how he worked for Poland for several years, and everything was fine. They paid the money, no q.’s, and a couple of years ago he worked for the English they paid good money and no q.’s, everything was tactful and everything was kept hush-hush. But in our case it’s nothing but trouble: we named a chintzy amount of money, paid once and aren’t paying any more, yet there are so many demands and q.’s that they give him headaches. In order to get

p. 20 valuable materials, it’s necessary to wait. If he succeeds in getting them, he’s lucky, if he can’t, he can’t. He refuses to work on any other terms.…Apparently he really did succeed in taking the Poles and the English for a ride, i.e. in promising something substantive and confining himself to rubbish. I. replied that we are also prepared to break off our relationship if there is no work, but that we were not basing our relationship

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with him on monetary considerations, that we understand that he had a purely monetary relationship with the Poles and English but in the relationship with us he was motivated primarily by ideological considerations, by the need for fighting a common enemy—fascism. Therefore we reject his example. That we aren’t making any excessive demands, that there is nothing special about the fact that we are asking for documents belonging to a government agency if these documents will help our common cause. Without disagreeing in substance, C. replied that it’s difficult to work with us in general, that for money received we demand a receipt, that this shouldn’t be the way, that these demands cannot be applied to people of his type, etc. Igor replied categorically that we don’t pay money without receipts and we won’t do it. I. concluded by reaffirming our position that we want to work with him, we are prepared to pay the agreed sum regularly, but on condition that he carries out our demands, and doesn’t give us what he deems possible to give us. If he

p. 21 agrees to this, he should call us on the phone. C. responded to this by saying that he planned to be in Wash. on 27.VI and asked that I. be at his office at 2 p.m.So the matter has not reached the point of rupture for now. Now it depends on us which way our relationship with him goes in the future, either we acknowledge that he is useless for the objectives that we set for ourselves at the beginning with regard to his use, since he wasn’t named a member of the congressional committee, and in that case we pursue a line toward rupture. (We won’t pay any money, therefore given the current strained relationship we have a rupture.) Or, acknowledging his relative usefulness, he, C., is after all a member of the Congress and chairman of the congressional committee on immigration), we change our plans and intentions with respect to the direction of his use. On the same monetary terms as now, he continues to give us what he has, plus an attempt to draw him into providing polit. information, plus certain actions available to him to counter anti-Sov. propaganda, so as gradually (not the way we wanted to do it now) to draw him into a more serious game. But then we must take the absolutely deliberate step of spending 15,000 Am. dollars a year without counting on a quick return from these expenditures. In addition, it must be taken into consideration that congressional elections are coming in November and we may have to toss him a round sum for the election campaign.In this context we suggest that it is essential to have several of our people as congressmen and even senators if we have decided to seriously and actively infiltrate the politics of this country. In terms of people the opportunities are available here. The fascist countries are spending enormous sums here and not without results.

p. 22 This q. must be settled in a fundamental way, since this objective will require very large amounts of money. This money must be specially earmarked to nurture a few individuals who have already been elected or who either have been elected and have a chance to be re-elected, or to promote new candidates. We know, for example, the sentiments and attitude toward us of William Dodd, the son of the former ambassador to Germany, who

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has now announced his candidacy in Virginia. Helping during the election with money means defining a relationship with a future member of the Congress or a senator and possibly for a number of years. This doesn’t mean that they must necessarily be recruited according to all the traditional rules (certain people may in fact be recruited), but it does mean that we are creating a group of our people in the legislative bodies, determining their polit. positions and are infiltrating them in order to actively exert influence.We request that you discuss these q.’s and reply in a substantive way without delay.”

p. 27 NY to M 14.9.38[Dies made clear during the very first days of work that he doesn’t need C.’s services. He didn’t contact C. about a single q. Later the reasons became clear:]“The Dies committee devoted the first day of its public session as a decoy to the investigation of fascist activity in this country, in order to spend the rest of the time hounding Communists and progressive people.When this tendency of the D. committee became evident, we suggested to “C.” that he should take a stand in the press against the D. comm.…

p. 28 At first “C.” argued that he shouldn’t write anything before his election campaign ended (20 Sept.). We argued to him that this kind of piece would be expedient even in terms of benefiting his election campaign—but he disagreed. However, when information appeared in the press that one of the members of the D. comm., Congressman Arthur Healey, had left the committee, C. took the occasion to take a stand in the press against the direction of the D. comm.’s work…We are not going to overestimate the importance of these pieces by C., but we consider them definitely useful both from the standpoint of fighting fascism in this country and with regard to mobilizing public opinion against the activities of the D. comm.. This committee has transformed itself here into a tool for hounding the Com. Party and everything progressive in the country.

p. 29 According to C., before committee chairman Dies started public sessions of the committee, he traveled several times to see Vice President Garner, who at the time was in Texas. C. concludes from this that Garner, who is the de facto leader of reactionary circles that are waging a struggle against Roosevelt and his policies, gave D. the relevant instructions and that the purpose of the committee’s efforts is, by smashing the Communists, to try to portray everything progressive and advanced as communistic in order to fight Roosevelt and the New Deal. In this atmosphere any stand taken against the D. comm. takes on particular polit. importance. One can safely say right now that public opinion has already started to develop attitudes against the work of the D. comm..”

p. 31 “…We intend through C. to sound out the possibilities of arranging, with his participation, the deportation to our country on our instructions of White Guard and Trotskyite elements who are living in this country and could be of operational interest to us.[It is well known that C. has agents in fascist circles. The idea of using them both inside the country and in Germ. through C. At a certain stage make contact with our man.]

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p. 32 [C. identified three of his agents and described them, saying that they would be able to carry out any assignments:]“a) Dorothy Warning, 36 years old, born in America, a writer by profession. Currently works at the Albert Bonnier Publishing House. Has been in Europe many times, well versed in the European situation, has acquaintances in Austria and Germany. Has excellent training in the intel. field. Nice looks, easily gets to know people. Jewish, of German origin, but doesn’t look Jewish at all, and nobody knows that she is Jewish. Fluent in German. High-level contacts among Americans and foreigners here. Has written many articles on Europ. subjects. Was married, has one child. Can begin any intel. work immediately.b) Joe Bent, 36 years old, born in America, parents are German, attractive looks, fluent in German, has relatives

p. 33 in G., Nazis consider him their friend, can join the Nazi organization anytime. Married, no children. Worked on special assignments for several years among the Nazis. Has high-level acquaintances and knows many fascist leaders. Works for Harper’s magazine, collecting various information for it.c) R. Rollins, 34 years old, born in America, college graduate, single, nice person. Father Jewish, mother American. “Looks like a typical Aryan.” Took an active part in the investigation of fascist organizations for the congressional committee investigating anti-Amer. activities in 1934. Has contacts among local fascists.”

p. 35 NY to M 27.10.38C. passed along the first volume of August materials of the D. comm.. Of polit. interest.

p. 37 “C. is currently occupied with selecting materials against Fritz Kuhn, the leader of the fascist organization in the US. To this end he recruited a woman named Virginia Cogswell, the mistress of the aforementioned Kuhn… C. set himself the objective of collecting documentary material that would help expose Kuhn’s anti-American activities. To this end he moved Virginia into the Hotel Siric, installed a microphone in her room and arranged for recording in another room the conversation that occurred in Virginia’s room when Kuhn visited her.”

p. 38 [C. gave the recordings to the Chekists.] p. 39 C. started talking again about dropping the receipts.

p. 23 C to NY 15.7.38“Keep in mind especially how dangerous this character is, being not just a crook but a mercenary for many intelligence services.”

p. 43 NY to C 1.12.38[“C.” decided to investigate Prince’s past. For this purpose he sent Rollins to Chicago and Minneapolis, where R. learned that Prince was a criminal 15 years ago, was arrested five times for fraud and thefts and did two years in prison. C. apparently wants

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to use them against Prince so that he can milk the Jewish Committee himself.]“The use of Prince in combination with the money allocated by the Jewish Committee for the struggle against fascism, generally speaking, is not a bad tactic. But this business needs additional study.”[We received the 2nd volume of the D. comm. transcripts.]

p. 48 NY to M 20.1.39[The Congress is deciding the q. of whether the D. comm. will continue to exist. A fierce struggle is under way between progressive and conservative groups. C. is waging a struggle for shutting it down.

p. 49 C. discussed with the speaker the possibility of transferring the investigation of anti-American activities to his committee.]

p. 50 “We asked C. whether he could take on the task of organizing in the Congress an inquiry to the govt. in regard to the fact that the interests of the U.S. and the interests of the world demand that the U.S. establish closer relations with the Sov. Union and that therefore it is unclear why an ambassador to Moscow has still not been appointed and what is the govt. doing in the direction.“C.” responded to this question by agreeing in principle. His plan boils down to the following: after the Congress confirms the composition of all of the standing committees, including the Foreign Affairs Committee, C. will attempt to use one of the members of the Foreign Affairs Committee for this purpose.The first stage will be to prepare an inquiry by sending a letter in the name of the member of the Foreign Affairs Committee to the State

p. 51 Dept. After the State Dept. responds, a formal question in the Congress.C. thinks he will be able to do something in this direction during January.C. did not show a great deal of interest in our suggestion. He was obviously bored during the discussion of this issue. In order to arouse interest in this matter Igor informed C. that he would only receive the regular payment for December after 15 January. This statement had the needed effect, so that C. hastened to give his assent in principle to arrange the aforementioned inquiry.So far it is hard to say how all this will develop. We don’t rule out the possibility that after a while he will try to use some excuse to wriggle out of keeping his promise. The task given to C. will be a test of his fitness for polit. purposes. If he attempts to wriggle out of implementing the inquiry, we are thinking of taking the path of gradually reducing the payment.”

p. 67 A receipt from C. for 1250 doll.

pp. 68-69

The D. comm. transcripts are helping to identify the provocateurs in the CP USA, Trotskyites and police agents.

p. 72 Letter from NY to M dated 2.03.39[We have come to the conclusion that he doesn’t have information, he has a poor understanding of polit. issues and cannot evaluate people.He was naming various candidates for the post of ambassador to M. when

p. 73 Steinhardt had already been appointed.He wasn’t named to the D. comm.

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pp. 74-75 He wasn’t able to arrange an inquiry regarding relations with the USSR. p. 81 Cen. replied that Cr.56 should be retained, and receipts shouldn’t be taken.

Passov sent a personal letter to the station to give to C.:1) to give us polit. information on current issues; 2) to acquire and transfer appropriate contacts to us; 3) to infiltrate intel. agencies.He should respond to Passov personally.

p. 82 The letter comes from the leadership. He was to destroy the letter immediately after reading it.

p. 83 Evaluation of C. by Gutzeit during interrogation.“When working with C. one must keep the following in mind: he is very greedy for money. Money brought him to cooperate with the USSR, but he needs antifascism, the ideological basis of the contact, as the moral justification of this contact.”

p. 90 Letter from Passov to C. dated 14.04.3957

Dear Sir,Sixteen months have passed since we began our joint activities in exposing fascism, and it seems to me we should assess some of the results.Since you are a committed antifascist, I don’t have to explain to you how important and essential our joint work is.I have the impression that it is difficult for us to come to terms on all points and to reach a complete mutual understanding through intermediaries. That is why I decided to use this letter to discuss with you personally all of the questions concerning our work and to point out ways to further develop and deepen it in the future. At the same time my purpose was to establish personal contact with you. This mode of communication between us will, it seems to me, make it much easier to understand each other and above all will help to maximize results in our work.Regarding our work to this point, we would be correct in saying that the lack of purposefulness and of planning has heavily affected it and therefore its results have not yet fully vindicated either our joint efforts or expenditures. We have to avoid that in the future and precisely outline the range of questions and tasks that we face. This, plus a mutual desire, will enable us to achieve the needed results and satisfaction.We need your assistance with the following:first, covering all of your country’s important political issues and its relations with other nations. In addition, you will need to continue your speeches when necessary. I believe that these general, routine tasks will not be too difficult for you.

p. 91 Second, it is essential to select appropriate contacts and specific individuals whom we could use to deliver more precise blows against the common enemy and who would enable us to be better informed about all his intentions and work against us.Third, it is essential to infiltrate the appropriate intelligence agencies in order to use the already prepared information about our enemies that they have in their possession.

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(There is no point for us in creating such an apparatus ourselves, since it would take a very long time before we could expect some results.)The second and third parts of our tasks will, of course, take much more time and effort and may require additional funds, which will be given to you in each individual case as needed.Please answer me personally and give me your views concerning the questions I have raised. I would also appreciate it if you would indicate the practical actions you intend to take in order to accomplish the tasks we face.Please deliver your letters for me in sealed envelopes without addressing them. (There is no need to sign your letters.) I hope you will excuse my English.With best regards, yours truly (signature unintelligible)P.S.. Please destroy this letter immediately after reading it.

p. 92 58Dear Sir, 14.4.39Sixteen months have passed since we began our joint activities in exposing fascism. And it seems to me we should now sum up the results achieved.As you are a convinced antifascist, there is no need for me in explaining to you the whole importance and the necessity of this joint work of ours.Having the impression that it is very difficult for us to come to terms on all points and to reach a complete mutual understanding, I decided to talk in this letter over with you personally all questions which concern our work, to point out the ways of its development in making it more profound in the future, and to establish personal contact with you. This kind of contact between us will, it seems to me, make much easier our mutual understanding and above all will help to reach maximum results in our work.In regard to our work up to the present time, it will be correct to say that the lack of purposefulness and of planning has strongly affected it and therefore its results have not yet fully justified neither our joint efforts or expenditures. We have to avoid that in the future and draw an exact circle around questions and problems facing us. This, plus a mutual wish, will make it possible for us to obtain the necessary results and satisfaction.We need your assistance:First—in receiving for us information about all the important political questions regarding your country and its relations with other countries. Besides, you will continue your speeches, if necessary. I believe that the fulfillment of these general and everyday tasks will not be too difficult for you.Second—in finding suitable connections and persons which could be of use to us, in striking more precisely our mutual enemy, and give us possibilities to be better informed about all his intentions and his work against us.Third—in penetrating into intelligence organisations in

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order to get the information about our enemies they already have in their disposal. (There is no need to create such an apparatus by ourselves, as it would take very long time before we could expect some results.)Our tasks mentioned in the Second and Third paragraphs will, of course, take much more time and efforts and eventually require additional funds, which will be given, if necessary, into your disposal in every particular case.Please, answer me personally and give your considerations concerning the questions raised in this letter. I shall be very thankful too, if you write me about the actual steps you intend to make in order to solve the problems we are facing.Please, hand your letters for me over to the bearer, in sealed envelops59, without addressing them and without putting on them neither your name or signature. I hope you will excuse my poor English.With best regards, Truly yours:P.S.. Kindly destroy this letter immediately after having read it.”

p. 93 Reply from Cr.60

In answer to your first question that has been definitely covered, and is being taken care of.As to the second question, that has been prepared in such a way that all proper arrangements can be made.As to your third question it requires the employment (recruitment) of certain persons capable of making a study and investigation, and further requires an active study of the problem through certain contacts that can be made to get the truth of the attacks by enemies of your people who are seeking to misinterpret your point of view.I am in full accord with your previous discussion and agree with your plans. I hope to go into it to determine all of the salient facts which are so badly needed and which you desire.

passov—“Reggie” and “Cde. Vasily”

p. 94 “In answer to your first question that has been definitely covered, and is being taken care of.As to the second question, that has been taken care of providing all proper arrangements can be made.As to your third question it requires the employment of certain persons capable of making a study and investigation, and further requires an active study of the problem through certain contacts that can be made to get the truth of the attack by enemies of your people who are seeking to misinterpret your point of view.

p. 95 I am in full accord with your previous61 discussion and agree with your outline. I hope to go into it to determine all of the salient62 facts which is so badly needed and which you desire.

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p. 100

p. 101

10.8.39Dear Sir,63 Confirming your letter (without a date) I must say that your answer does not entirely satisfy me, since it does not say in detail exactly how you will carry out the tasks before you. It contains only general statements that I already knew.Regarding the first item in my letter you respond that it has been definitely covered and is being taken care of. This, of course, is not quite correct. The work in this area must be organized much better. We must receive systematically precise and more thorough information concerning this group of issues. General statements alone are not enough for us, we must receive materials that corroborate various events in the country’s political life.Concerning the second paragraph, things are also not altogether as you say. If this question has been really taken care of, then it is necessary to begin making concrete use of the people and connections. Please inform us exactly who these people are, how we can use them, and it is necessary to actually start working with them and perhaps turn some of them over to us so that we can work with them directly.I believe that you have such capabilities. It is essential to begin right now to implement our program in regard to the second group of questions.As to the third paragraph, I myself wrote you everything you say in your answer. Here too it is essential to start the practical implementation of what we planned.I must say bluntly that we don’t need any special people for the study and the investigation like the investigators ofthe Dies’ Committee.We must find through your connections people who can directly and systematically supply us themselves with documentary information (from Hoover’s Federal Bureau and other intel. agencies). While you agreed with my assessment of our previous work and with plans for the future, you did not provide a specific, detailed plan as I requested and expected to receive in your answer to my letter.Considering that four months have passed since my letter to you, you as an American will understand that we have not lived up to your national proverb: “Time is money”.It is absolutely clear that things cannot and must not continue like this.It is essential to begin right away to carry out the tasks according to the plan that was adopted and approved by you.I look forward to your answer to all the questions I have raised and ask that you start immediately to implement the actions we planned. You will get approval or rejection there, locally, regarding the use of a specific person or a specific method that you propose for implementing our tasks. With best wishes, Sincerely yours (signature),P.S. Kindly destroy the letter after you have read it.

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p. 115

p. 116

64Dear Sir, 10.8.39Confirming your letter I must say that your answer does not entirely satisfy me as it does not say in details how and by what means you will complete the tasks you have before you; it contains but general statements which already are known to me.On the first paragraph of my letter your answer says that it has been definitely covered and is being taken care of. This is not exactly correct. The work on this particular line should be set much better. We should receive systematically more accurate and more profound information concerning the group of these questions. General statements alone are not sufficient for us, we have to secure the receiving of materials which would confirm events of the political life of the country.Concerning the second paragraph, things are also not altogether as you say in your letter. If this question has been really taken care of, it is necessary to begin to use concretely those people and connections. Please, do communicate us who these people exactly are, how can you use them, and let us start an actual work with them, maybe pass some of them over to us so that we could work with them directly.I consider that you have such possibilities and we must begin right now with the realisation of our programme concerning the second group of questions.As to the third paragraph, I wrote to you myself all what you are saying in your answer. Here too we must start with the practical realization of what we planned.It must be said that we need no special persons for the study and the investigation, as, for example, the investigators of the Dies’ Committee are. We must find through your connections such people who can directly and systematically supply us with documentary information (from the Federal Buro of Investigation and other intelligence organisations). Accepting my estimate concerning our previous work and agreeing with plans for the future you are not giving me a concrete and detailed plan which I asked and expected to receive in your answer to my letter.If we consider that four months have passed since my letter to you, you, as an american, will understand that we did not justify your national proverb: “Time is money”.It is absolutely clear that it can not and should not continue like this.It is necessary to begin right away with the completing of tasks according to the plan accepted and approved by yourself.I am waiting for your answer to all questions I set and beg you to start right now with the realization of actions we planned. There, on the spot, you will receive approbation or refusal as regards the using of this or that man or of this or that method which you could propose in order to achieve65 our tasks.With best wishes, Sincerely yours.P.S. Kindly destroy the letter after you have read it.

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p. 117 66Letter from Cr.67 (translated on 28.8.39)With reference to our discussion a good deal can be accomplished to alleviate the difficulties regarding unjustifiable claims if proper, watchful and careful representation is made to properly check into all of the claims against the Union, insofar as it is possible to reject several hundred thousand fictitious claims that will be made on any pretext whatsoever.If we properly protect ourselves much can be saved in money and a more positive solution arrived at. This can be taken care of in the most satisfactory manner in the long run to the benefit of the legitimate debtor.This mandate is to last for two years. The work must be based upon that period and every claim examined beforehand, so that such evidence maybe presented as will best protect the interests of the parties concerned.

p. 118 With reference to our discussion a good deal can be accomplished to alleviate68 embarrassment and unjustifiable claims, if proper, watchful and careful representation is made to properly check into all of the alleged claims against the Union, as far as possible to reject several hundred thousand fictitious claims that will be made on any pretext whatsoever.If properly protected much can be saved in money and a more sound solution arrived at. This can be taken care of in the most satisfactory manner in the long run to the benefit of the alleged debtor.This commission is to last for two years. The work must be based upon that period and every claim examined before hand, so that such evidence maybe presented as will best protect the interests of the parties concerned

p. 104 Letter dated 28.7.39[The Congress has decided to set up a commission to register claims against our country. C. has suggested that an attorney be selected to protect our

p. 105 interests. He said that, by spending just a few tens of thousands of dollars, it will be possible to lower the amounts of the claims or reject them outright.We explained that we are just interested in information about the work of the commission.

p. 122 Letter from Gennady dated 5.11.39Long before “Enemy’s” appearance before the D. comm. we gave C the task of obtaining the D. comm.. testimony.


p. 123 C. has adamantly argued that Enemy hasn’t given any testimony to D., that he is bargaining with D. that he will provide compromising information against the CP and Sov. intelligence in the US only after a guarantee that he will be granted asylum. C. has asserted that E. won’t be questioned at all before the D. comm. and took “credit” for this.

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Every week C. has said that E. would be deported from A. within the next few days.A few days after E. was questioned before the D. comm. C. began to maintain that they had benefited us, since they showed that he didn’t have persuasive facts. After persistent demands that he bring us En.’s testimony, C. prepared a brief message. He said that the building manager where the D. comm. is located had broken into the comm. office at his request and had brought him En.’s file.There is nothing new compared with the public testimony

p. 124 in the file. When we demanded, he said that the D. comm.. is now guarded by the police. A report appeared in the newspapers about the fact that papers had disappeared from the D. comm., that somebody had broken into the room and stolen them.C. said that the building manager had put the file in a different place è an uproar until it was found. “We were very distrustful about this report from C.”According to information obtained from important State Dept. officials (Alexander, Messersmith), D. demanded that the State Dept. break off dip. relations with the USSR and said that his committee had evidence that the USSR had violated the Roosevelt-Litvinov agreement. D. cited En.’s testimony.Asst. Sec. of State Messersmith summoned C. to the State Dept. and asked

p. 125 his opinion about En. C. told him that En. was a shady opportunist who was fighting to save his own skin and was prepared to give any testimony. Messersmith agreed with C. and promised to report everything to Sec. of State Hull.“After that conversation the State Dept. told Dies that doesn’t attach serious significance to the testimony of a man who has some personal scores to settle with his former govt. and whose character doesn’t deserve any trust.”[C. reported that D. intended to summon leading officials of Amtorg and Intourist for questioning.]

p. 126 [They sent the transcripts of sessions of Congress that included speeches (transcript No. 16 dated 17 Oct., p. 916) by C. against D., En. and other witnesses who gave testimony against the USSR. + speeches by other congressmen that, according to C., he inspired, particularly a speech by Congressman Coffee. (see transcript No. 23 dated 25 Oct., p. 1426).

p. 143 NY to M 26.01.40[We believe that there is only one possible form for the use of C.: he speaks in Congress on our assignments and receives from 500 to 1000 doll. for each speech.We took note of C.’s speech in support of Hoover: an increase in appropriations.(Transcript No. 9 dated 16.1. p. 597)

p. 144 It’s not his first speech about increasing appropriations for the FBI. We link this to “President’s” information that Hoover blackmails many congressmen and forces them to make the statements he needs.”

p. 145

NY M 27.2.40[C. is unable to knit together a group of Congressmen around himself for influence, and alone

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p. 145 “According to all accounts, this source cannot be the organizer we need around whom we could put together a group of liberal congressmen to purvey our influence, and as a lone agent he is of no interest to us—besides, he won’t even be able to speak more or less effectively in the Congress.Meanwhile, “C.” refuses to provide documents and has refused to switch to payment in tokens, and we aren’t going to pay thousands for “doing nothing.”Therefore we have decided to break with C.”

p. 147 Memorandum on C. dated 13.8.39[C. was poorly handled from the Center, since Slutsky and Passov were enemies of the people.]

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p. 3

File “Sonny” No. 77273

Memorandum from OGPU agent dated 10.7.31 re recruitment of V. Hammer“On 8 July 1931, through Section 1 of the OO, I got acquainted with the Amer. cit. Victor Hammer. He gave his consent to work with us and provided us with a signed statement to that effect. Hammer will work under the cover name “Sonny.” He lives in New York.[He has contacts in business circles and in Wash. He can legalize our man in Am. and obtain Amer. documents for him. Password: a man comes to H. at his office with a letter that contains a blank sheet of paper.“Sonny” has a brother in Paris who, according to “S.,” has contacts among Amer. White Guards and in Am. among military people.

p. 4 V. H.’s business card: “L’Ermitage Galleries Inc., 3 East 52 str. NY. p. 5 V. H.’s signed statement in Russian: “I pledge that I will keep my conversation with the

OGPU representative in the strictest secrecy.” pp. 6-7 Password: “I have a letter and regards from Mrs. Perelman.

I have a letter and regards from Mrs. Perelman“Thank you, how is she and how is her daughter Doly?Thank you. How is she and how is her daughter Doly?

p. 8 Photo of V. H. p. 9 Address in Berlin for correspondence with “Sonny”

“W. Mattias, Berlin W. 15, Pfalzburgerstr. 16 III

p. 11 Ex-wife is Varvara Dmitrievna Hammer, applied in 1942 to emigrate to Am.

p. 13 MemorandumVictor Yuliyevich Hammer, born 1901 in New York, in 1931 in the process of entering the USSR was recruited by OGPU organs under the cover name “Sonny.” Hammer’s personal file contains no information on how he was used.Father is Yuly Yakovlevich Hammer, born 1874, was well-known concessionaire of a pencil factory in the USSR. In 1930 J. Y. Hammer was ordered (based on EKU materials) to leave the USSR within 24 hours. From 1936 to 1939 was investigated for links to Trotskyites.

p. 15 Agent memorandum (Dec. 1942)“Varvara Dmitrievna Hammer, born 1902 in Moscow, married, Russian, cit. of the USSR, nonparty member, housewife. Since 1940 has resided at Ul. Krasnaya Presnya, 6/2. Apt. 1, arrived from Novoslobodskaya ul., 14/19, Apt. 45. V. D. Hammer comes from a petit-bourgeois family. Described as a modest woman, leads a normal life style, literate, politically well versed, takes an active part in the communal

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work of the building, participates in a self-defense group. Unsociable with neighbors, has no relatives in Moscow. V. D. has never worked anywhere, has been supported by her husband, she is currently in the process of getting a job with an electrical-appliance repair artel. She has a child from her first marriage, Armand Viktorovich Hammer, born 1927, a secondary-school pupil; her husband, Victor Hammer, moved abroad in 1927, to America, where he is now, and he is corresponding with V. D. Hammer, who, according to information, is applying for permission to emigrate to her husband.According to information, until 1927 Victor Hammer had his own pencil factory (was a shareholder) in Moscow. V. D. Hammer’s mother is living with her—Anna Yulyevna Sumskaya, born 1878 in Moscow, Russian, supported by her daughter. V. D. Hammer’s second husband was Ivan Ivanovich Kursky, born 1907 in Moscow, Russian, entertainer, left for the Red Army in 1941.I. I. Kursky came to visit V. D. Hammer for a few days in 1942. He went back to his unit.Head of Section 9 of Special Dept. 3 of the NKVD USSRSr. Lieutenant of State Security SamartsevOperative Jr. Lieutenant of State Security Generalov

p. 16 (reverse side)

Memorandum from OVIR dated 7.10.42 (from Sr. Militia Lieutenant Chikirisov, head of the OVIR of the militia department of the NKVD department for Moscow and the Moscow Region, by telephone.V. H. sent his wife a telegram: “Requested American Embassy to do everything possible assist you and Armasha.”V. Hammer, New York

p. 17 Memorandum.[V. H. worked for an Amer. asbestos concession near Alapayevsk and for A. Hammer’s pencil concession in Moscow.He has been in the USSR four times: in 1923-25-29. In 1931 he came to visit his son. His father, Y. Y. Hammer, a concessionaire in pencil production in the USSR, supposedly worked for the Chief Concession Committee under the Sovnarkom. Based on EKU materials Y. Y. Hammer was ordered in 1930 to leave the USSR, and from 1936 to 1939 he was investigated for links to Trotskyites.”

p. 18 On 30 Jan. 1943 Captain of State Security Ovakimyan, head of Dept. 3 of the 1st Directorate of the NKVD USSR, sent a request to Chikirisov: “a decision regarding the case of Varvara Dmitrievna Hammer, who has applied to emigrate from the USSR to the US, is not to be rendered for the time being and her file is to be sent to us for review.”

p. 19 Letter to NY dated 29.1.43[The basic data regarding V. Hammer and Varvara and her son are set forth. V. H.’s cover name is “Screw.”]“ “Screw” was signed on in 1931 in the process of his entry here. During the contracting “Screw” promised to register our operatives in the country and obtain the needed papers for them. They haven’t worked with him.”

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p. 21

[A password and snapshot have been passed along.] [He has asked the “Dacha”—the US Emb. in Moscow—to help his wife and son to emigrate to him.]“Locate “Screw,” find out his capabilities for our work and the advisability of re-establishing contact.”

[On 4 May 1943 “Maxim” reported from NY that “Screw” is located at Griffin Street, Scarsdale, and at 5 East 54 Street, NY. Has major contacts among performers, artists and collectors. His two brothers, Armand and Harry, live with him. The former has a 15-year-old son; his wife is Olga Vadina, an ethnic Russian. The latter is a chemist by profession and is single. Armand and Harry previously lived in the Sov. Union.“Screw” is married to Irene Wicker, a radio entertainer. He manages part of the Hearst collection exhibit at the Gimbels store; owns a large collection of precious stones and a number of items that belonged to the Romanovs. “Screw” is the proprietor of Hammer Galleries Inc.” 4.5.43.

p. 23 Letter from Moscow to NY dated 20 Aug. 1943“According to our information, “Screw” or his father financed and raised money for the publication of “The Old Man’s” book “The History of the Revolution,” which was prepared by the well-known “polecat” Eastman. Certainly the “polecats” know the father and “Screw” himself, both of whom took part in this publication. It is therefore advisable to re-establish contact with “Screw” on the condition that he has no direct connection to the “polecats,” for infiltration of a WP group.

p. 24 On 26.02.43 Col. of State Security Ovakimyan, head of Department 3 of the 1st Dir. of the NKVD USSR, requested from Commissar of State Security Novobratsky, head of Department 3 of the 2nd Dir. of the NKVD USSR, “all the compromising information you have regarding Varvara Dmitrievna Hammer.”

p. 27 Section 6 of Department 12 of the 2nd Directorate of the NKVD USSR 29 May 1945Agent memorandum regarding assignment No. 16429.“Varvara Dmitrievna Hammer, born 1902 in Moscow, ethnic Russian, cit. of the USSR, nonparty member, unmarried (divorced), works in the electric heating appliance repair workshop of Local Industry Trust No. 1 (Neglinnaya ul., 18), lives at Ul. Krasnaya Presnya, 6/2, Apt. 1, arrived in 1940 from Novoslobodskaya ul., 14/9.V. D. Hammer comes from an office clerk’s family, her father died a long time ago, after his death she was brought up by her stepfather, Sumsky, who has also died. V. D. Hammer has a secondary education. She used to be an actress. As a young woman she liked to go out and was very appealing and attractive. She was acquainted with a large number of men with whom she spent time. Around 1926 she married Victor Hammer (no background information), a concessionaire who had a pencil factory in Moscow together with his brother. After the concession agreement was canceled in 1929-30 he left for America, where he now lives and is in contact with the subject—he sends packages and money.

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A month and a half ago the subject received a telegram from him in which he said he had sent two packages. In 1943 he sent an Amer. passport for his son Armand to emigrate to America, but at that time Armand (more about him below) was under arrest by the NKVD. It is well known in the building that in 1943 she once went to the Amer. Embassy regarding a passport sent for Armand. A week and a half or two weeks before 1 May a woman, a foreign journalist living in the Hotel Metropol, came and introduced herself, saying that she was carrying out instructions from her ex-husband, who had instructed her to find out financial situation and have a suit made for her son Armand. After measuring Armand for the suit, she promised to deliver a finished suit soon. She left the subject her telephone number and told her to keep in touch, but V. D. Hammer told tenants that she didn’t want to be implicated anywhere and didn’t want to be in close contact with her.V. Hammer is in severe financial straits, has sold all her foreign belongings, of which she had a very large quantity, and currently is in debt for a total of about 1000 rubles. She dresses very modestly.At her place of residence V. D. Hammer is described as a cultured, intellectually mature woman. She is tactful and courteous with people around her, cordial when meeting people and is at ease in conversing on various everyday topics and sharing her opinions. By nature she is compassionate and kind, and willingly helps to conduct communal activities in the building administration. She has good, neighborly relations with the building tenants, but is not close friends with anybody. She has a modest life style. She leaves for work by 9-10 a.m. and comes home at 6-7 p.m. In her free time she is constantly at home and does housework. There has been no observation of her spending time with groups or of visits to her by outsiders (except for the above-mentioned incident). Her son from the first marriage lives with her—Armand Viktorovich, born 1927 in Moscow, Russian, cit. of the USSR, pupil at Moscow Secondary School No. 116. Until 1943 he attended a secondary school that was attended by the children of government leaders. He is a very mature, well-read, exceptionally capable youth who wants to study. In the summer of 1943, before Cde. Umansky, ambassador of the Soviet Union, departed for Mexico, Shakhurin (son of the people’s commissar of the aircraft industry) shot Umansky’s daughter and himself to death. Afterward more than 10 pupils were arrested at the school, all of them are children of high-ranking officials, and one of those arrested was A. V. Hammer, who at the time had a close relationship with Shakhurin and was helping him with his school work. A. V. Hammer was incarcerated for 1.5 years in the town of Chkalov and since 9.1.45 has lived in Moscow and is in the 9th grade at Moscow Secondary School No. 116. He now behaves very modestly, spends all his free time in his apartment, preparing his lessons for the next day, and reading literature.

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V.D. has been married twice. His first husband was Victor Hammer, a former Amer. concessionaire of the Hammer company’s pencil factory in Moscow. In 1929-30 he moved to America, where he now resides, but he always shows concern for his son and ex-wife (i.e. the subject).Her second husband was Ivan Ivanovich Kursky, born 1907 in Moscow, Russian, former manager of a club, was mobilized into the Red Army in August 1941. There is no news from him.A few months before the war V. D. Hammer divorced him, since he drank a great deal and didn’t come home for a few days at a time.” Files:Head of Section 6 of Department 12 of 2nd Dir. of NKGB “Concessionaire” Major of State Security Sharapov “Bankers” Sr. OperativeSr. Lt. of State Security Zaporozhchenko

p. 46 Memorandum.Olga Vadimovna Hammer (Root), pseudonym “Vadina,” born 1901 in Sevastopol, of noble lineage. Was arrested by OGPU organs, was exiled to the Urals for three years under Art. 76 (resolution of the OGPU collegiums dated 15.9.24). Parents in the USSR:mother Lyubov Nikolayevna Kostsyushko—Moscow, Myasnitskaya, Bolshoy Kharitonyevsky pereulok, 18, Apt. 6sister—Galina Vadimovna Knyazeva, Petrovka, 19, Apt. 21brother Vladimir Nikolayevich Root, Myasnitskaya ul., 12, Apt. 29brother Vadim Nikolayevich Root, 3rd Borodinsky per., 10/12 (data from 1929-31).

p. 47 Memorandum dated 17.5.45.According to data from the Central Address Bureau, the only one listed as residing in Moscow was Lyubov Nikolayevna Kostsyushko, born 1878, ul. Kirova, 24, Apt. 29.

p. 48 Memorandum based on the material from investigation of Victor and Armand Hammer (dated 22.5.45)1. Archived agent file 88113Agent report from source “K” dated 3.1.27 re a party at the home of Amer. concessionaire Hammer attended by the French consul and a Chinese Emb. attaché, as well as several Sov. citizens.2. Archived agent file No. 26703File for investigation of Armand Hammer. Contains minutes of interrogation of Vladimir Vadimovich Root (dated 26.5.45), the brother of Armand Hammer’s wife. It follows from Root’s statements that he engaged in espionage for the British, was recruited in 1927 and that his mother supposedly received the remuneration for his work in the form of assistance from her daughter, who lives in America. 3, Archived agent file 67824.Material on A. H. 1927-28.

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p. 50

Memorandum based on the file/data sheet No. 8859Yuly Yakovlevich Hammer, born 1874 in Odessa, Jewish, US national, former owner of concessionary pencil factory in Moscow, currently resides in the US.Yuly Hammer (concessionaire) was a member of the American Socialist Party until 1919 and in 1919 joined the Amer. Com. Party, of which, according to unverified information, he is currently still a member. This did not prevent Hammer, however, from engaging in all kinds of shady profiteering and frauds.When he turned over his concession, Hammer by fraudulent means received a large sum of money in foreign currency from Soviet economic organizations and attempted to submit fictitious accounts for payment. According to documented data in Department 2 of the GUGB, during Hammer’s time in Moscow he was in personal contact with Trotsky and gave him presents while trying to conceal this from outsiders.“… I would like my participation to remain secret so as not to spoil my future usefulness to the cause…”(From a letter Hammer wrote to Trotsky, dated 1.VI-1924, regarding the gift of an airplane.)According to data in Department 5 of the GUGB, Hammer is currently financing the Trotskyites.“… Eastman (the well-known leader of the Amer. Trotskyites) is preparing Trotsky’s book “The History of the Revolution” for publication in a printing of 30,000 copies. Hammer, former concessionaire of a pencil factory in Moscow, is supposedly financing the publication and subsidizing the work of the opposition.According to Eastman, the Trotskyites supposedly also have a line of communication to the USSR, this communication runs through Eastman to a man named Etinger—a former manager of Hammer’s pencil concession—in Moscow.”(From a memorandum by the former Foreign Dept. of the OGPU dated April 1932.)As of this time we have not located Etinger. There is reason to believe that the Amer. Trotskyites, on Trotsky’s instructions, are in contact with the Trotskyite underground in the USSR through Hammer.Hammer lived in Moscow together with his sons, who owned the concession from 1923 to 1933.Hammer occupied a large mansion, in which he regularly held balls and parties with the participation of a broad circle of individuals from the entertainment field. Quite often these parties were visited by certain economic and party officials. Hammer had a close relationship with a former Comintern official, Reinstein (under investigation in the “Abram” case), who joined the party on the recommendation of Trotsky and Bukharin. Among Hammer’s contacts in the USSR, the one who is of the most interest is the former wife of one of his sons, Varvara Hammer, an actress.In 1927-1928 Varvara Dmitrievna Hammer married Hammer’s younger son—Hammer, living with him for about four years, and in 1930 she divorced him.According to our agent information, the reason for the divorce was, on the one hand, the frivolous life style

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of Varvara Hammer, who had intimate liaisons with performers from the circle surrounding the Hammer family, and on the other hand, the influence on the son exerted by Hammer, who sought to get close to Varvara Hammer and did not receive reciprocity from her.Even after the divorce, however, Varvara Hammer has not broken off contact with Hammer.Ever since Hammer moved abroad, Varvara Hammer has been corresponding with her ex-husband, has been receiving money and packages from him, hasn’t worked anywhere and, to all intents and purposes, is being supported by him.Agent data and materials on Hammer have determined that V. Hammer is very attached to his child, who is living with Varvara Hammer, and is taking steps to arrange for Varv. Hammer to move to America together with the child.On 27 August 1941 Varvara Hammer visited the American ambassador at his invitation. As it turned out, her husband, Victor Hammer, had sent the ambassador a telegram requesting that he arrange a visa to the US for Hammer’s wife. In March 1940 Varvara Hammer was recruited by Department 1 of the 3rd Directorate of the NKVD USSR to cultivate Yuly Hammer’s Russian contacts, she willingly agreed to be recruited, but refused to cooperate further with NKVD organs, and as a result was not incorporated into the active network as an agent.Varvara Hammer was cultivated by agent “Nikolsky.” The last agent report regarding Varvara Hammer was received in March 1941.”(Handwritten: Varvara Dmitryevna Hammer “Lyudmila” was recruited on 13/3-40 by the former Dept. 1 of the 3rd Dir. of the NKVD, but for unknown reasons was not registered.”)

Agent memorandum (May 1945)“Lyubov Nikolayevna Kostsyushko-Valyuzhinich (not Kostsyushko), born 1878 in Sevastopol, Russian, cit. of USSR, housewife, since 1933 has lived at ul. Kirova, 24, Apt. 29.During the time she has lived in the building L. N. Kostsyushko-Valyuzhinich is described as a secretive, laconic woman. In everyday life she keeps to herself and joins conversations only when necessary. She never mentions her past. All that is known is that she used to be married, her husband supposedly died a long time ago, and no other information about him has been obtained. She spends most of her time at home, only goes out once in a while for household needs. Has no complaints about financial difficulties.According to agent information that has been obtained, she has a daughter living in America, with whom she corresponds and sometimes receives some packages (background data on the daughter has not been obtained).Is politically cautious, doesn’t express her views or attitudes.In 1941 she left in the evacuation for the town of Orsk,

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and returned to Moscow in February 1944. Prior to her departure in the evacuation she was registered in the building book as an ethnic German.Her son’s wife lives with her—Yelena Anatolyevna Root, born 1906 in Tula, Russian, cit. of USSR, office clerk at a People’s Commissariat (it has not been determined which one), and currently is in logging work.Previously her son lived with her—Vladimir Vladimirovich Root, born 1902 in Sevastopol, Russian, cit. of USSR, former student at the military school for Red Army railroad troops, was arrested by NKVD organs in 1938.Deputy Head, Section 7 of Department 12 of 2nd Dir. of NKGB USSRMajor CherkasovSr. OperativeCaptain Shershnev

Moscow to NY, to May, 21.5.45[Locate “Screw,” gather detailed data, clarify his capabilities for our work. Married to Irene Wicker, a radio entertainer.]

p. 55 On 12.08.50 A. Gorsky requested that a “PK” be established for the entire correspondence between Victor Yulyevich Hammer, who lives in the US) and:1. Varvara Dmitr. Hammer, M., ul. Kr. Presnya, 6/2, Apt. 12. Armand Victorovich Hammer.

p. 56 In 1945 Varvara H. worked in the electric heating appliance repair workshop of Local Industry Trust No. 1 (Neglinnaya ul., 18)

p. 56 On 15 Aug. 1950 S. Savchenko issued an order that a full check to be conducted in MGB records of Victor H., Yuly Yak. H., Varvara H., Armand Vict. H.Files: “Prometheus,” archive 38291 agent file 645“Hazel Grouse” vol. 2 archive 7451 file/data sheet 8411

p. 62 (on reverse side) [Yuly Yak. Hammer has been sentenced to prison in the US for illegal abortions. He has sought to stay in the USSR].

p. 76 On 6 Sept. 1950 Department “V” of the MGB responded to S. Savchenko of the Committee of Information under the SM USSR.[From Jan. 1945 to Oct. 1948 A. V. Hammer conducted a correspondence with Victor Hammer and Henry Dumay, who were in the US. During said period 12 documents (5 outgoing, 7 incoming) went through and there were 3 parcels from the US. From Oct. 1948 to March 1950 the correspondence was discontinued. On 8 March 1950 the arrival of a document from the US addressed to A. V. H. was recorded, sender unknown. In addition, in April 1947 a document went through from the Amer. Emb., in which the emb. invited A. V. H. to come in.Varvara Dmitrievna Hammer—from 1939 to April 1948 corresponded with V. H. in the US. During said period there were 16 documents (8 incoming and 8 outgoing) and a clothing package from the US. Deputy department head of MGB USSRCol. Gromov

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p. 78

Telegram to V. H., 682 5th Avenue, NY, USA, dated 8.7.44.“Papochka, thank you for the good wishes, I’m surprised why there are no packages, please send as soon as possible ready-made suits, fabric, shoes for me and Mama. Kisses, looking forward to your answer, your son Armand69 Hammer.”[Sent by Varvara.]

M to NY 23.1.45 in English“Father, why aren’t you helping us at all. Mother is ill from working. I’m asking you to help us and give me a chance to go to school. Father, it’s not clear to us when we should receive your packages. Answer me. Your loving son Armand Hammer.

p. 79 M to NY 19.2.45 in English Armand to Victor.“Father, I’m asking you, send me money immediately, mother is ill. Your loving son, Armand Hammer.”

p. 80 NY to M 1.01.51 in English“Happy New Year to Armand and Vava. I’ll transfer money on Tuesday. Papa.”

p. 81 Armand to Victor 16.02.51 in German“Dear Papa, the January money hasn’t been received. If you can, help me through the college. It’s essential to arrange regular money transfers every month. Please answer. Regards Arnold.

p. 82 Letter from Henry (?)70 Dumay in NY dated 20.10.47 in RussianTo Armand.“Dear Armasha,You will be very surprised to read my letter, but I wanted very much to drop you a line.Your father, my favorite cousin, just read me your latest letters. To tell the truth, they touched me very much—there was so much youthful anxiety and sincerity in them that I couldn’t help tearing up… Fortunately, your troubles are not so great and are fixable. I must say, however, that until we arrived at the reason for your alarm and distress, we became extremely worried. Thank goodness, it’s not so terrible. And don’t torture yourself anymore. You will have a new pen and you will soon calm down. Your father, and I as well (as a relative), are very proud of you, we’re also proud of your successes in studying and are very glad that you won’t have to interrupt your university studies. I’m personally familiar with you only from your childhood photograph, but I also know quite a bit about you from my cousin. You have a fine father, kind and open-hearted—in this respect life has not wronged you. I send my warmest regards to your mother and you. Don’t

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criticize my Russian language and style. At one time I was born in Russia, but I have lived all my life in France—as a Frenchwoman. And now I’m in America. I’m working and learning English. So long for now.

Memorandum re V. D. Hammer dated 13 Oct. 1950Mgr. of curriculum office of School 83 of the Krasnaya Presnya RONO“V. D. Hammer (maiden name Kartasheva), comes from a rich bourgeois family. Her father, Shuvalov, had his own plant that manufactured leather and harness products until 1917. During the NEP period V. D. Hammer was a café singer and had a reputation as a woman of loose morals.”[Married V. H. in 1927.]“V. Hammer is very attached to his son Armand, every month sends him 100-200 dollars and packages, and also

p. 85 is taking measures to arrange for him to move to the US. On 27 August 1941 the US ambassador in Moscow invited V. D. Hammer to come to see him and informed her that her former husband, V. Hammer, had sent the US Emb. a telegram requesting that it arrange a visa for her and her son to emigrate to the US.Initially V. D. Hammer had the intention of sending her son to her husband, but later abandoned her intention. In 1931, after V. Hammer moved to the US, V. D. Hammer got married again, to a Soviet citizen, Ivan Ivanovich Kursky, born 1907 in Moscow, whom she divorced in 1941 and currently lives alone with her son.According to our information, V. D. Hammer displays anti-Soviet attitudes. In a report dated 22.9-1947 agent “Marsky” stated:“… Around 12 September 1947, the source “Marsky” who had come to see A. Hammer learned of a notice received by Armand to come to the draft board, the notice upset Armand’s mother, Varvara Dmitrievna, who said to Armand, “Tomorrow right away go to Uncle Beetle (that’s how the US ambassador is called) and tell him everything so that he sends you to your father in the US or keeps you out of the army. I’m sick and tired of taking abuse from this damn country, you mustn’t end up in the army because they’ll destroy you there.In March 1940 V. D. Hammer was recruited by NKVD organs under the cover name “Lyudmila.” The purpose of Hammer’s recruitment was to cover and investigate the Hammer family’s numerous contacts in the USSR.Subsequently V. D. Hammer refused to work with MGB organs for unknown reasons.In March 1949 agent “Lyudmila’s” personal file was turned over to Department “A” of the MGB USSR for archiving.”Head of Dept. 2 of the Chief Directorate of the MGB USSRLieut. Col. Strokov

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Memorandum re Victor H. dated 28.11.50[Twice—in 1938 and 1939—V. H. applied for an entry visa to the USSR. Was denied.]

Memorandum re Varvara H. dated 18.11.50[On 27 Aug. 1941 Varvara H. visited the Amer. ambassador at his invitation. Victor had sent the ambassador a telegram requesting that he arrange a US visa for his wife.]“In addition, it is known from a 1938 agent report that addresses and telephone numbers of Soviet citizens were copied from the notebook of William Albert Reese,71 an Amer. citizen and journalist, born 1883, who was living at

p. 92 the National Hotel, Room 334, and among those listed was “Varvara Dmitrievna Hammer, Novo-Slobodskaya, 14, Apt. 45.”

p. 98 Background report No. 78076 of Department 1 of 7th Directorate of the MGB USSR dated 22.12.50 re Varvara H.[Was manager of the curriculum office at School 83 of the Krasnaya Presnya RONO]“It was learned from a source… who knows the subject from her current place of residence that she comes from a rich family, and her father, Shuvalov, had his own plant that manufactured leather and harness products until the October Revolution, but he died a long time ago. Later her mother got married again, to some professor. Her mother and second husband also died. The subject received a good upbringing and education,

p. 99 used to socialize in a privileged circle, was well provided for, experienced no hardship and her parents never denied her anything. Before her marriage and then later again she was a performer for a long time and, since she was attractive, had many admirers. In the 1920s she married Victor Hammer, who at the time had come from America with his parents, and the Soviet government permitted them to establish a pencil factory in Russia on a concessionary basis. After receiving permission Hammer’s parents set up pencil production under the name of “Hammer” (now the Sacco and Vanzetti factory), and as was learned from her previous place of residence, they had their own store on Kuznetsky Most, which sold office supplies. At that time the subject, along with her husband and his relatives, was living somewhere in a mansion in the center of Moscow. In 1927 she gave birth to a son, Armand. Shortly after her son was born, according to her, she supposedly stopped living with her husband, since she had met another man at the time, but she didn’t live with him for very long, either, he left the subject, whereas Victor Hammer moved back to America with his parents in 1928-29 and now lives in New York City on 5th Avenue.The subject confides in a limited, narrow circle of individuals about the Hammers’ past life and her connection with them. Among

p. 100 other things she told a source that Victor Hammer and his parents are ethnically of Jewish background, long before

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the October Revolution they were residents of the city of Odessa and moved to live in America before 1917, becoming Amer. citizens. They have lived there ever since. They are rich people, and had capital in a number of other countries. They currently have their own businesses in America as well. The father of the subject’s husband is deceased, and his mother is still alive. In addition, the husband has an older brother (no background data), also residing there, who lived in Moscow in the 1920s, married a young Russian woman and moved to America with her, but supposedly divorced her there.According to the subject, during the prerevolutionary period Victor Hammer’s parents were supposedly acquainted with V. I. Lenin and met with him abroad, and V. I. Lenin ostensibly gave the Hammers a snapshot of himself or some other object with his inscription on it, which the mother of the subject’s husband has kept to this day. In the late 1920s, under the policy of restricting and driving out capitalist elements from industry, a big tax was levied on the Hammer company, as a result of which the Hammers gave up further use of the concession, the Sovietstate took over the factory, and the Hammers left the Soviet Union. When they left Moscow the husband’s parents refused to take the subject with them, and they only wanted to take her son, Armand, but the subject refused to be separated from her son. Then they proposed that she and her son move together to live in Paris, where she could be fully supported by them. But she rejected this proposal as well and remained in permanent residence in the Soviet Union.After that she was a performer for a number of years, then she quit this work and didn’t work for a while. During the Patriotic War she got a job as a librarian at School No. 83, then was transferred to be manager of the curriculum office. V. D. Hammer keeps in contact with her ex-husband to this day. He sometimes sends letters, packages and 2,000 rubles in money each month for the support of his son. For the past two months, for some reason unknown to her, she hasn’t received money. According to the subject, her husband Victor Hammer sent her an especially large amount of money and various valuable items before the Patriotic War. At that time she had expensive furniture in her apartment, an upright piano, many other valuable items and, according to her, a silver bed. She sold most of these items during the Patriotic War and now she can sometimes

p. 102 be heard complaining about being poor. The subject in general, having lived in a well-to-do family in the past, is not used to a life of work, she lives without planning, lives for today, and when any difficulties arise she becomes flustered and doesn’t know what to do.She behaves in a positive manner in everyday life. She is described as a serious, self-possessed woman. Once in a while she gets into conversations with tenants about everyday issues, but in so doing she is laconic and doesn’t have a close relationship with anybody in the building. At her previous address she didn’t communicate with anybody except her neighbors. In her free time she likes to go to movie theaters, frequently visits her sister, who lives in the Arbat district, and sometimes her sister comes to see her. The source doesn’t know her acquaintances, and nobody visits her here

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besides her son’s friends.She is now indifferent toward life around her, she is more worried only about her own welfare and worries about her son, trying to give him an education so that he can acquire a profession. One time source…, while touching on current international events in a conversation with the subject, attempted to find out her opinion. V. D. Hammer answered her in this fashion: “Whatever happens, let me have enough to live on.”She came to house No. 6/2 on Ul. Krasnaya Presnya with her second husband, Ivan Ivanovich Kursky, born 1907 in Moscow, who registered to live in her apartment at the previous address back in 1940, and she lived with him until 1941, then he was drafted into the army, where he was until the end of the Patriotic War. And when I. I. Kursky was demobilized, he didn’t return to the subject, but lived somewhere else for about a year. Then he decided to register again to live with the subject, but the latter didn’t want to live with him, and rejected his registration. Where he currently resides is unknown.Residing with the subject is her son, Armand Victorovich Hammer, born 1927 in Moscow.According to source …, he is attending the institute of foreign languages. Source describes him as a mature, energetic person, courteous to his elders. At his place of residence he isolates himself from his peers and isn’t close with anybody. He often spends leisure time with friends from the institute, or with a young woman he’s acquainted with, Tanya (either Shchapova or Shchanova) in the city or here in the apartment, who often visit him. Sometimes he has small get-togethers with his friends in the apartment. Among his friends from the institute, the source knows only two by their first names: Igor and Semen, whom he has known for quite a while already. He has also been friends for a long time with Tatyana (mentioned above) an MGU student, the daughter of a general

p. 104 at the Ministry of Railroads, with whom he has a close relationship. The source knows about A. V. Hammer from his mother that before the Patriotic War, with her consent and at his father’s request, he applied to move to America for permanent residence with his father, but the war interfered and he remained in the Soviet Union. After the war his father also repeatedly asked him to move there to live, and at one time his mother wanted this as well, but then changed her mind. He supposedly told his mother in this regard that no matter where he lived, he would be in a bad situation; here in the Sov. Union people regard him as the son of the factory owner Hammer, and if he moves to America people there will regard him as a Communist. And they decided that he would graduate from the institute, acquire a profession and work here. The source also knows from the mother of the subject that 2-3 years ago A. V. Hammer visited the American Embassy at the invitation of US Ambassador Smith, who is a close acquaintance of his father. Smith then handed him gifts, including a gold watch, as a gift from his father. After that, as … learned from V. D. Hammer, her son was summoned

p. 105 to the Ministry of State Security concerning his visit to the Amer. Embassy. The subject supposedly described both his visit to the embassy and his summons to the organs of the MGB

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during a 1949 investigation as well. At the time he was arrested for the fact that, while riding with his friends in a passenger car belonging to a Professor Sokolov or Solovyov, they stopped on ul. A. Tolstogo72 and attempted to remove a tire from an ambulance parked there. In the process the subject was detained, while his other friends managed to escape. As a result he spent some time in prison, afterward the case was tried in the Sovetsky Region People’s Court and the Municipal Court, but the court acquitted him and he was released.No other data was obtained regarding V. D. Hammer and her son at their building.Dep. head of Department 1 of the 7th Dir. of the MGB USSRLieut. Col. (Sharapov)Head of Department 1 of the 7th Dir. of the MGB USSRCol. (Mishakov)

Yuly Yakovlevich Hammer—“Physician.”

p. 110 Memorandum re “Sonny” from A. Gorsky dated 8 June 1951“We know that “Sonny” has extensive contacts in business circles, among diplomats and attends diplomatic receptions. At one such reception an operative of the MGB USSR (probably “Miron”) got acquainted with him, promised him that he would forward a letter to “Sonny’s” son in Moscow and arranged another meeting. “Sonny” was eager to pursue this acquaintance. How their relationship is developing, we don’t know.”

p. 125 Memorandum re A. V. Hammer[After visiting the Amer. Emb. in Aug. 1941 V. D. Hammer was interrogated. She stated:]“Beginning in 1934 Victor Hammer repeatedly suggested that I move abroad with my son. He has repeated this suggestion up to the present time, but I don’t want to move, since I have every reason to believe that the Hammers only want to get my son, and to get rid of me over there. Back in 1930 old man Hammer offered me money to give up my son to them. In 1934 Victor Hammer suggested that I move to Paris, and give up my son to be with him in America. Recently Victor Hammer and his mother, Rozalya Semenovna Hammer, suggested that now I move together with my son to settle in America itself.”[In 1943 Victor sent an Amer. passport for my son, but at the time Armand was under arrest in the case of the murder of Umansky’s daughter.]“According to unverified agent data, Armand Hammer met with Smith, the US ambassador to the Sov. Union, received large sums of money from him, planned to renounce his Soviet citizenship and move to his relatives in America. According to the same data, Armand Hammer has expressed anti-Soviet attitudes in the past.While at the Yevropa restaurant on 24 October 1946, Hammer stated:

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“Here in the Sov. Union I live only with my mind, but my soul is absent, since it’s impossible to live in this country with one’s soul. There is nothing butoppression and enslavement here. Every serf in Russia’s past was happier than today’s engineer, professor or prize winner. Our entire people are enslaved and pinned to the wall.”In late 1946 our agent “Female Teacher”, who used to know Victor Hammer, received a telegram from him requesting that she look for his son.With the assent of organs of the MGB, “Female Teacher” established contact with Armand Hammer and reported this to his father. After that “F. Teacher” began to receive money regularly from Victor Hammer to give to his son, Armand.”

pp. 127-128 NY to M 25.12.50[Agent “Levin” got acquainted with Amer. industrialist Victor Hammer at a reception in the Indian delegation. Ambassadors Davies and Smith had told Victor about his son when they returned from Moscow.]

p. 129 Agent report from “Levin” dated 2.02.51.[Reception given by Nehru, financial counselor at the Indian Embassy in the US. 20-30 people. “Levin” and Nehru were working on UN Fifth Committee (budgetary).“Levin” met Gimbel, who along with his brothers owns stores in the US. Upon learning that L. was Russian, Gimbel

p. 130 said that his friend spoke Russian, and called him over: “Victor!”]“It was Victor Hammer, who immediately began speaking in Russian. When Hammer and the source were left alone, Hammer told his story in detail. He told it on his own, the source only occasionally asked questions. Hammer was tipsy. He complained about fate. He said he would like to bring his son to the US, that his son had repeatedly visited the US Emb. in Moscow. His son had talked with US Ambassador Smith and the ambassador who was there before Smith. These people and some others had given accounts to Victor Hammer. When they would come to the US from Moscow, Hammer would visit them and they would tell him in detail about his son. He knows that his son is a good student and that he was given a deferment from the army. Victor Hammer said that he had done everything to bring his son to the US, but says that, as a USSR citizen, he is not being allowed to leave the USSR. Hammer said that he sends his son packages and telegrams. He doesn’t send letters and doesn’t get any. Hammer showed a photo of his son. In it his son is grown up, in a flat fur hat. Hammer said that he had been promised help in getting his son out, but those people had died (Stettinius or somebody else).Hammer introduced himself to the source as a capitalist. According to him, he has more than a million dollars. He owns an antique store on 5th Avenue and several whiskey factories in the US.When the source said he would soon be in the USSR and would probably be able to give regards to his son, Hammer wrote down the son’s address and asked him to do that. Hammer invited the source to breakfast, but having breakfast together didn’t work out. Before his departure

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the source dropped by to see Hammer at his store. Hammer didn’t give him a letter, but asked him to give regards and tell the son about his papa.

Report to Major-General Ye. P. Pitovranov, dep. minister of state security of the USSR. [Summarizes “Sonny’s” background. Contact with “Levin.”]

p. 138 “Considering “Sonny’s” extensive capabilities for working on our line, his past connection with our organs and his desire to secure his son’s emigration from the Sov. Union, we deem it advisable to re-establish contact with him through our station in New York.Contact can be re-established with “Sonny” according to the following scenario.Agent “Levin,” on our assignment, will visit his son in Moscow and in the process will get a letter from him for his father. We will also take from “Levin” a letter to “Sonny” in which he will report on his meetings with the son and will say that in the immediate future he cannot be in NY and therefore has asked a good acquaintance of his to visit him and deliver the letters. Our operative in NY will use these letters to visit “Sonny” and establish contact with him, to which the latter, according to “Levin,” will respond eagerly, since he is trying to use every opportunity to get information about his son.”Head of the 1st Dir. of the MGB USSRMajor-Gen. Utekhin June 1951

p p. 139-140 Letter from M to Cde. Miron in NY dated 8.12.51[Armand (“Gherman”) has written a letter to “Sonny.” It has been sent to the station. Depending on “S.’s” reaction, circumstances permitting, a password will have to be used.]

p. 140 “Depending on how “Sonny” reacts to this and, circumstances permitting, use No. 22 and bring up No. 15 with him.If “Sonny” reacts adversely to the handover of No. 20 and to meeting with you, and doesn’t express a desire to continue No. 25 with you, refrain from bringing up No. 15, reserving the possibility of a meeting in the future.”

p. 141 Insertions: No. 22—contact password; No. 15—contact; No. 20—the letter; No. 25—contact.

p. 147 NY M 7.02.52[On 24.01 “Miron” visited “Sonny,” who received him in his office at a picture gallery at 51 East 57th Street. M. said that “Levin” had sent him a letter from Paris and had asked him to deliver it to “Sonny.”]

p. 148 “ “Sonny” asked Miron for permission to read the letter. After reading it intently, he described

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the contents of the letter to Miron, saying that his son had apparently inherited linguistic skills from his grandfather, that the institute of foreign languages was good educational institution for him and that he was pleased that his son was studying specifically in Moscow, where he could devote all his time to studying without being distracted by entertainment like the young people in the US.”[Then Victor described his father’s concession. On the advice of Grabar and other art experts he purchased china, paintings and brocade, which he sold in the US through Gimbels department store. Then he went back again, ran into difficulties in Moscow, but was still able to bring items out and successfully sold them.Subsequently he was unable to get into the USSR, since he couldn’t get a visa, although he knew that his companion Zolotnitsky got one.]“ “I began to fear, said “Sonny,” that my competitors may have said bad things about me.””[In addition he is in alcohol and whiskey production. He gave Miron a whiskey he had manufactured. M. took it and promised to give him two bottles of vodka. “S.” said he likes vodka very much. He invited M. to look at the paintings. They arranged to have breakfast together on 28.01. “S.” asked for help in his correspondence with Gherman, since the letters don’t get there by regular mail. M. said he would be glad to help.

p. 150 On 28.01 they had breakfast in the Drake restaurant on 56th Street.]“During the breakfast “Sonny” complained about the stagnation in the art-objects and antique business and envied his brother Armand, who had purchased an enormous farm and had started raising purebred cattle. He had literally become rich in that business, he said, and no depression is predicted in that business in the future. When Miron asked why he wouldn’t switch to raising purebred cattle, “Sonny” replied that while his business is not so profitable at present, it gives him satisfaction and that involvement with art objects and antiques and interesting people makes up for the low return from the business.“Sonny” asked Miron several times whether it was possible for Gherman to visit the US when he finished his education.Miron replied that he shouldn’t think about that now, since Gherman had many years left to study to get a higher education. “S.” said that he sends him 250 dollars a month, but apparently that money isn’t enough for Gherman. He is supposedly not able to send him more because he has a family friend and, in addition, things are not going so well.”

p. 151 [“S.” is auctioning off Roosevelt’s personal belongings. He is well acquainted with Roosevelt’s wife and with R.’s former adviser Hopkins. He has also sold his belongings and valuable gifts received when he carried out special missions. They arranged to have lunch on 7.02. He promised to show a collection of valuable paintings stored in the Empire State Building.]“From these two meetings with “Sonny” we have formed the impression that “Sonny” was seeking an opportunity to set up a permanent line of communications with his son and that, once he found that opportunity, he would try to maintain it.We believe that after another meeting or two with “Sonny” it will be possible to use a password and re-establish contact with him.”

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p. 153

Letter from V. H. to his son dated 28.01.52 (sent through Miron)My beloved son Armand,I was very pleased with your letter and especially your snapshot. You look too serious in it, but I hope that you will be photographed smiling in the next snapshot. I’m sure that you smile and that life is being kind to you. Of course, I know that you work a lot and are a good student, but I also sense that you’re able to have some fun. Judging by your anxiety, you obviously didn’t get my last letter, which included snapshots for you. It’s not important, I’m sending you other snapshots in this letter and I’m sure it will reach you.Now I will tell you all of the news. I am well. In fact, my health has always been good, except for random colds. Meanwhile, I turned 50 in November. But I don’t feel any older than when I last saw you in 1934. My hair hasn’t turned gray and there aren’t even any signs of it. My weight is also relatively low (159 pounds). I look the same as before, although deep wrinkles have appeared on my face. I still like, as your mama remembers, to tell jokes and laugh just as hard as the people I tell them to. I’m even able to appear often on television to tell stories. On these occasions I recall my old desire to become a performer.My wife is an actress and singer, she has been well known on radio and television since 1931. For many years now she has performed in children’s programs on the radio. Kids really love her. For two years she has also performed in children’s programs on television. Now she will perform on television once a week and play children’s roles in a new television show. It’s very interesting work, but not very lucrative. We got married in 1941. She divorced her former husband five years before we got married and had two children—

p. 154 a son, Charles, 17 years old, and a daughter, Nancy, 14 years old. When the son turned 19, he became a pilot for the Canadian air force, and six months later he was killed. The daughter got married when she was 20, and she soon gave birth to a son, Mikhail, with nice red hair, who is now 4½ years old. He calls me papa, and I’m very proud that I’ve become a grandfather. Nancy separated from her husband soon after her son was born. She is currently in Florida, recovering from an illness, and Mike stayed with us. He’s a bundle of joy, although he wears me out. Every morning he gets us up at 7 a.m. and doesn’t rest until 8 p.m., when we put him to bed.Mama Rose is full of energy and health for her 75 years. We recently saw her off to Florida, where she will spend two months with friends. She was pleased with your letter and photograph. At the same time she was upset that your girlfriend caused you trouble and said that you should never marry

p. 155 her, but that’s your private business.I’m always busy with things at our gallery, where we deal with paintings, art objects and

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valuable antiques. Things aren’t going so well, taxes are too high, and people don’t have the money to buy the luxury items that we sell.My two brothers own factories that manufacture alcohol and whiskey, but their business isn’t very profitable, either, and they are worried that they may have to liquidate the business.When you write a letter to me, tell me about your plans for the future, how long you still have to go to school for, what languages you have studied and what occupation you intend to get into. It seems to me that you will become a professor and you will teach at the University. I know I will always be proud of you. I love you very much and dream of the day when you will be here with me, where I can look after your happiness and welfare. It’s painful for me to accept that I only see you, a grown-up and handsome young man, in a photo. I’m glad that your mother is happy with you and I know you mean a lot to her in her life.I am very sorry that I can’t give you more assistance. But believe me, what I send you each month is enough for an average family. Evidently life in Moscow is expensive, and the 250 dollars that I send you each month isn’t worth much, but in order to send you 250 dollars I have to make 500 dollars, since the remaining 250 pays for the taxes on the money order. What’s more, I can’t arrange for the money that is sent to you as a dependent not to be taxed, since you are already more than 21 years old.I am telling you about money matters because you should know that I’m doing everything possible for my dear son. I have a lot of dependents, and it isn’t so easy to make ends meet.Please write me how tall you are, how much you weigh and send me a photo. I’m sending you a few snapshots. I will look forward to your response. Write as soon as possible.

Reverse of p. 156

With love for you, my son. All of my relatives send you regards. Give my regards to your dear mother. Your devoted father, Victor.”

p. 157 M to NY 23.02.52[C. approves of Miron’s work with “Sonny. It’s still too early to re-establish an agent relationship, since if “S” refuses we will lose the chance to continue working with him.]“ “Miron” has been instructed to structure his continuing relationship with “S” in such a way as to use his affection for “Gherman” to solidify the agreement that has been established with him by giving him individual minor assignments in order to draw him into cooperating.”

p. 158 M to NY dated 8.3.52“For your information, we are continuing to develop our relationship with “Gherman” under the pretext of investigating several entities and individuals through him at his place of study. It isn’t out of the question that “Gherman” suspects the true reasons for our attention to him, but he doesn’t express his opinion directly

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on this matter.”[“G.’s” letter has been sent as an enclosure.][A letter addressed to G. has been received from G. Mikaelyan (515 Madison Ave., NY), who introduces himself as a good friend of “Sonny’s” and asked for advice about which organization he should contact about purchasing antique rugs in the USSR. “G.” replied according to our instructions.]

NY to MRe M.’s meeting with S. on 8.02.52.[After lunch they went to 42nd Street to the Empire State Building73 to see V. H.’s valuable paintings. The firm United Distillers of America Inc., which belongs to Harry, Armand and Victor, is located on the 78th floor.]“Armand is the head of the firm, and according to “Sonny” is the principal figure in their family. He is involved not only in business, managing the above-mentioned firm and maintaining farms where purebred cattle is raised, but also in politics. According to “Sonny,” Armand has extensive contacts both at the top of the business world and among government officials and that he is well acquainted with the current US president Truman and General Eisenhower, to both of whom he has rendered some valuable services.In Armand’s office “Miron” saw large photographs of Truman and Eisenhower with handwritten inscriptions by both, from which one can infer that they know Armand well.”

p. 162 [United Distillers manufactures bourbon and Truman whiskeys, distilleries in the states of Kentucky, NY and in the vicinity of New Orleans. In the office are paintings by Van Dyck, Rubens, Rembrandt and others.He talked about his wife, Irene74 Wicker. She manages the Marry-go-round Theater in NY.We talked a bit about the election. “S.” said Truman has a good chance of being re-elected if the Republicans nominate Taft as their candidate. Eisenhower may be popular as a candidate, but he may not be nominated since he has been assigned the task of creating armed forces for the North Atlantic pact countries.]

p. 163 “Then “Sonny” voiced displeasure over the artificially whipped-up antagonism between the US and the USSR and expressed the hope that this “psychosis” could not last long and that eventually the leaders of these countries would give up the squabbling and would find peaceful ways to settle all disputes, including the Korean, German and other issues, and that he hopes that the economic conference that will take place in Moscow would help Soviet diplomacy to eliminate the obstacles in the way of finding a common language and mutual understanding.Amer. big business, he said, has a stake in war, but medium-size and especially small business has a stake in the peaceful settlement of issues and in the establishment of good-neighbor relations between all countries and in the development of international trade. The resumption of trade between the USSR and the US could75 create the necessary preconditions for establishing normal relations and strengthening international peace.”

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p. 163

p. 164

[S. gave M. a photocopy of a Perov painting: he wanted to get a finding from the Tretyakovka about whether it is well known, who is pictured, etc. They agreed that M. would clarify the possibilities of sending clothing and shoes for G.]

[The Tretyakovka’s finding is on pp. 164-166. The painting is not known, but apparently authentic. Appraised at 10,000-20,000 rubles.]

p. 167 NY to M 8.4.52.[A second letter to Sonny from Gherman has been received without an envelope è makes things awkward for M., since the nature of the relationship with S. doesn’t allow him to deliver letters without envelopes.]

p. 168 M to NY 17.05.52“Despite the Center’s repeated reminders that the station’s work in going out into the city must be intensified, this highly important task is still not being properly carried out. A typical example in this regard is the cultivation of “Sonny.” This agent’s operational value and high potential are quite obvious both to the station and to the Center.The station has every opportunity to carry out the assignment of studying “Sonny” in order to determine whether it is possible to proceed to an agent relationship with him. “Miron,” however, is listless and slow in conducting this interesting cultivation, and the available opportunities for contact with “S” are not being put to full use. For example, the last meeting with “S” took place on 8 Feb. 1952

p. 169 and in the nearly four months since then “M.” hasn’t taken any measures to continue and solidify his relationship with “S.” “M.” has failed to make full use of the excellent opportunity offered by the correspondence with “G” in order to develop the relationship with “S.” Your reference to the delay in delivering the last letter from “G” due to the absence of Soviet envelopes at the station is no justification for prolonging the cultivation of “S,” since a solution to the situation could have been found locally, without resorting to assistance from C. and without postponing meetings with “S” for such a long time.“M.” is making no use at all of other pretexts for developing his relationship with “S,” isn’t seeking them out and isn’t trying to intensify the cultivation of “S.”In order to accelerate the cultivation of “S,” C. directs that:1. A plan for further work with “S” be drawn up and sent to C., with the plan providing for a transition to an agent relationship with him in October 1952.2. The plan specify actions to accelerate the study of “S,” making use to this end not only of letters from “G” but also other available opportunities.Please send us the plan you draw up with the next mail.”

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p. 173

p. 174

NY to M 29.5.52[On 8.05 M. met with S. at the Henri Restaurant at 52 Foyer Street. M. passed along a letter, saying that S. could send parcels through the Union Tours travel agency. S. read the letter aloud and commented on it.]“When he finished reading he asked “M.” if it would be possible for “G” to come to the US to see him. “M.” replied that it was hard for him to say anything definite, but he believed that it would be hard for “G,” who had been brought up in the USSR, to adapt to the empty life of young people in the US and, besides, it could be inferred from the letters that he loves his mother and plans to marry a Soviet girl and that all these factors, to a certain extent, complicate the prospect of his coming to the US. “Sonny” agreed with this, remarking that a reunion with his son would give him tremendous joy.”[S. complained that the businesses are doing very poorly. He’s been forced to liquidate the jewelry and antique businesses. Wine sales are also doing badly. The company lowered the price for wine and alcohol by 20 percent, but without success.]“ “Sonny” tried to blame the merchandising situation, and above all the situation with luxury items, on US foreign policy. According to him, the enormous expenditures on the war in Korea, on the arming of Western Europe and on support for all kinds of dubious adventures are leading the US to econom. collapse. We now need more than ever, said “S.,” an authoritative and far-sighted leader of the govt. who could turn the US away from the path leading to disaster. Such a man, in his view, is Eisenhower, who in addition is well oriented regarding the European situation. Events are looming in Europe, “S.” went on to say, that are more threatening and fraught with grave consequences for the US than the Korean events, and a lot will depend on whom the US has at the head of the government.”

p. 177 NY to M 20.06.52[Meeting on 5.06 with S. in his office on 57th Street. He showed M. new paintings. M. suggested to S. that they visit NY galleries together.

p. 178 S. agreed. “S.” said that he had liquidated the antique business and had focused all his attention on paintings and china. But they are sluggish, the prices are low ç econom. crisis. M. described the Tretyakovka’s finding. The experts appraised it at 10,000-15,000 rubles. S.: he had it on commission and he would sell it to a Sov. organization for half that amount or even less.

p. 179 S. gave M. his personal telephone number, Plaza 80414—direct dial. Any day from 10 to 11 a.m., to arrange a meeting.]

p. 182 Meeting on 19.06.[S. said that G. had put him in a difficult position by asking his permission to get married. He had sent a photo. Judging by the photo, she’s a nice girl, but he can’t advise, permit or forbid. He wrote him to follow his mother’s advice.

p. 183 He passed along the letter for G. and a small suitcase of clothing. He apologized profusely

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p. 184

for the trouble and said that in the future he would send all parcels through Union Tours.

In July and August 1952 G. was vacationing in the south. The letter couldn’t be delivered until the end of August.

A.H.—the German file

p. 185 M to NY 27.09.52“We are informing you that we have intercepted and confiscated a letter from “S.” to “G.” in which he expresses concern over the long interruption in the correspondence and reports that he had been in Canada since 10 July and had returned to the US only recently. We are worried about the possibility that an independent correspondence between “S.” and “G.” will resume, since this indicates he is dissatisfied about the communications with “G.” through us as a result of the repeated delays and interruptions in the correspondence.

p. 186 This also indicates that “M.” still isn’t devoting the proper amount of attention to the cultivation of “S.” and isn’t making use of every opportunity to meet with him.It is perfectly obvious that it isn’t in our interests to drag out the study of “S.” forever, since this could reveal our interest in him before he becomes our agent again. The pace of cultivation that “M.” has set, however (5 meetings in 10 months), and especially the lack of a definite conclusion as a result of such a slow-moving study, raise doubts about the possibility of completing the cultivation of “S.” with a new recruitment and of shifting to an agent relationship with him in the near term.Therefore we are thinking about the possibility of having a recruitment meeting with “S.” somewhere in Europe (Vienna, Czechoslovakia, Berlin), where he could come for talks regarding the sale of the painting you know about, during one of his forthcoming trips to the European countries.“M.” could make arrangements with him regarding the details of such a meeting with a “VOKS representative” at one of these sites, where we could send an experienced operative to have a recruitment discussion.

p. 187 If there is a real possibility that “S.” will travel to one of the sites that are convenient for us in Europe, please have a cautious talk with him and let us know the results, specifying the locations that are most acceptable and safe for “S.”Our interest in “S.” traveling to Europe should not be revealed and no promises should be made until we clarify in C. our possibilities for arranging a meeting not in Europe in general, but at the specified site, and we let you know the arrangements for holding it.”

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p. 194

p. 195

[Meeting on 25.10.52. M. met with S. and delivered a letter from G. He hadn’t been in NY for a long time since he had gone for a few days to Campobello (Canada), Pres. Roosevelt’s house, which he had bought, and ended up staying for 4 months. He had recently returned to NY. S. suggested meeting on 28.10 at the Twenty One Club restaurant.]

[On 28.10 they discussed the election campaign at breakfast. S. said that he was convinced that Eisen. was no statesman, that he conducted himself wretchedly and that Stevenson, conversely, had won a large number of supporters with his speeches.]“ “Miron” asked whom his brother Armand supported. “S.” replied that Armand was a Republican and supported Eisen., but his support for that candidate was based on self-interest. Armand, said “S.,” was in the kind of business where he had to have support from the govt. A victory by E. would hold out good prospects for his business, and that’s why he wanted E. to be elected.When the conversation turned to the UN session, “M” told “S.” that an American who loves his country and values the preservation of peace between peoples should contribute to the success of Soviet diplomacy, which is aimed at preserving peace between peoples, and that “S.,” as a man without prejudices who has an interest in the development of businesslike relations between the world’s two largest countries, could not stand on the sidelines as a spectator but must help Soviet diplomats in every way he could with his numerous contacts, information, etc.“S.” replied that he would be very glad to provide such assistance, but that he was somewhat troubled by the fact that such cooperation on his part would be exceptional and therefore ineffective. What surprises me very much, he said, is that Soviet diplomats in

p. 196 the US, for some reason, have isolated themselves from the outside world, and if they have contact with anybody, it is either official meetings or meetings with progressive leaders, who can hardly be useful to them.There is no contact with influential political figures, with businessmen, diplomats or public figures, and this is a very serious shortcoming among Soviet diplomats. I have never seen Sov. representatives, “S.” went on, at clubs, at theaters, in particular at receptions, etc. Besides the fact that this self-isolation has a negative effect on the fulfillment of the tasks assigned to Sov. diplomats, it also provides grounds for spreading all kinds of made-up stories about Soviet people, about their culture, etc. “S.” then said that the task of Sov. people is to find friends even in the enemies’ camp and to keep them. When I entered the restaurant, he said, I noticed Eugene Lyons among the patrons. I remember him when he was in the camp of friends of the USSR, but now he is the bitterest enemy. I’m not going to try to analyze the reasons for this degeneration of his, but it seems to me that if we were to analyze it, we would find that a certain part of the blame lies with Sov. people in the US, who, I’m convinced, did nothing to keep him close to them. “M.” replied that “S.” may be right in general, but as far as E. Lyons is concerned, he was evidently

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p. 197

an enemy even while he was in the friends’ camp.“M.” asked what E. Lyons is doing now. “S.” replied that he is one of the editors of the magazine Reader’s Digest. [S. described the contents of G.’s letter and said that instead of money he would send G. and his mother money clothing, shoes, etc. He gathered from G.’s letter that this suits them better than dollars. Through Union Tours.At the end of the conversation S. said that he had received an invitation from the wife of Davies, the former Amer. ambassador in M., and plans to visit her in Wash. Next time he will tell what he learned.]“ “Miron” feels that “S.” did not reject the proposal for cooperation that was made to him on 28 October 1952, and that “M.” will return to this question at future meetings and clarify for him exactly what issues he would like to get information on from him, in particular through his brother, who is close to the next president of the US.

p. 188 [Meeting on 25.11. S. visited Davies in Wash.]“Davies said during the conversation with him about the results of the presidential election that he was very concerned about the Republicans’ victory, that the accession to power of Eisenhower, behind whom are Taft, Dewey and especially Nixon and McCarthy, doesn’t promise anything good for the country. Eis., he said, doesn’t have any convictions of his own or even ideas, he will be totally controlled by those who are behind him. He has been used to taking orders from above since he was little and there is no reason to believe that he will change this habit. In the role of president, he will remain a general. Davies is especially worried about Nixon and McCarthy. They are 100 percent fascists, and Eis. will pave a path to power for them.Davies then put forth the notion that if those who are behind Eis. need to establish a fascist dictatorship in the country, they will do it very easily, by physically removing Eis. In the event that Eis. dies, Nixon will automatically become the head of the government, and then McCarthy will triumph.”

p. 189 [M. asked whether S. would go to Elizabeth’s coronation next year. Yes, under pressure from his wife, he had booked tickets on a French liner that is making its maiden voyage in May from the US to Europe. In London he will stay with a friend of his who is a factory owner, since there are no rooms at the hotels. After the coronation he will travel to Paris, and from there he will take a rented car on a trip around Spain. S. inquired whether there had been a response from M. regarding the Perov painting. M. said no. S.: it’s unlikely that its owner will be able to sell it in the US at a good price. The only buyer would be Sov. museums. They can sell it for 1250 doll., maybe less.]

p. 190 “When “M” returned to the last conversation about cooperating with us and asked him what contacts he had in the diplomatic world, “S.” said that, unfortunately, he didn’t have high-level contacts in that world, since those circles didn’t especially interest him. He knows Eleanor Roosevelt, Davies and an Indian maharajah, at whose apartment he got acquainted

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with Kobushko.At the same time he said that this category of people didn’t interest him since maintaining acquaintances among those individuals takes a lot of time, to the detriment of meetings related to his business.The circle of my acquaintances, he said, has already been defined by my business and it’s hard for me to expand it, but that doesn’t mean that I avoid getting to know any new people.“M.” tried not to end the discussion of this subject with a view to continuing the conversation at the next meeting.”

p. 191 [Letter from station chief “Tikhon” to Pavlov at C.—reply to letter of 27.09.52.Miron and he discussed it in detail. After the meeting of 28 Oct.]“we see this as a bit of a step forward in the development of our relationship with him”…

p. 192 “According to Cde. “Miron’s” evaluation, “S.” is a regular businessman who doesn’t hold friendly views of us and doesn’t have fond feelings for us. He is a rich man, he’s passionate about paintings, but in this area too he acts like a businessman. He loves the Amer. way of life and hopes that he will be able to bring “G.” from the USSR to the US in the future. The desire he expresses for preserving peace and establishing friendly relations between the US and the USSR is related to his self-interest. He hopes that an improvement in relations between these two countries will open up an opportunity for him to do good “business.”Cde. “Miron’s” relationship with him so far has not gone beyond an ordinary acquaintance. Initially this acquaintance was maintained largely by his correspondence with “G.,” then it was solidified on the basis of a friendly relationship and the special interest that “M.” showed in painting, in fact the conversations with “S.” until recently did not contain any direct attempts to check out the possibility of drawing him into cooperation with us.As a result, we don’t have enough data yet to proceed right now to a disclosure of our plans to “S.” by directly posing the question to him of cooperating with our service.

p. 193 Decision by Gorsky: Right. 30.12.52

It seems to us that the main task regarding “S.” at present is to gradually draw him into cooperating with us and to arrange meetings with him in a planned, carefully thought-out manner so that our relationship gradually grows stronger and so that we can expand the use of his capabilities.

p. 198 C to NY 13.01.53[We agree with the proposals for further cultivation of “S.”]“It seems to us, however, that drawing him into cooperation with us by the previous methods, i.e. the way “M.” was doing it before, could prolong the cultivation and delay the prospect of actively using “S.” as our agent to a remote and indefinite time.Based on the current relationship between “S.” and “M.” and

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p. 200

the results of the cultivation up to now, we think it advisable to intensify and accelerate the process of drawing “S.” into cooperation by giving him specific assignments. Giving “S.” specific assignments and gradually making them more complex will undoubtedly contribute to our study of him and will enable us to speed up the recruitment of “S.” for active cooperation with us.Such assignments could be: to gather data about some company, background information, etc. This kind of request from “M.” will sound quite natural since in his position as a Sov. diplomat in the US he must study certain problems. If this line of his cultivation develops favorably, these assignments can be made closer in nature to agent-information assignments, with the proviso that expenses related to carrying them out will be paid for. We could pay for these expenses or services from “S.” by issuing certain sums of money to “G.”…We are informing you that as a resultof working with “G.” we have formed suspicions that he may be cooperating with the Americans. These suspicions have not been corroborated by any weighty evidence so far, but we have taken measures to place “G.” under active agent-operative investigation by in order to secure your cultivation of “S.” against any unforeseen and dangerous complications.”

p. 202 NY to M 13.01.53[Meeting on 8.01 at the Frick Collection Museum. Then breakfast at one of the area restaurants.][S. complained that whiskey sales were very poor. Competition. Paintings and gems, even worse. Paintings that were worth 10,000 3-4 years ago are on sale for 2,000-3,000, and even at that price people aren’t buying them.]

p. 203 G. is asking him to write more often, even threatening to send the parcels back. To calm him down S. has decided to send him 2 letters by air mail—on the 1st and 15th of every month. It won’t affect the meetings with M. The friendship is based on an interest in painting.][M. didn’t say anything in response to this. S. suggested that they meet on 20.01 and see the painting section of the Brooklyn Museum, then in the first few days of February visit the Museum of Modern Art + and see the new paintings bought by S.]“At breakfast M. told him that a passion for paintings is not a bad activity, but that S. forgets that while M. loves painting, he isn’t a painter and doesn’t sell paintings, that he is a diplomat who needs the help of people like “S.” with his intelligence and contacts and that he was patiently waiting for “S.” to realize that actions speak louder than words: for example, said M., the head of government of one of the European countries has just arrived in the country. The attention of polit. and diplomatic circles

p. 204 is centered on his visit. Naturally, it would be of some interest to me to know about the purposes of his visit, the purposes that the newspapers are not writing about.Upon hearing this, “S.” said “that I have always told you that my acquaintances and friends confide in me only about paintings, that there are no suitable people in the circles in which I move.”

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“M.” disagreed with him, pointing out that there are suitable people among his friends, but for some reason he doesn’t make use of them.When S. told him that painting and especially the sale of paintings are separate from politics, M. commented that if he read the works of the American writer Sinclair that deal with a highly intellectual expert and dealer of paintings, he wouldn’t say that, and promised to give him this book about Lapi-Bat.76

S. offered to introduce M. to the people he socializes with. M. declined, saying that, considering the current atmosphere, he wouldn’t like any publicity.In analyzing the latest meetings with “S.,” we think it would be advisable to put some psychological pressure on him. We propose the following: initiate some investigative action against G. It can be based on a denunciation of him to the investigative organs. Such actions will compel G. to

p. 205 let S. know somehow (but not through M.’s hands) that he was in a jam and this will naturally bring “S.” to “M.”“M.” will promise to find out through his contacts what the problem is, and then after a while can let S. know that he received information that G. has been implicated in a political case, that apparently he did a poor job picking his friends due to immaturity and zeal and that he faces trouble. M. will then tell him that, according to some documents, S. at one time helped the appropriate Soviet organs and that if information is received that he is continuing to help us, this case involving G. could be dropped and then G. will get off with only a scare. In our view, S. will not refuse to help G., but if we suppose that he may refuse, even then M. will not be exposed to him.This suggestion by us is schematic and must be worked out in the details. We feel that the proposed action is timely and advisable by its nature.”

p. 206 [Letters from S. to G. as enclosures.]

p. 201 [By cipher cable on 6.2.53 to Tikhon in NY we replied that we deem the proposal to intensify the cultivation of S. by taking special actions against G. to be unacceptable.]

p. 210 [Unsent operational letter to NY:] [unacceptable since it will alienate S. from us and deprive us of a means of pressuring him.

p. 211 As it is he senses that the goal is to continue his old contact with us and that our relationship with him is being made a determining factor in G.’s future.A direct transition to an agent relationship with a password may have an unfavorable influence on his psychology. A recruitment from scratch may be painless, considering M. is close to this.]

p. 208 [S.’s letters were intercepted and confiscated by Department 4 of the RU of the GRU of the MGB USSR by arrangement with Department 1.]

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p. 207 (in envelope)

Letter from S. to G. Jan. 8, 1953“My beloved son,Such an unhappy letter was brought to me today! Your letter of November 12 must have been written when you were very sad for I never read such an outburst of indignation. Certainly it sounded like it was written by the author of the “Lower Depths”. Surely you had no reason to be so upset for you have been given plenty of proof that I love you, that I think of you, that I am constantly concerned about you and that you are always in my thoughts. You also must realize how undependable mail is and that sometimes my letters just as yours can go astray. It isn’t always that I can send you a letter personally as this one is. As a matter of fact I had a letter ready to be sent to you on December 10th and I have been waiting all this time for the opportunity to send it to you. Judging from the one I just got from you, you may not get this one from me until sometime in March. I’ll tell you what we should do in the future. Beginning now, let us agree to write each other on the 1st and 15th of every month an airmail registered letter. Then we will know if our letters were lost which can happen. So, if you will be accurate and prompt in your habit of writing, as I shall be, there should be no reason to worry.And now to answer your questions, first about my plans for this summer. I do not intent to go to Europe primarily because I can’t afford it. Business has not been too good lately and it means we all have to cut down on our expenses and live far more economically that we have in the past. It is also going to be impossible to send you the same amount in packages that I have before. The future monthly packages will cost $100 but the things I send you will be worth several times that in Moscow because I have been advised by the organization that sends them that if you don’t need the things you can exchange or dispose of them most advantageously. The last (sent Dec. 17) two packages I sent you contain mostly the things that you have expressly ordered and represent a cost of over $600 and I know you and mother will be very happy to receive them. I shall try to send you the $100 parcels as long as I can, at least until you finish your studies and start to make a living which I hope will be soon. By the way, it is not permitted to send a personal note in a parcel.As you already know we have been in the antique business for many years where we originally dealt exclusively in Russian art and objects. However as it became more difficult to find such objects we started dealing in all kinds of art especially 19th Century story telling paintings, some porcelains, silver and various other objects. About ten years ago we went into the distillery business making whiskey and alcohol for industrial purposes. My brothers Armand and Harry withdrew from the antique business and devoted all their time to new the enterprise and I managed the antique business alone, although we all shared equal

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interest in both businesses. During the war the distillery was very successful and it continued until about a year ago since which time things have not been going well and we have lost a great deal of money. We made alcohol from molasses but a year ago a process was developed to make it synthetically and our competitors began to undersell us. We held on as long as we could and just recently we gave up making alcohol but we are continuing the whiskey manufacture. The antique shop has not been making money for several years but as long as we were doing well in the distillery we didn’t mind. However, now things are different and I must make every effort to make the antique shop pay for itself. This is not at all easy because mine is a luxurious business and with taxes very high people have less to spend on such things and can well get along without them. I am sorry to burden you with my problems when there is nothing you can do to help me, but you wanted to know everything about me and I felt I had to tell you so that you can better understand my position. With hard work and a little good luck I hope we will be able to solve our present predicament. Enough about us.I was sorry to learn that while Mother is well, she easily gets tired. Is she doing any work in the theater? I would be most interested to know about her activities.It was also disturbing to learn that Tanya is not well, but being a young girl I am sure she will be well again long before you get this letter.Enclosed herewith you will find some photographs taken at Christmas time when we celebrated Mama Rose’s birthday. She claims it was her 76th but we think it probably is her 80th. She left two weeks ago for the warm climate of Florida because it gets too cold here for her. She is amazingly young for her age and keeps most active visiting her friends and relatives. In the spring she will go to California to stay with Olga and Julian who have a little house there. Julian did not finish college and he and his father77 have not gotten along well for that reason. He seems to have a talent for writing and I hope he will be successful.Well, I think this will be all for now. I trust that you will continue to do well in your studies and that you will pass your examinations with honor.I am enjoying the best of health and hope you and mother are doing the same.My wife and family all join me in wishing you both a Happy New Year.All my love, your devoted father Victor.

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p. 207 (in envelope) + photo of Victor with mother, and whole family

p. 209 (in envelope)

Translation from English done 3.02.53“Dear son Armand, This letter is the second of my regular letters to you. I hope I will soon receive your letters to me. Over the past ten days I have made business trips by plane around the country. I set out with a heavy cold, and since I was in the air almost every day, it was hard to get rid of it. To all intents and purposes I still have a cold. It was very nice and warm in Texas, but I couldn’t stay there long enough to get rid of the cold. Mother is still in Florida and is enjoying fine health, as always, for which all of us, of course, are thankful. We miss her very much, but it’s better that she avoided the extremely cold weather that we now have. Business is more or less the same as before. But with a new govt. in office, everyone feels that the situation will improve in the near future.Everyone joins me in sending regards.Your devoted father Victor.P.S. Mama just called on the telephone from Florida and sends you special regards. She said that she just got a letter from Olga and that she and Julian had the flu, which is an epidemic in the country.”

January 15, 1953“This will be the first of the bi-monthly letters airmail78 registered that I will send to you on the 1st and 15th of every month and I hope that you will do the same. In that manner, we will not lose79 touch with each other and if you do not receive one you will know that the letter went astray which is possible when sending by air.Since my last letter, nothing much has developed except that there is a possibility of our selling part of our business in order to discontinue the losses. I will write you more about that later when it happens.Mama Rose is still in Florida where she reports that the weather is excellent and that she is feeling fine. When I write to her today, I will tell her about your recent letter and give her your regards.The weather here has turned quite lovely. In fact it is almost like spring but at this time of the year it can change overnight.The first of the $100 parcels will be going off to you in a few days. I hope that you will find the things I sent useful and to your liking.Everyone joins me in sending you and Mother our fondest love and best wishes for the new year.Your devoted father Victor.(Victor’s address: 2201 Tudor City Place, 25 New York City

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p. 212

p. 213

M to NY 15.4.53“We are sending you as a separate enclosure a letter from “Gherman” to “S.” to be delivered to the latter. As “G.’s” message makes clear, he received only one of “S.’s” five letters. This proves yet again that “S.” continues to write to “G.” by mail and we failed to intercept one of the letters.“G.” advised “S.” in one of his previous letters to use only our resources for corresponding with him. It seems to us that this will be a good pretext to give him a message on “G.’s” behalf that it is undesirable to correspond with him through the mail.Despite the fact that there is full understanding regarding the cultivation of “S.” between the Center and the station that we must actively draw him into cooperating with us by giving him specific assignments, “Miron” continues to drag out the cultivation of “S.,” and during the past period we haven’t received any information at all about the work with him.Since we believe that such dragging out of the cultivation of “S.” could result in the exposure of his association with us, we would deem it advisable to have a recruitment talk with him in the immediate future so as to change the current relationship to an agent relationshi p.Please let us know your opinion in the next mail.”

p. 214 The work on “S.” at C. was coordinated by A. Gorsky.

p. 215 NY to M re meeting with S. on 3.04.53“ “S.” came to the above meeting in an obviously elated mood. He said that when he heard the speech by the premier of the People’s Republic of China on the radio regarding an exchange of sick and wounded prisoners of war, he recalled with satisfaction his last conversation with Miron. He regards the Chinese premier’s proposal, which has been endorsed by Cde. Molotov, the USSR Minister of Foreign Affairs, as a very proper one. According to him, the Soviet govt. has now taken a position that makes it hard for the Americans to get out of the situation. Of course, he said, there are circles in the U.S. that consider war with the USSR inevitable and because of this they think that the sooner the war begins, the better the US chances for success. These circles, which are associated with big business, believe that peace and a cessation of weapons and ammunition production will put the US economy in a grave, almost hopeless position, but there are circles that are no more influential and that have an interest in peace, in establishing normal relations with other countries that are in the same cam p. These circles favor trade with those countries and see this as the solution to the situation, and they will support the peace proposals from China and the Sov. Union.The artificially whipped-up hatred toward each other, i.e. that of the US toward the USSR and vice versa, has undoubtedly obstructed this group from engaging in vigorous activities, and if these obstacles are removed, it can easily overcome its opponents.

p. 216 “S.” puts himself in this camp and said that it would not be a bad idea if the Sov govt. established unofficial contact with these circles. These problems, he said,

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p. 217

should not be left to solve themselves.Contact with influential individuals in the camp that supports normal trade relations will certainly accelerate developments in the needed direction.After listening to “S.,” “M.” suggested that he clarify exactly whom he considers to be in the camp that supports normal relations with the USSR and with whom did he think contact should be maintained. “S.” promised to provide this information at the next meeting.”[S. started talking again about the isolation of Sov. diplomats.][M. asked whether he had met with Bedell Smith. S. had gotten acquainted with Smith through the toy manufacturer Louis Marx.]“The latter, despite his Jewish background, has managed to gain the favor of many of the country’s prominent government officials, mostly military men, such as Eis., Marshall Bradley, Collins, Bedell Smith and others.”[S. told Smith about his son and asked him to establish contact with him. Smith met with G. and told S. about him.][M. asked S. whether he knows Crook. He doesn’t know him, but has heard of him. M. asked him to gather data about C. S.: why are you interested? M.: that’s hard for me to answer, since he doesn’t80 know, but the information is needed. S. thought a bit and said he would gather the information very soon.“At the end of the conversation M. asked “S.” whether the meetings with Miron made him anxious and whether they could be used against him and should they, for precautionary purposes, meet in a way that would not draw attention. “S.” replied that he didn’t think the procedure for meetings with him should be changed.“I don’t tell anyone that I meet with you,” he said, “not my brothers, not at home, not in the store. These meetings are my private business and should not be of interest to anyone. There is no need to meet with you so that no one sees us. First of all, I don’t believe that it’s possible to meet that way in NY, and second, the fact that people could notice us doesn’t bother me.

Ambassador to the USSR


p. 218 If matters reach the point where I’m asked why I meet with you, I have a ready answer: first, I have a son in the USSR and for his welfare I feel that I should maintain good relations with official Soviet representatives. Second, I, like my father, used to have a business relationship with the USSR, as a result of which we made a large fortune, and I nurture the hope that relations between these countries will improve and that I will have occasion to participate in commercial enterprises that are advantageous both to the country and to me personally.Many people know about my views, I don’t conceal them and openly say that I am a supporter of normal relations between the US and the USSR and the development of trade between them.”When M. commented that his competitors could use his meetings with M. to persecute him, “S.” replied that he isn’t a govt. official, and there is no reason to check up on his loyalty and besides his answers plus the references that will be obtained from individuals who know him will be sufficient to leave him alone.”

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p. 220

Meeting on 9.3.53.[S. was away from NY for a long time, since he was in Florida, and then in Texas and Oklahoma, where was buying a large quantity of purebred cattle. His brother Armand sold the alcohol and vodka business and has started expanding the cattle-breeding business. They began talking about politics, Korea in particular. S. said that he had spoken with Armand and people from his inner circle who are well informed about the new government’s FP81 issues.]“According to “S.,” these people don’t think the Korean war is in US interests and believe that the US govt. has an interest in ending it as soon as possible. The truce negotiations, they contend, were derailed not by the Americans but by the Russians, who in their view have an interest in the continuation of the Korean war, since it is being fought in obviously unfavorable conditions for the United States.Considering China’s enormous manpower resources, the geographical and other conditions, the US cannot count on victory in Korea,and at the same time the war there affords the USSR an opportunity to wear down and weaken the US and obstruct the mobilization and concentration of its efforts in Europe. The exacerbation of differences between the US and its allies in Europe is a direct result of the Korean war.If the Russians, in the view of these people, really were interested in a cessation of the Korean war, they would agree without delay to the Amer. terms on prisoners of war. All the more so since, the Russians contend, the Chinese and the North Koreans want to return home and have proven this more than once in the POW camps. If the Russians wanted the cessation of the war, they would settle the POWs issue, and if they thought that the US doesn’t want the cessation of the war, they would drive the Americans into a corner and expose their hypocrisy by their agreement over the POWs issue.Further “S.” stated that he personally shares this standpoint of Armand’s and blames the Russians for the breakdown of truce negotiationsAfter hearing “S.” out, “M.” said that the Americans had proven more than once that they had an interest in the Korean war, which they had launched in accordance with their aggressive plans, but that their assertions cited by S. deserve attention and asked him to inquire from Armand and the people around him about the reaction of the Amer. ruling circles to the death of the head of the Soviet govt. and the foreign-policy plans that are being hatched by those circles and the govt. as a result of Cde. Stalin’s death.“S.” gave his assent.”

p. 222 NY to M 28.4.53[M. asked S. what he had been able to find out about “Crook.” Nothing so far. He promised to take new steps.“When M. expressed dissatisfaction with the information he was getting and said that to date he hadn’t done anything


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to find out through his agreements82 about the real plans of Amer. leadership circles regarding the USSR and the peace proposals of the Sov. govt., “S.” began to try to make a case that he didn’t have such capabilities, and that he is doing and will attempt to do everything within his power to report on the attitudes in various business and polit. circles toward the USSR and the policies of its govt., as well as toward the foreign-policy actions of the Amer. govt.“M.” said that “S.” is following the line of least resistance, and that, knowing “S.’s” good attitude toward the USSR and his desire to end the war and the differences between these countries, he expects more from him.”

p. 224 Cipher cable from NY to M dated 27.5.53[Increase in external surveillance. The station has refrained from holding some meetings. For the same reason doubts are cropping up about whether it is advisable to re-establish an agent relationship with “S.,” since Amer. counterintelligence knows that G. is in the USSR. Keep the current relationship with S. The Center agreed.]

p. 226 NY to M 21.07.53[S. has moved to 5th Avenue opposite the Metropolitan Museum. He plans to leave for the estate that he bought from Roosevelt.

p. 227 S. is happy that the USSR is following the path of improving relations with the West. There are still many opponents of the USSR in the US, and it’s not easy for Eis. to overcome them. S. said the opponents include McCarthy, Knowland and Dulles.]“ “S.” said that McCarthy represents the most reactionary circles in the US and that everyone is afraid of him, since he will stop at nothing and can smear even such prominent people as Eis. McCarthy in particular is notable for gathering all kinds of damaging information on high-level and low-level Amer. govt. officials, and if he doesn’t find it, he fabricates it and when needed he can cast a shadow on anyone. The Amer. Congress certainly has a number of supporters of a peaceful settlement of disputed issues with the USSR, but these supporters don’t open their mouths for fear that they’ll be accused of being sympathetic to the Reds by McCarthy and his clique.”[S. approved of the sending of Sov. chess players to the US. The ballet or MKhAT should be sent. He recommended impresarios.

p. 230 Memorandum re “Sonny” (May 1953)“…His acquaintance through the toy manufacturer Louis Marx, who is well known in the US, with the former US ambassador in Moscow B. Smith, a former head of the CIA USA, doesn’t rule out the possibility of “S.’s” cooperation with Amer. intelligence.In 1951 “S.’s” son Armand Victorovich Hammer, who lives in M. and is our agent “G.,” to whom “S.” is very attached, was brought into his cultivation.”

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[In November 1953 Armand H. was in the Kirgiz SSR, in the village of Karavan, Yangi-Naukatsky Region, Omsk Province.The mother sent a telegram to the father—birthday wishes. The mother sent her son a letter from the father. (It was intercepted twice: when it was sent to Moscow and to Kirgizia.)

Letter dated 4 November 1953“My beloved son Armand, I was indescribably happy to receive your wonderful letter of September 28th. Did anyone ever tell you that you write like a poet? Everyone who read your letter talked about your beautiful literary style, including Boris Chaliapin, the son of the famous baritone. Naturally, I’m proud as a peacock that you are actually teaching English. What kind of school or university is it, what is its name? I hope you’ve made good friends there and you don’t miss your Moscow friends. Your letter came too late, and I didn’t have a chance to put the things you asked for in the package, which was addressed to you as in the past. This month I will send out a package addressed to your mother, as you suggest. I will put in separately your two favorite jackets and a few Gillette razor blades, as well as a few books in Spanish and English.Everything is fine here with minor changes. Mama Rose is still living with Olga and Julian in Van Nuys, California. I forwarded your letter to her, which will make her awfully happy. She is not that good of a correspondent, but I hope she will write you. She plans to live in California until Julian finishes college. I probably already wrote you in one of my previous letters that it’s very hard with him, but now we hope that with the aid of Mama Rose’s supervision it will be possible to turn him into a real man. Her address is as follows: 14208 Chandler Boulevard, Van Nuys, California. If you can, write to her.I want to reiterate to you that I am awfully happy that everything is all right with you and that you have won yourself a place in life. Everyone sends you their love and kisses. Your devoted father Victor.”

p. 234 [Meeting on 29.10.53. S. spent the whole summer at Campobello (Canada), and upon his return from there traveled to the southwestern part of the country to buy cattle.He received a letter from G. in which the latter reports that when he graduated from the institute he was appointed a foreign-language teacher in the town of Kizyl Kiya in Central Asia and that he is very pleased with his appointment and his life in the new place.S. allowed G.’s letter to be read and said that Boris Chaliapin was delighted with the letter. S. arranged with B. C. to stage an exhibition at the picture gallery in the very near future of his drawings published in Time magazine.]“When M. reminded S. that the latter is not giving him any assistance in his graduation thesis,83 S. said that he had warned before and must now repeat that he has very few capabilities for this and that because of his trips around the country to buy cattle there are now even fewer.

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Then S. said that he would like to refer M. to two Democrats whom he knows well and who have high-level contacts both in Democratic and in Repub. leadership circles. He named Newbold Morris, who permanently resides in NY, and Biddle84 from Wash.According to S., while these individuals are members of the Democratic Party and were close to the Roosevelt administration, they are very closeto the current president Eis. and are informed about the govt.’s domestic and foreign-policy actions. S. said that he would think about how best to approach these individuals and that he would return to this matter.The next meeting took place on 10 November, but S. didn’t return to the matter of Newbold and Biddle. When reminded by M. he said that he hadn’t come up with anything specific yet.[In late Feb. or early March 1954 he plans to visit Cairo to participate in an auction of valuable antiques belonging to the former king Farouk. He visited Farouk on the eve of the war. The latter sold him a lot of antiques.]“S. complained a lot about being overloaded with work due to the illness of his brothers and his chief assistant at the picture gallery and stressed at the same time that the fact that he is overworked and has no contacts or interaction with people from whom he could obtain interesting information and this is the reason he is not very useful to M., to whom he would supposedly like to be useful.”[He gave M. a letter (he wrote it in his presence) and a package of books for G.]“Based on the decision that has been adopted regarding work with S., no further transmittals for G. will be accepted.”

p. 236 M to NY 21.11.53“An analysis of our work with “S.” persuades us more and more that his cultivation offers no prospects. “S.” apparently doesn’t have the capabilities that until now were attributed to him. His so-

p. 237 called “interesting contacts” among high-level people are random contacts with whom he doesn’t have a continuous relationship. “S.” obviously doesn’t have a close relationship either with B. Smith or with other acquaintances who could be of interest to us in one degree or another. “S.” apparently doesn’t have enough reason to maintain a close relationship with people of interest to us due to a lack of common points of contact.It should be noted that “S.’s” cultivation from the very outset was allowed to proceed too slowly. This applies above all to “M.,” who has still not been able to determine “S.’s” contacts of interest to us, capabilities and desire to provide us with real assistance. “M.” has still not expressed a definite opinion about whether it is worthwhile to continue the cultivation of “S.” and to establish an agent relationship with him.We doubt that further cultivation of “S.” would bring about the desired results not only because he doesn’t have capabilities, but also because “S.” will hardy agree to establish

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p. 238an agent relationship with us considering his refusal to shift the meetings with him to a covert basis.Therefore we believe that the further cultivation of “S.” should be abandoned and he should be retained only as a neutral contact. First it would be desirable, as we arranged with you at the Center, for “M.” to have one more conversation with “S.” before departing for home and directly pose the question of providing us the kind of assistance in which we are interested.”

p. 239 To Lieut.-Gen. A. I. Voronin, head of Special Dept. 6 of the MVD USSRWe request a directive from you that cancels the monitoring (PK) of the domestic correspondence between A. V. Hammer (address: village of Karavan, Yangi-Naukatsky Region, Omsk Province, Kirgiz SSR, post office, general delivery) and V. D. Hammer (address: Krasnaya Presnya 6/2, Apt. 1, Moscow) and continues monitoring only of their international correspondence.Col. A. TishkovDe p. head of 2nd Chief Dir. of the MVD USSR 21.11.53

p. 240 [One of the parcels:woolen material 2 pieces, socks 6 pairs, nylon stockings 6 pairs, woolen fabric with fleece, knitted viscose material.“All of the items listed were inspected on KL85 and visually.” 28.11.53.

p. 241 On 9.12.53 Tikhon transmitted from NY information from “S.,” obtained from his brother, about serious disagreements in the Repub. Party leadership over the fact that Eis. because of poor health will not run in the next presidential election.

p. 242 Parcel: winter jackets, 2 pieces of material blue and gray, razor blades.Inspected on KL and visually.” 16.12.53

p. 245 Memoranda on agents “Physician,” “Sonny” and “Lyudmila” 23.06.51.“During the time he was in the Sov. Union “Physician” was under investigation by the OGPU organs on suspicion of espionage and links with Trotskyites.Information was received that he knew Trotsky personally and was financing Trotskyites, and was engaged in extorting money from the Soviet govt.At the same time it was well known that “Physician” was ostensibly a member of the Amer. Com. Party, to which he was also providing financial assistance and was carrying out specific assignments.

p. 246 No data was obtained about his espionage activities, and in 1931 he was recruited by the OGPU to work among foreigners living in Moscow. “Physician” signed a statement regarding voluntary cooperation with the Sov. security organs, but subsequently yielded little of benefit as an agent. In his reports he laid out various plans for cultivating foreigners, but failed to implement them.In 1931 “Physician” proposed that our organs recruit “S.” and promised to provide any assistance he could. The same year he raised the question with us of recruiting his elder son, who supposedly had extensive contacts in US business, political and military circles and

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could be a valuable agent for us. Whether “Physician” took part in the recruitment of “Sonny” is unknown.“S.” was recruited in 1931 by the Foreign Department of the NKVD USSR during the time he was in the USSR. “S.” was recruited for the purpose of cultivating his contacts in US circles of interest to us. He provided a signed statement and described his capabilities for working with us, in fact he noted that he could obtain the necessary documents in the US for our illegal and completely legalize him.”[Password. No information about the work.][“Lyudmila” was recruited in 1940 to cultivate the contacts of “Physician” and “Sonny” who had stayed in Moscow. There is no data about “Lyudmila’s” agent work.]“In August 1945 “S.” sent the Amer. ambassador in Moscow a telegram requesting that he arrange for a visa for “Lyudmila” and his son Armand to enter America. In this connection “Lyudmila” was detained after visiting the US Embassy and stated during her interrogation:“Beginning in 1934 Victor Hammer repeatedly suggested that I move abroad with my son. He has repeated this suggestion up to the present time, but I don’t want to move, since I have every reason to believe that the Hammers only want to get my son, and to get rid of me over there. Back in 1930 old man Yuly Hammer offered me money to give up my son to them. In 1934 Victor Hammer suggested that I move to Paris, and give up my son to be with him in America. Recently Victor Hammer and his mother, Rozalya Semenovna Hammer, suggested that now I move together with my son to settle in America itself.”In 1943 “S.” sent an Amer. passport to Moscow for his son, but because Armand was under arrest in the case of the murder of Umansky’s daughter he couldn’t leave for America.Later Armand met with the US ambassador in Moscow Smith (supposedly “S.’s” personal friend), from whom he received gifts and large sums of money sent by “S.” He was intent on renouncing his Sov. citizenship and leaving for the US. Armand V. Hammer is now 24 years old, he is graduating from the Spanish department of the institute of foreign languages and continues to keep in contact with his father.”

p. 248 “… In 1946 “Female Teacher,” an agent of the 2nd Chief Directorate of the MGB USSR, who knew “S.” while he was in the USSR, received a telegram from him requesting that she look for his son. With the consent of the 2nd Chief Dir. “Female Teacher” established contact with Armand and reported this to “S.” Since then she has regularly received money from “S.” to pass along to Armand.”

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Memorandum from A. Gorsky dated December 1952.“In 1951 “Gherman” was recruited by the former 1st Directorate of the MGB USSR for use in an operational combination and was later turned over as a contact to the PGU, which had an interest in partial use of “G.” for its own purposes. During the period of cooperation with us “G.” distinguished himself as a smart, capable agent.At the same time a number of suspicious aspects emerged with respect to “G.” himself that raised doubts about the sincerity of his cooperation with us. For example, “G.” failed to carry through to completion even a single assignment from us, would regularly detect, and lose, precautionary surveillance, and he would do so like a person who has had a certain amount of training and experience in this area. What is also striking is “G.’s” correspondence, in which he unleashes harsh anti-Soviet attacks,as well as the nature of his numerous contacts.”

p. 266 Method of contact with “G.”[Meetings with G. to pass along or receive letters. The operative in contact with G. is known to him by the cover name “Aleksey Afanasyevich.” Meeting location: public garden on Trubnaya Square, by the newspaper display case at the entrance to the garden on the Trubnaya Sq. side. Time: 10:00 a.m. (may change based on telephone arrangements).Password: Operative: “What soccer news is there in the paper today?” G.: “Read the editorial, it’s much more interesting.”Variations are permitted, but it is mandatory to mention soccer and the editorial.Urgent summons: A postcard of arbitrary content that mentions “the promised book” is sent to “G.” at home. This means that he must go to a meeting at the prearranged location the day after the date specified next to the postcard’s signature with any female first name.”14 April 1953

p. 267 Letter from Victor dated 29 Dec. 1953“My dear son Armand, I couldn’t have had a better Christmas present than your letter of December 5th, which came the day before the holiday. Your letter arrived almost as quickly as mine, and I hope that you will develop a habit of writing letters to me often. This letter, likes the ones that I previously received, is very beautiful, and as always it is difficult when translating it into English for my friends and members of my family to find the appropriate word86 so as not to lose the marvelous shade of meaning that you put into it. I hope you have now already received the following English books that I sent you last month:Essays by Emerson. Works by Walt Whitman. Shakespeare’s plays. Works by Hemingway. A dictionary. The Bible.

p. 268 Two weeks ago I sent you the following Spanish books: “Blood Wedding” by Lorca. “European Essay” by Madariaga. “Abel

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Sanchez” by Unamuno. The Cuyas dictionary. 2 volumes of the “Anthology” by Tirso de Molina. Medio. I hope you will get all this soon and that it is just what you want. If it isn’t what you need, please send me a list of what you need, and I’ll try to send everything.I’m glad that you have settled in well and are quickly making friends. I was quite sure that that would be the case. Frankly, I think leaving Moscow was very good for you. First, to leave the place where you had an unhappy romance, and second, to live apart from your mother. While I don’t minimize in the least the wonderful job she did in bringing you up, I still feel that it is much better for a person who has reached maturity as you have to live independently of his parents.The news that you are successfully studying the Kirgiz language filled me with pride. While I know that you are familiar with several languages, I would like to have a list of them.I’m looking forward to your next letter, in which you will describe your friends in more detail and in which you will send a separate note for Mama Rose. She is very happy when you send letters to me and will be even happier if a letter is written directly to her. Of course, we are looking forward even more to new photographs.As far as your English is concerned, I would suggest that you write me something so that I can send a few substantive critical comments about it. Without such practice it will be very hard for you to learn English the way you know Russian.I and everyone else send you our love and best wishes for the new year.Your devoted father.If you want me to send you anything special in the packages, let me know.”

p. 270 No. 3/4 March 1, 1953Dear Armand,As you see, I have given this letter two numbers due to the fact that I have been away from New York on business and had no opportunity to write you until now. I have yet to receive your first numbered letter which I hope will be coming along soon.I have been away in connection with the purchase of cattle for our farm in New Jersey which your Uncle Armand operates. Here we raise pure bred black angus cattle which are gaining great popularity in this country. Most of the sales are usually conducted by an auctioneer and bring together farmers and breeders from every state. Armand usually goes on these trips but first, because he was not feeling too well and, second because he has been negotiating to sell out our distillery company to a large firm, he was unable to go. I went instead of him. The sale of the distillery company will take place the second of this month and it will be a

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great relief to get out from under this terrific burden and top stop our great losses.While I was in Florida where I also attended a sale, I saw Mama Rose who is spending the winter in the warm climate. She looks amazingly well for her almost 80 years and even the fact that she fell and fractured her arm which is now in a cast didn’t bother her or darken her happy disposition. She is planning to go to California to spend two or three months with Olga and Julian before she comes back to New York. They are anxiously looking forward to her visit. She and everyone join me in sending you and Mother all our love.Your devoted father,87 Victor.P.S. On February 16th Union Tours sent88 you another package containing 7 yards of blue striped wool suiting and 6 yards of wool dress good, brown imported. I hope this package will arrive safely and soon. I have also received your signature for the package you received January 20th.”

p. 281 p. 282

Memorandum dated 29 Sept. 1955Varvara Dmitrievna Hammer (Sumskaya)“At present it is advisable to continue keeping in contact with “S.” in order to secure acquaintances through him in business circles, among cultural figures, in the theater world, where he has access through his second wife, an actress. He could be used to infiltrate our people into various clubs, societies, and associations in which representatives of business circles are members, and to acquire through him literature and equipment that we cannot acquire by legal means.”

p. 290 Agent report dated 13 February 1954. Source “Negro.”Moscow Region Bureau of the KGB (Section 7 Department 2)[V. S. Rykov, who was dating Aleksandrova, was under investigation. Aleksandrova’s mother is the sister of Varvara H. Aleksandrova’s father worked in Hungary. Varvara asked Rykov to introduce her to a suitor, since she is lonely.

p. 292 [On 13 Feb. “Negro” along with Rykov and Petr Vsevolodovich Aleksandrov visited Hammer. Evidently she took a liking to “Negro.” They drank and danced. On 17 Feb., they did the same thing. Varvara asked to go to a restaurant, but Negro declined because he had no money. He asked Hammer to obtain photo accessories through her husband. H. agreed. Negro provided a list.

p. 293 Hammer said her son was a school principal in the city of Frunze. “Negro” was given an assignment to find out the nature of Hammer’s foreign connection.

p. 294 H. wants to become intimate with Negro.

p. 295 Report from “Negro”: Victor sent money by mail in dollars, but it proved to be disadvantageous, since people were paying 5 rubles to the dollar. Then he began transmitting 2500 rub. a month through an acquaintance.Rykov is under investigation on suspicion of espionage.

p. 296 Vladimir Semenovich Rykov. Unemployed. Petr Aleksandrov was arrested, and his father got him released the next day.

p. 298 [On 6 Sept. 54 “Negro” visited Hammer. She said Roosevelt’s wife was coming in and, at Victor’s request”

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was to meet with Armand, who would fly in especially from Kazakhstan.]“Hammer said that her husband was a progressive person in America and that while she and her son have a foreign connection, no one would touch them here.”

The next report—27 Apr. 1956. “Negro” dropped by to see H. at the end of March 56. Armand’s wife has given birth to a daughter, returned to Moscow and is living with her parents at Petrovsky Boulevard, 15, Apt. 43. In late May or in June Armand will come back for good, since he will have completed 3 years of work.

p. 301 [The purpose of the cultivation is to plant “Negro” with Victor, who will come to M. in mid-June and will spend 2-3 mths.]

p. 304 Report from “Negro” dated 6 July 1956“On 4 July the source visited Varvara Dmitrievna Hammer. She stated during the conversation that her son Armand had come in and that she was very worried because they didn’t want to register him in Moscow. She was outraged by the unreliable behavior of the Soviet organs, which promise people who are going off (after graduating from the institute) for 3 years to do their work in outlying regions not to obstruct their registration in Moscow when they return, but in practice they don’t register them. For 3 days already Armand has been going and trying to take care of the registration and he is getting turned down. Now he is sitting and worrying about what the result of the registration will be from Petrovka, 38, where he went.

p. 305 Then she added, if they turn him down there, then he has a trump card, and he will tell the head of the passport department that his father, an American, is coming in a few days on 15 July, but his son is wandering around and doesn’t even have a place-of-residence registration. She also said that there had already been an instance in which they wanted to draft Armand into the Army (5 years ago) after his graduation from school instead of continuing his studies, so Varvara Dmitrievna Hammer went to see the Amer. ambassador Smith, and he supposedly saw to it through the relevant Soviet organs that Armand was not drafted into the army.In this connection she stated that if Armand was denied a registration, she would go back to the Amer. ambassador.She went on to say that when her ex-husband comes in, she would try to have Hammer visit her room and see with his own eyes how the son of an Amer. millionaire lives. Maybe he would acquire a small apartment for them through the embassy.Varvara Dmitryevna said that as soon as her ex-husband comes in, she would definitely introduce him to the source.”

p. 292 “Negro’s” evaluation of Varvara H. (meeting on 13 Feb. 54)“She is about 45 years old, looks very good, obviously was beautiful at one time. She lives in one room.”

p. 307 [Victor was in Moscow in July 1956.

p. 308 Operational contact was not established with “S.” in M. due to his sudden departure from Moscow.”

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p. 311

M to Cde. Vlasov in NY dated 18.08.56“From 17 July to 23 July “S.” was in Moscow with his wife and mother as a tourist. During this time he twice visited the Amer. ambassador in Moscow Bohlen and hada conversation with him during which he raised the question with the ambassador of registering his son “G.” as an American by birth. The ambassador promised “S.” that he would check the embassy’s materials to see whether “G.” was registered as an Amer. citizen when he was born. “S.” didn’t raise the question of his son moving to the US. “S.” didn’t deal with any business matters while he was in Moscow. Nor did “S.” show any initiative to establish contact with Miron, even though when Miron was leaving the US “S.” told him that if he came to Moscow he would definitely visit him.Because of “S.’s” abrupt departure from Moscow operational contact wasn’t established with him.”

p. 316 Agent report from “Negro” dated 19 July 1956“On 17 July Armand Hammer telephoned the source and reported that his father had arrived from America and that he (Armand) would come to see the source on the morning of the 18th, since he needed to talk to him.On 18 July Armand came to the source’s apartment, where he described how nicely his father, father’s wife and his father’s mother greeted him.Armand said that his father was staying in the Savoy Hotel in rooms 516 and 416.First A. visited his father by himself, then they called a car, went to pick up Armand’s mother, Varvara Dmitrievna, and everyone (Armand’s father with his American wife, his mother and A. with his mother) went to see A.’s wife at the dacha. They stayed there until the evening and returned to the hotel, where they had supper in their room, and they sang and drank wine there until late into the night. A. told the source that his father had brought many items, which he would leave for A. and Varvara Dmitrievna when they went back to Am.A.’s request to the source was that A. wanted to ask his father to help him buy a Pobeda car, that he had 10,000 rubles in savings, but he would like to borrow the remaining 10,000 from the source. He promised to return that amount to the source within a month as he sold off the items that his father had brought him. The source said that he didn’t have that kind of money, but he could borrow a portion of that amount from acquaintances.

p. 317 Then A. said that his father was supposed to come to his apartment at 5-5:30 p.m. and asked the source to come there to meet his father.The source came to A.’s apartment at the appointed time. The only person he found at home was A.’s mother, Varvara Dmitrievna. After a while A. arrived together with his father. A. introduced the source to his father as a very good acquaintance, a photo correspondent and a businesslike, commercial person.A.’s father introduced himself as Victor Yulyevich Hammer, he is 56 years old, short in stature, lively—animated, speaks Russian very well, has perfect command of English.Victor Hammer said that he had dropped by just for a short time, that he was going to the theater with his wife and Arm., while his mother and Varvara Dmitrievna were going to the movies and at the same time he gave Varvara Dmitrievna 2 tickets

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for the 7:15 showing at the Metropol movie theater.A asked his father to sit for a few minutes and listen to his request.A. implored his father to help him through Intourist or through the Amer. Embassy to buy a Pobeda car with his, A.’s savings, adding that he had 10,000 rubles and the source was promising him the rest (although the source had not promised him that amount).His father began to wave his hands and said that you need to study and get an appropriate education, and a car will distract you. But A. was persistent and said that behind the wheel he only relaxes and that this would have no effect on his studies. Finally his father agreed and promised to have a talk first at Intourist, and if that didn’t work, he would turn to the ambassador, Mr. Bohlen, and he added: [there was a letter of recommendation to Bohlen from his good acquaintance who had worked with Truman. The ambassador was expecting him at 12 noon on 19.07.]“When the source asked V. Y. Hammer how he liked M., he replied “very, very much,” that he was happy he had come and seen his grown-up, handsome son, that they were being received everywhere very nicely and getting wonderful meals, especially at the Metropol restaurant. H. went on to say that he was so pleased with everything that when he leaves he will leave A. and his mother everything he brought with him.H. was in a big rush to get to the theater, so everyone got up right away and took a waiting Intourist car to the Savoy Hotel. When they got out the source wanted to leave, but H. detained the source and invited him to his room.When they came to room 516, H. introduced the source to his wife and mother. H.’s wife was named Irene, 40 years old, unattractive appearance, a performer, doesn’t know any Russian at all, said she knows English and French.H.’s mother is 82 years old, a very lively woman, has good command of Russian. They ate quickly in the room and went to the theater, having agreed that they would phone the source at his apartment after the theater so that everyone could go have supper together at a restaurant where Gypsies perform. H. ordered the driver to get the source home from the theater.At 11 p.m. A. called the source and said that Gypsies don’t perform at restaurants and that they had decided to go to the Praga restaurant, where they invited the source and his wife to come. The source agreed, and 15 minutes later A. dropped by the source’s apartment and went together to the car, where Victor Hammer and his wife, his mother and Varvara Dmitrievna were already waiting in the car.Upon arriving at the Praga restaurant, the source walked around the whole establishment. They were all very enthralled with the restaurant and H. said that such a big restaurant doesn’t exist in Am., there are a lot of small and cozy restaurants. During the supper V. Y. H.’s mother said that she is good friends with Mrs. Roosevelt, that they had bought a villa from her and that Mrs. Roosevelt had made them give their word that when they returned to America the same evening on 28 July they must be at a party she was having and relate everything about Russia. V. Y. H. broke into the conversation and said that the Sov. govt. had behaved very badly by not issuing a visa promptly last year to one of Mrs. Roosevelt’s interpreters when she was planning to come to the Sov. Union. H. added that Mrs. Roosevelt is a progressive woman, thinks very well

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p. 319of the Sov. Union and if she handpicked people who were to accompany her, then they deserve this.When the permission—the visa—arrived very late, Roosevelt no longer had time on her schedule to travel to the USSR.H. went on to say that the Sov. govt. had missed a lot from the fact that she hadn’t come to the USSR since she is very highly regarded in Am., that she respects the Sov. govt. and that she could and wanted to do a great deal for the USSR, and to this end she is again planning to come to the USSR. That she is very busy and a trip to the USSR is already in her plans.In a conversation with V. Y. H. the source asked what Americans think of the Sov. Union. H. replied that Americans think very highly of the USSR and are anxiously waiting for good relations and trade to be established.“It’s members of the Am. govt. who are holding back the establishment of good relations and trade, but Americans are in favor of trade,” said H.The source then asked: “when trade relations begin, will you trade with the USSR?” H. replied: yes, I will.During the general conversations that took place in the restaurant, V. Y. H., his wife and mother were delighted by everything they had seen in Moscow.On 19 July they are planning to go to the Puppet Theater, and on 20 July to the ballet “The Corsair.”

p. 312 “Negro”—report dated 22 July 1956“On 20 July A. phoned the source and asked him to go with them to the agric. exhibition. The source agreed and 15-20 minutes later they came by to pick him u p.Besides the source, A., V. Y. H. and his wife Irene were at the exhibition. They toured several pavilions at the exhibition, and they had their pictures taken both with the source’s camera and with V. Y. H.’s cameras. During a conversation A. said that the previous day he along with his father V. Y. H. and his father’s wife had visited the Amer. ambassador at 12 noon. His father introduced A. and the ambassador expressed a good opinion of A. The ambassador invited them to come back for tea the same day at 6 p.m. V. Y. H. said he had not given a letter of recommendation to the ambassador since the ambassador had received

p. 313 a direct letter from the individual in Am. who had recommended H., and the ambassador had already been informed of H.’s arrival in Moscow. H.’s request to purchase a car for his son was denied by the ambassador, according to A., the ambassador said that this was prohibited.At 6 p.m. V. Y. H. and his wife, without A., came back to the ambassador for tea, where there were, said Victor Yulyevich H., 25 or 26 Americans. The source inquired of V. Y. H. whether he intended to acquire anything in Moscow, and H. said he didn’t plan to buy anything.They liked the exhibition very, very much.Upon returning from the exhibition V. Y. H. said the source should deliver them to a florist so they could buy flowers and send them to the Amer. ambassador’s wife. The flowers were bought and sent through the taxi driver.On the evening of 20.07 the source was taking pictures of the ballet “The Corsair” at a branch of the Bolshoy Theater, and there met V. Y. Hammer, his wife and Arm. again. Also with them was a granddaughter of Roosevelt, 20 years old, and with her was some Greek, handsome, young, but according to H., he had an artificial leg. The source learned that R.’s granddaughter is also here as a tourist.During the intermission H. introduced the source both to R.’s granddaughter and

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to the Greek. In a conversation with A. and his father the source learned that during the day they had been in the House of Radio and Sound Recording, where Hammer’s wife, Irene, and Hammer himself performed. The people at the radio studio were very pleased with their performance and promised to broadcast the recording on the radio in a children’s program.After the show everyone went to the Savoy restaurant to have coffee. H.’s mother, Rozalya Semenovna, and Armand’s mother, Varvara Dmitrievna, came to the restaurant from the hotel. The source danced with R.’s granddaughter and H.’s wife, Irene. About an hour later the gathering broke up.

On 21 July Varvara Dmitrievna phoned the source and reminded him of their arrangement the previous evening at the restaurant to visit the Metro and the mausoleum together. The source came to the hotel. There he found a relative of V. Dmitrievna, Petr Aleksandrov, who had come to visit.Shortly after arrangements were made by phone, V. Y. H., his wife Irene and A. left for the TV center, where Irene along with her husband V. Y. Hammer performed a children’s program that was recorded. They were told there that it would be translated into Russian and would be shown to TV viewers on 31 July.At the Hammers’ request, the source went with H.’s mother, Rozalya Semenovna, and Varvara Dmitrievna, to show them the mausoleum and the metro. When they came out of the mausoleum Rozalya Semënovna remarked that everything was done very beautifully and lavishly. She said that Lenin lay there like a real genius and one should indeed bow down to him, and all Americans consider him a genius, but she made negative comments about Stalin.En route to the metro Varvara Dmitrievna went to the hotel, and the source along with H.’s mother Rozalya Semënovna set off to see the metro. During the conversation R. S. related that the Hammer family had suffered very much here in Russia. The brother of the wife of A. Y. Hammer (the brother of Victor Yulyevich H.) was persecuted and exiled, and in America the Hammers received hostile treatment because they had had a concession in Russia and had lived there. R. S. said that they had had 7 factories in America and they had had to sell them on the cheap since people were not placing any orders with them because they had lived in Russia. They went to the Committee on Investigation in this regard in order to rehabilitate themselves. R. S. went on to say that the Hammers should go down in history and with time all the documents will be found that will make it clear how Lenin invited H. to Russia.

p. 315 She went on to say that the Hammers had had a meeting with Lenin and that he had issued a directive to provide them with a separate apartment.According to R. S., Lenin treated them well and in one of the conversations said that not all the comrades in Russia comprehend how much concessions are needed and that they, the Hammers, will find it difficult to work, but he promised to help them in every way.Assignment: find out who H.’s letter to the Amer. ambassador is from. More detailed data about R.’s granddaughter. Who the Greek is.

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p. 321

p. 322

Agent report from someone named “Misha” (probably hotel) dated 20.08.56[R. S. saw a doctor, medications were ordered. She has nothing serious, a minor inflammation.]Special Department 2, Section 6 of the KGB.

“Misha” 21.7.56[Hammer phoned Intourist and said that they were not going to Leningrad and asked to cancel the tickets. They are leaving for good on Monday.]

p. 324 “Misha”: Armand phoned his father on 22.7.56. He promised to come to the hotel from the dacha with his wife and child.]

p. 325 NY to M 9.01.57[In Sept. 56 “Ivan” got acquainted with “S.” One Saturday Ivan and his wife visited “S.’s” gallery and he introduced himself as an acquaintance of Miron.“S.” talked about his trip to M., which left him with a very good impression, about “Gherman” and about his work in Russia during the early years after the revolution. He showed his brother’s book, which deals with the tsar’s jewels. The book contains photocopies of 3 letters from Lenin, two of which are addressed to “S.” and one to Zinoviev.]“S.” told Ivan that he is currently mulling over the question of whether the originals of letters (he has them in safekeeping) could be exchanged for jewels of the tsar’s family that he had seen while visiting the Kremlin.

p. 326 Ivan remarked in this regard that since these jewels are public property and are in a museum, “S.” is unlikely to succeed in this maneuver. “S.” replied that he isn’t seeking what is on display in a museum, but that he knows for sure that besides those exhibits the Soviet govt. also has many other jewels that could be exchanged for a letter from Cde. Lenin. Cde. Lenin’s letters consist of the following:1. Two letters in English date to the period of 1922 and are addressed personally to “S.” In these letters Lenin apologizes for the fact that due to illness he was unable to receive “S.” and to say goodbye before “S.” left Russia: these letters are short—only a few lines each.2. One letter is addressed to Zinoviev. In this letter Lenin introduces “S.” to Zinoviev and asks him to provide assistance to “S.” in the operation of his pencil concession. The letter is written in Russian and includes a request that assistance be provided to “S.” in his activities, since his concession is the first in Russia and could be an example for other foreign entrepreneurs. This letter is also short—only 6-7 lines.At the very first meeting “S.” invited Ivan to meet again and “have a friendly relationship.” Ivan agreed to this.

p. 327 After this meeting Ivan met with “S.” five times, including twice at the painters’ club, where “S.” is vice-president. Ivan formed the following impression from these meetings:1. “S.” seeks to have only a social relationship with Ivan and is unlikely to agree to the establishment of a confidential or agent relationshi p. This is evidenced by the following facts: on his own initiative “S.” tracked down Ivan’s phone number at work and called the UN several times, stressing in the conversation that he wanted

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“to be friends” and get together; during lunch at the club Ivan began to discuss political issues with “S.” Although there weren’t many people in the restaurant and there was no reason to be afraid that anyone might eavesdrop on the conversation, “S.” told Ivan that he didn’t know any more than what was in the newspapers, and therefore was not a very interesting conversationalist in that respect. 2. “S.” loves “G.” and sees a certain benefit for himself in having a relationship with Ivan (as he previously did with Miron) in order to make use of this acquaintance for his own purposes (passing along a letter, a package, etc.). In addition, it isn’t out of the question that “S.,” who is a very shrewd person, senses why interest is being shown in him and by having a relationship with us he sees this as some guarantee of “G.’s” welfare in the USSR.The aforementioned facts indicate that, although “S.” doesn’t have direct agent capabilities, he is of interest as a person through whom contacts could be made among US business circles. So Ivan is being given the task of identifying the circle of “S.’s” acquaintances, determining what kind of information it seems possible to obtain through them in the future and utilizing “S.” for this purpose in the dark or looking for separate approaches to them.”

p. 329 A cipher cable to NY dated 23.04.57 asked that the purpose of “S.’s” trip to Moscow and the time be ascertained. Signed by Feklisov.

p. 330 NY to M 2.05.57[“S.” is coming to Moscow with his wife, who is now in Paris. The purpose of the visit is to visit his son and to try to find out if it is possible to purchase paintings in the USSR.“S.” wants to arrange exhibitions of Sov. paintings in the USSR (modernists). He may take photocopies of Lenin’s letters with him in order to negotiate an exchange for jewels.“S.” doesn’t plan to raise the question of his son’s citizenship and his moving to the US, since he considers this matter inopportune under the current circumstances, but he hasn’t given up the idea of making such an attempt in the future.Decision by Feklisov: “To Cde. Shlyapnikov. A meeting with “S.” is needed in Moscow and the question of his cultivation must be settled.”]

p. 331 NY to M 3.06.57[S. changed his plans and due to his busy schedule doesn’t intend to come to M. this year.]

p. 332 NY to M (Cde. Vanin) dated 31 May 1957“Ivan continues to meet with “S.” at the Lotus Club (5E 66 str.) or at restaurants for lunch.An analysis of the meetings shows that the view we previously expressed that “S.” is of interest to us merely as a means for establishing contacts is correct. “S.” willingly discusses various polit. topics, but he is not a source of information that we need.In regard to your request to gather information about the purposes of “S.’s” planned

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trip to Moscow, Ivan visited “S.’s” gallery and had a conversation with him, which has already been reported to you by telegraph. During the gallery visit Ivan met “S.’s” mother, from whom he learned the following:“S.” hasn’t given up the idea of arranging for “Gherman” to move here, but he considers this moment inappropriate for that. “G.” himself, according to “S.’s” mother, would like to stay here with his father. “S.” regards his son’s marriage in the USSR and the birth of a child as a major obstacle to his moving to the US. For that reason “S.” himself and all of his relatives have hostile feelings toward “G.’s” wife: “S.” thinks that he may have been able to prove his son’s Amer. citizenship and persuade the ambassador in Moscow to secure permission from the MID USSR for “G.” to leave by supplying him with an Amer. passport. But it’s impossible to do this with regard to “G.’s” wife. So the entire issue has become more complicated because of “G.’s” marriage. “S.’s” mother told Ivan that, as a last resort,if the question of “G.” moving to the US is worked out, he could be persuaded to leave by himself. When Ivan commented that “G.” probably loves his wife and interference by his relatives in their private life is hardly justified, “S.’s” mother said that they cannot allow “their boy to perish in Russia.” She began to hold forth about the “horrible” life of “G.” in Kirgizia, where he didn’t have “even a bathtub.” In sum, Ivan formed an unpleasant impression from this conversation and a deep conviction that “S.’s” family has an unfriendly attitude toward the Sov. Union and the graciousness of “S.” himself and his comments about his impressions of his trip to Moscow may be phony.“S.” repeatedly requested that Ivan arrange for sending things to “G.,” including an electric roaster for chicken and duck. Ivan tactfully made clear to “S.” that he couldn’t do that and that it is possible to send packages through special parcel agencies. “S.” said that he uses their services to send packages to “G.,” but he would like to send the roaster through Ivan. Despite Ivan’s refusal to help “S.,” he continues to bring up this subject in conversations.”[S. will not go to M. this year.]

p. 334 “Work with “S.” has been under way for a long time and with little success. “S.” makes highly flattering comments about his friendship with Shakhnazarov and primarily because the latter helped him in his connection with “G.” (including packages). Even before, however, he did not provide any valuable information. Hence the conclusion suggests itself that he is using the connection with us for his own personal motives. On the other hand, Ivan did not succeed in establishing any worthwhile contacts through “S.,” which is due to “S.’s” evasion from providing assistance to Ivan in this regard. For example, even in public places he doesn’t introduce Ivan very willingly to his acquaintances, even though Ivan made it clear to him that it would be interesting to speak to people. Despite an invitation from “S.’s” mother to Ivan to visit their estate and come to the parties that are held there, “S.” stubbornly keeps quiet and avoids this subject. Ivan once stopped by “S.’s” apartment, where he found a group of people. “S.,” who arrived shortly thereafter, literally “dragged” Ivan away to a restaurant, leaving his wife and the guests at home, justifying this by saying that they had agreed to go to a restaurant, even though

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Ivan told him that it was awkward to abandon the guests. All this points to an unwillingness on “S.’s” part to advertise his acquaintance with Ivan and impedes the work of establishing contacts through him. Therefore, if “S.” does go to Moscow, it might beadvisable to try to put some pressure on him by making use of the consent to work with us that he gave before the war. (The file obviously contains his signature.)Perhaps the threat of exposure will induce him to cooperate with us in terms of gathering polit. and econom. information through his numerous acquaintances. The current motivations for “S.” to work with us (G.’s presence in the USSR) apparently aren’t strong enough. If you deem such a discussion with “S.” inadvisable, then, considering his prolonged uselessness, further contact with him, in our view, should be terminated.”

p. 336 M to NY 12.08.57“We agree with your proposal to terminate further cultivation of “S.”” Vanin.

p. 337 Memorandum dated 20.08.57“Miron conducted the cultivation of “S.” extremely slowly and in two years he failed to ascertain “S.’s” contacts, his capabilities and desire to cooperate with us. At the same time “S.” used the contact with our operative in his own personal interests: to transmit letters and packages to his son, who lives in the Sov. Union, and to

p. 338 find out about the opportunities for making money from the sale and purchase of paintings in the Sov. Union. Moreover, the contacts with high-level people in the US that “S.” described to Miron proved to be patently exaggerated…In early 1957 operative Ivan got acquainted with “S.” and met with him a few times. As a result of these meetings it became clear that “S.” only wants to have a social relationship with our operative, using it for his own purposes, and isn’t interested in establishing a confidential or agent relationship. “S.” doesn’t have the necessary agent capabilities and cannot serve as a source of information, and at the same time he doesn’t want to assist our operative in establishing interesting contacts through him.In light of the foregoing, it has been decided to terminate the contact with “S.,” since he is not of interest to Department 1 of the PGU.”

p. 337 Col. Feklisov, head of Dept. 1 of the PGU “Agree.” 30.8.57

p. 340 Plan for agent-operative action to re-establish an agent relationship with agent “Screw” (May 1965)[Expected to arrive at the end of May.

p. 341 [Bring in Cde. A. I. Shaytukhov, an operative of active reserve of the PGU, who is under the cover of the Min. of Culture USSR.Install equipment in Armand’s car and apartment and put Screw in a special hotel room. All of this is for studying S.’s attitudes.

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After the appropriate preparation have a conversation with Screw on behalf of the KGB in order to re-establish an agent relationshi p.“The following will be used in the conversation with “Screw”:--“Screw’s” financial interest in buying some works of art through the Min. of Culture USSR for a total of __ dollars;--“S.’s” affection for his son A. Hammer,who lives in Moscow;--some ideological closeness to us.In the event that “S.” reacts negatively to our proposal to cooperate on the basis of an agent relationship, pressure will be exerted on “S.” by using the fact that in 1931 “S.” signed a pledge not to disclose his conversation with a representative of state security. If “S.” agrees to cooperate during the conversation with him the following should be ascertained:--S.’s intel. and informational capabilities, paying special attention to whether he has contacts in US govt. and industrial-financial circles. To obtain information that solidifies our relationship with “S.,” particularly on the following questions:1. Robert Kennedy’s position in the Demo. Party, his concrete activities as a senator from NY State, his relationship with Wagner.2. The position and mood of H. Humphrey, Humphrey’s relationship with Johnson, is the talk of H.’s resignation corroborated. Who are liberal circles rallying around. 3. The situation in Americans for Democratic Action.89

4. The mood of lib. circles: what makes these circles fearful and unhappy in Johnson’s policies. --Possible approaches to “S.” by the FBI in the past and recently as a result of the exhibition of the Sov. painter Korin at his gallery…Obtain S.’s consent to covert meetings with our rep., instructing him initially to determine a place and days for regular meetings, after which S. will be given a method of contact that has been worked out in order for him to be verified in the US.”

p. 343 Handwritten memorandum: “On 28 May 1965 offer was given to “S.” through “Miron” to meet with an worker of one of the organizations. “S.” said that he has no time during this visit.”Major Shaytukhov, senior operative 8.6.65.

p. 344 Memorandum from Shaytukhov re meetings with “Screw” dated 20.12.65“During the period from 15 October to 8 November 1965, using my official cover, I met four times with “S.”“S.,” whom I got to know in Moscow long before my trip, received me very cordially. When we discussed business matters related to the purchase of some paintings from him on a noncommercial basis, he was attentive and extremely efficient when I made business requests. When he saw that I was well versed in artistic works, he introduced me to the owners of antique and art galleries. Later, without my requesting it, he took me to his Lotus Club 5 av. 61 str. New York, where NY businessmen, politicians and artistic intelligentsia gather.At one lunch he introduced me to the well-known attorney

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J. Donovan, the industrialist Henry and a number of painters. Unfortunately, a lack of time prevented me from expanding these acquaintances.S. contacted his brother A. Hammer, whom he informed about my visit to the US. On his own initiative A. Hammer met with me (a memorandum re the meeting, at which polit. matters were discussed, was given to the station chief in NY).In addition, S. invited me to his home for lunch (1084 5th av. NY) (the wife of the late President Kennedy lives next door (1085)).During the lunch, which was attended by S., his wife and me, “S.” began to talk about how his son A. H., who lives in M., is worrying him very much. This is his only son, and he is ready to do anything for him. “I know that he lives well, has a beautiful apartment and a sweet wife, but he would like to become a teacher. He can’t do this since it is hard to change professions at his age. He works as a translator.As a result of this, it seems to me, he has developed a persecution complex. You know him personally (indeed, I got to know G. during a conversation while visiting Ye. Furtseva in the spring of 1964, when she was meeting with “S.”), could you tell him on my behalf to change his attitude toward life and not to invent things that don’t exist,” S. continued.I should note that S. had previously requested that I pass along a package to his son, but I refused.Later during the lunch S. said with tears in his eyes that this is his only child and so forth, who needs friendly assistance.On this matter I replied to “S.” that I don’t see a possibility of providing him with any assistance in making a transition to another job, although I can phone him when I arrive in M. and convey from him (S.) kind regards and a father’s best wishes. In other conversations about the USSR, S. showed himself to be very loyal to our country and spoke about our country’s astonishing progress.As a result of meetings with S. I got the impression that S. is successfully conducting his commercial affairs and has broad personal contacts among collectors, gallery owners and public figures in NY (on his wife’s insistence he arranged through his acquaintances for her to meet

p. 345 with Pope Paul VI), but because of his profession S. doesn’t have access to govt. documents or other documents that could be of interest to our service. It would be possible, however, if our comrade is trained well enough in the field of the fine arts, to contact people who are of interest to us and obtain reference information about them through S. Considering that S. is very rich, has is only son in the USSR, it would be possible to use him as a guarantor when we transfer our people from other countries to the US.”

Handwritten memorandum: Shaytukhov assisted the transfer of the package to Gherman. It was sent to M. together with the belongings of the orchestra musicians and given to Gherman by Cde. B. A. Chetvertushkin (Tchaikovsky Hall).

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p. 346

p. 347

Report to Major-General B. S. Ivanov, deputy head of the PGU, dated 13.06.66[In 1965 Dept. 15 of the PGU began to study Victor (apparently a predecessor of the RT.90

At present S.91 is in M. and is in business negotiations with the Min. of Culture USSR. Recruitment is to be assigned to Lieut.-Col. S. V. Maslov, asst. head of Dept. 15, who will act on behalf of Sov. intelligence. The conversation is to take place in a room at the National that is outfitted with operational equipment. He is to be summoned through Shaytukhov.Signed: head of Dept. 15 of the PGU head of Dept. 3 of the PGU Col. P. Yeliseyev Col. S. Kondrashov

p. 348 Outline of recruiting conversation“The recruitment of S. will be conducted on an ideological basis while making use of the consent to provide assistance to our service that he gave in 1931, and also while taking into account his strong affection for his only son, who lives in M. His commercial interest in the successful completion of the deal (an exchange of valuable works of art) with the Min. of Culture USSR will also be put to use.Proceeding on this basis, “S.” will be told at the outset of the meeting that we consider him a friend of our country, since his father and he himself once provided major economic assistance to our country by building a pencil factory and an asbestos plant in the USSR. We will also remark during the conversation that he is linked to our country by family ties, since “S.’s” son lives in M. and is a Sov. citizen.Then it will be mentioned that “S.” once promised to provide confidential assistance to the organs of the Sov. state. In all these years we never made any requests of him. But now we need help with the following:

p. 349 we would like to send our comrade (it will be a foreigner) to the US to study certain aspects of US policies, which have become harshly antipopular and aggressive. This comrade needs a guarantee for residence purposes and for getting a job in the US as an art expert or in some other area of the fine arts. “S.” will be asked the question: can he provide assistance by giving the relevant US immigration authorities a guarantee for our foreign comrade to obtain a visa to America. If “S.” answers in the affirmative, we’ll proceed to the concluding part of the conversation and refine and clarify the procedure for communicating with “S.” and for our comrade to contact him. It will be arranged that our comrade will write “S.” a letter from a Europ. country in English that will begin with the words:Dear Mr. Hummer, recently I’ve read in New York Times of the Hummer Galleries and thought you’d need an experienced man in European art.“S.” should send an answer to this letter to the return address indicated in the text and suggest that the person come to the US to get to know each other or suggest to him that they meet in a Euro p. country, where “S.” will go on company business.The meeting will be arranged with “S.” by a station operative during a reception at the Sov. mission, where “S.” is sometimes

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invited on national holidays.The meeting will take place based on a password: our representative:Do you have El Greco?Sonny: Yes, I have one for 210 thousand dollars.“S.’s” possible trips to Europe in the immediate future will also be ascertained at this meeting. At the end of the conversation an inquiry will be made about possible requests that “S.” has for us.In all probability “S.” will request assistance in getting his son a job at the MGPPIYa or another institute of foreign languages as an instructor. Assistance will be promised him in a positive resolution of this matter, an agreement in principle on this matter already exists.At the end of the conversation the need for keeping our agreement in strict secrecy will be underscored. The practical necessity for “S.” to adopt a serious attitude toward fulfilling our assignment will be conveyed to him.Note: if necessary, one more meeting will be scheduled in M. before he leaves for the US.Asst. head of Dept. 15 of the PGU of the KGB under the SM USSRLieut.-Col. S. Maslov 12 June 1966

p. 353 Memorandum dated May 1966 by Shaytukhov“As a result of studying “S.” it was determined that he has a loyal attitude toward our country, retains the warmest feelings for Sov. people and is thrilled by the progress of our country and by Sov. art. His years in the USSR left him with the fondest memories.He is extremely skeptical about the Amer. way of life and ridicules Amer. culture. Condemns Johnson’s policy in Vietnam.During the period when Lindsay was elected mayor of NY, he assessed this event as follows: “Instead of that swindler Wagner they’ll elect J. Lindsay, who they’ll also make into a crook.”“S.” has an antiwar attitude. During the “blackout” in NY in 1965 he said: “This incident will let our people get a whiff of the breath of war and chaos.” “I don’t understand how people can be in favor of a war.”…

p. 354 It became clear from conversations with “S.” that at one time he took steps to obtain US citizenship for his son, but has now given up that idea. “S.” said bluntly that A. Hammer wouldn’t be happy in the US. In 1962 “S.’s” son visited the US, but he didn’t do anything to keep him there. Moreover, “S.” warned his son to throw out of his head the paranoia that he had developed as a result of a number of circumstances.“S.” would like to provide financial aid to his son and buy an apartment for him with hard currency…

p. 355 [Brother Armand has broad business contacts, visits Pres. Johnson, has a relationship with Eis. and took part in the conference of 92 top US businessmen in M. in 1964.][The guarantee that V. H. will cooperate honestly with us is that his son is in the USSR.]

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p. 359

See Anatoly Dobrynin’s book92

p. 310

Memorandum re Armand Hammer dated 08.09.72“In early 1961 he visited the Sov. Union as a tourist. On instructions from the secretary of commerce in the Kennedy admn. he conducted unofficial talks about expanding trade between the US and the USSR. He was received by the leaders of the Sov. Govt. He made positive comments about his meeting with the Sov. leaders. While he was in M. did sightseeing around the city with his spouse and visited the Sacco and Vanzetti factory, where he met with workers who had started working under him. He was astonished by the growth in labor productivity. He repeatedly commented that the trip to the USSR made a big impression on him, and the achievements by Soviet people are enormous. While he engages in big business, he didn’t shrink from carrying out small-scale operations. For example, when returning from the USSR in 1961 he took 18 tins of black caviar with him, saying that he would be able to profit with them. [Met with his nephew in M.]

[Criminal proceedings were initiated against Armasha in 1946 for illegal possession of weapons and in 1949 for the attempted theft of an ambulance tire (was intoxicated).]

p. 361 [In 1962 he visited his father in the US for 2 months. Married for the second time. Left his first wife with a 5-year-old child.]

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1 “Helen Tenney” misspelled as “Hellen Jenney” in the original notebook.2Vassiliev’s note to himself.3Vassiliev comment: the notebook has “Gio,” a typo for “Cio.”4 “Granich” misspelled as “Greunich” in the original notebook.5Typo in Russian word vstretitsya.6 In the orginal notebook the English “Terrill”in italic is misspelled twice as “Turrill.”7Error in the Russian in the original notebook: godov should be"godakh.8Translator’s note: Russian word otverzhenny is imprecise translation of “withdrawn.”9 Misspelled as “Forfort” in the original.10Vassiliev notes that his notebook has “Serebryanov,” but that this was an error for “Serebryansky,” a senior officer in the INO GPU at the time.11 “Perazich” misspelled as “Parazich” in the original notebook12 “Terrill Bentley” misspelled “Terill Bently” in the original notebook.13 Vassiliev note to himself.14Vassiliev notes that at this point the word “learned,” izvestno in Russian, was left out.15 “Cio” misspelled “Chio” in the original notebook.16Error in the original for “Willard” Park.17The original Russian is “Stepanovsky” but the Ukrainian activist Vladimir “Stepankowsky” is the person referenced.18 Vassiliev’s note to himself speculating that “John Ant” was a garble for “John Abt.”.19 Vassiliev’s note to himself that “Sindey” was an error of “Sidney.”20Vassiliev’s note to himself that Yakovlev might be a pseudonym for Yatskov.21Vassiliev comment: a comma is missing here.22Typo in the Russian, obespechit should have a soft sign at the end.23Customary Russian fashion for saying $300 per month for a year.24Vassiliev comment: This is a part of Grigory Kheifets’ manuscript memoir, which begins below and continues on p. 68. The memoir was not part of KGB file 70548 and was provided to me by senior SVR officer Oleg Tsarev from another archival source.25 “Bukhartsev” misspelled as “Bokhartsev” in the original notebook.26Apparently a word missing, likely “L” of “Liza.”27Text in parenthesis made in the original by a Soviet translator.28Typo in the original Russian: vyyasnitsya should not have a soft sign after the “t.”29Typo in the Russian: vstrechu should be vstrechi.30 “Gnedin” misspelled “Gedin” in the original notebook.31 “Vinogradov” spelled “Winogradov” in the original notebook, a common transliteration convention of that era.32Vassiliev note.33Vassiliev comments that the repetition of “morals” was likely his error in transcribing the report.34 Vassiliev note that “vunerable” in the original document was likely an error for “vulnerable.” 35 Translation into English of the Russian translation of the original English text on p. 63. Some parts of the original English text were missing in the Russian translation. The Russian translation is also imprecise in places compared to the original English below.36This is a translation of the Russian translation of an original in English, the latter found below, p. 65.37This is a translation of the Russian translation of an original in English, the latter found below, p. 66.38Translator’s note: substantive divergence from the original English (p. 66), which says “I must resign.”39This is a translation of the Russian translation of an original in English, the latter found below, p. 67.40Translator’s note: tense shifted from past to future compared with the English original on p. 67.41 “Ramifications” misspelled as “remifications” in the original notebook.42 “Jeopardizing misspelled as “jeopordizing” in the original notebook.43 “Infinite” misspelled in the original notebook as “infinitive.”

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44 “Imperiled” misspelled in the notebook as “imperilled.” 45 “Furthermore” misspelled in the notebook as “furthemore.”46Vassiliev notes that at this point he dropped a line when copying the original.47Translator’s note: the words “according to his” are repeated from p. 45.48Vassiliev note to himself.49Typo in the Russian in the original notebook: proderzhalas should be proderzhalos.50Typo in the Russian: uvideli should be uvidel.51Translator’s note: inaccurate Russian translation of the English original found below.52 “Hyman” misspelled “Heiman” in the the original notebook. 53 “Simon” (Simon Rosenberg, KGB source S-7) misspelled “Saimon” and “Hyman” misspelled “Heiman” in the original notebook.54Based on the grammar of the Russian original, “it” cannot refer to the investigation but Alexander Vassiliev comments that he believes that the words “the committee” are missing here and should be the antecedent for “it.” 55Typo in the Russian: soobshchennym should be soobshchennykh.56 Ts.(Tsntr/Center) replied that Zh. (“Zhulik”/“Crook”).57English text below, p. 93. Letter given to Samuel Dickstein.58Translation of the above letter composed in Russian into English, translation done by a non-native speaker of English.59Typo in the English in the original notebook, should be “envelopes.”60 “Crook.”61Misspelled as “pevious” in the original notebook.62 “Salient” misspelled “saliant” in the original notebook.63Russian text of the English text below, p. 96.64Translation of the above letter into English by a non-native speaker of English.65 Misspelled “achive” in the original notebook.66Translation of the English text below into Russian with minor translation imprecision.67 “Crook.”68 Misspelled “aliviate” in the original notebook.69 Misspelled “Armend” in the original notebook.70Vassiliev notes that the question mark is his insertion due to the indication the letter that the author is a woman.71Transposed names in the original. The correct name is “Albert Reese Williams.”72Translator’s note: Russian for Alexey Tolstoy Street.73Empire State Building is on 34th Street.74 “Irene” misspelled “Ireene” in the original notebook.75Vassiliev comment: typo in the Russian in the original notebook: mogli should be moglo.76Garble for “Lanny Budd.”77 “Father” misspelled “farther” in the original notebook.78Space missing in the English in the original notebook.79 Misspelled as “loose” in the English in the original notebook.80Translator’s note: inadvertent use of second person instead of first person in handwritten notebook.81Foreign Policy82Vassiliev comment: while the original said “agreements,” dogovora in Russian, in this context svyazi -- “connections” is indicated.83Vassiliev comment: “Miron” probably told Victor Hammer that he was doing an academic degree at a Soviet university and used that as a pretext elicit information from Hammer.84 “Newbold” and “Biddle” misspelled as Newbld and Beiffle here and below in the original notebook. 85Unclear what “KL” refers to.86Vassiliev comment: typo in the notebook – slovno instead of slovo (word).87 “Father’ misspelled “farther” in the original notebook.88 “Sent” misspelled “send” in the original notebook.89 Original notebook has “Actions” rather than “Action.”

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90 Vassiliev note to himself that Dept. 15 appeared to be a predecessor to the KGB’s later RT “Razvedka s territorii" – Home-based Intelligence.91Translator’s note: The Russian cover name used for Victor Hammer here switches back to “Sonny” ("Synok") from “Screw” (“Vint”). While the Russian abbreviations are different for the two names, the English abbreviations are the same: S., “Sonny” in this case.92Rotated 90 degrees to the left in the original notebooks.

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