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The Evlad-i Arab in Ottoman Egypt: A Rereading

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Frontiers of Ottoman Str-rclies: Strte, Pt'oi-ince, and the \\'r:st Vr 'lutne I Editei lt (--t,lrn Inri'.r. t' ;lrtrl Kcrii, , lrtt, ,t;tf:i

Frontiers of Ottoman Str-rclies:

Strte, Pt'oi-ince, and the \\'r:st

Vr 'lutne I

Editei lt(--t,lrn Inri'.r. t' ;lrtrl Kcrii, , lrtt, ,t;tf:i

Pubhshed in 2fli)5 b-v I.B. Tauris & Co' Ltd

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Prir-rted and bound in Great Rr-itain b-r'\{PG.Boohs l-td' Bodmin' Cornrvall

L,r"*- t.ral cc'pl edit"ed ar-rd suirpliccl Lit' Iieil-r' lil'c't:rlit

llc [,t'i,id-i '.'Lr,ib ('Sons cif the ,\t:lbs'1 tt-t

Ottoman frgvPt: :\ Rcreatlinc'

lune |lalltaa'a-1'

Arr,,-rnd the mlcldle of the ser-enteenth ccnturY, thc Ottc'man

*\,"rrr(], Of Eer.pt issried a serjes of orclers (httyrttLii) ciirecun.q dre

lft,..r, of Eglpi's se\-en regiments .f C)ttomen s.ldien, t.. expel a

group .,f p.c,p-l. knorvn ot t)i,hd-; "lrabf

aa,lirl ttl-'Antlt iLteralh" 'sons

.t',t''la \rabsi. l'ltis .rr21 1gr.iprns the qtresri"n (rf iu.s1 n'hc' thcsc

cvlad-i ,Arab, as c.iepicted'in Arabic and ottomzrn Turkish chroniclcs

of pte-mneteenth-ientull' E$'pt, u'ere' 'Ihe overriding tendetrcl-

o-ring scholars of C)ttomai'-Eevpt has been to interpret thls

".pr.i*io., at face r-alr-te and, -iir.ot'er, in accordatlce . with the

"-,ia.t" nreaning of the wotd rlrah. To uncover the eilaci-r

"{'r'ab'srJentrty, I .ont"id, \1re lTrust subvert the prevaihng historiographl' b1'

restorinq the e-rptession tc.r its pre-nlltlon-state context'R.prlr.rttntirle c,f the cc,nr'-entional histotiogrirph)' ol^ Ottc'nan

Egr,pi is _N,Iichaei .W'inter's Egptia.n Socie\, under Ottrt:nan Rttle. 15/7'

77ih, in wl-rich the allth;; claims that 'ln dre seventeenth

cent.tr-v....Arabs f'loocled the regtments,' a development- ti-rat he

cre,lits r.lith inciting the 'anti-Arab' campaign of Rrdvan ,Bcr" Irter

linorvn as al-Faqari, and his ally Ali Bev, qovefnor of tl"ie t'pperF,gvptirn sr.rpcr-province of Jirj a.r.

\\'intcr's sourcc for tl-ris issertion is a passrtqe in the T,itVl:-i ],[rr-tli,ilit.t oi trlehrnccl b. \'usuf A1-Hallaq (to I12- ll7l-i;:, rn uhich ttrechr,niclct quote s vcrbatim a b'rvioidu of 1(l $eban 1(157 / I0

Septcmber i(,,'17 f..,n-t the q.-"'erni-'r t'f E'gypt to ti-le tegimental

c) rtlcefs:

Yed-i bi;lli$un iginde ne kaclar evlAci-i 'Arab varszr, eger iMtsrrh ve

eQer $arnlir,. .8., flalebli. eger Bagcia4i, t:4:'-'lc1nt' q'!r ()ilnk'.iir'.'t".: Bar,raC'me'acibine degin uiriteJcri tcrig:it idLrp, satan

sa.tslln, \,efsa sarmtlup kalursi, Li'1-k.,llite re*oltLnsnn tf. 1()9r-

v, empl-rasis rnine).

I{owerrer man-r, evlAd-i i\reb there ate rn thc scven re-q1mcllts-be the v Cairene, Dlrnascene, Aleppine. Ba{hdadi' 'Acem'

)r t4 F ru nlitrr.r of' O il t, tl a t .\ n r r/it tf.-jzbel'--rheir stipcnds mlrsr be ccdecl a'cl sorc-l befr-,re thcl.i,lti:,par,clar,ltire ,L,c,nus

prl,{a1 at rhe eric] of Ramazanl; anr.l'cll'l;ilmtr{ un:'rld u'ilj h. clncclird.

{J- Halllq's nan-r rjr-e corrrinu,.s:

)'eniccri tailesi ekserj e-,,lad-j ,Arab olrrragrn, haber conderdileri':r 'Er'lad-i 'A.ab qrkarsak, lazirn s.ren hi&n;,-j-p;dii-;hl'r.e kimqjdcf i' dirilcdjkdc. .'ilr Bcr e1.ir jl. .B.n,lr

R",r_,. , u,f .;;, ,.1,f ."c, ,kdur': onl.rrlr i er-inr qrr..ri jd.rirn.'

Since theJarussa.. corps \\ras m.rst.l\r erlAd i ,_Lrab, lrhc ,fticcrsl

respondcd, 'If u-c ex1-'cl thc evlad_i i\rab, ",no ,r-rfi g() {(-)

perfcrrm the necessarl' suitanic senice?, O.i.rt-'.rrurj-rt,,;r, lljBer. repJred, 'I har e li":I. ltjy ,,g/am .rtklt,ttts. I o,ilt-pro,r,lot.,rlrcrrr jrrsrerd ur- lrlre , t,/nr/ i .-


\\inter is able to adduce this episode as p'oof of- anti-AraLrr.:"t.tl.tlt amo's Eplpt's militarl leadership beca.,se he u'derstandserLad-j 'A'ab as a refeie.cc to ethnic Arabsi'rhe rnc,der' ,"r.,."..1t,.pr.ble'r uith this inre'prctatic.,n rres u,rt1i the last t\r,o groLrpsincluded under tl-rs r:ubric. 'Acer' and c)zber, .,,uLd .ir.ii.-abr'referro lrrb.popularic-'ns irr Ccrri'lr \sil. bur to nrak. rlris inrerp,.ir;,,;,v'e n'ould,ha'e to assume that ,Arart 'o'larlr ,.r.r."J io-ton .tl-,rrr.-\rab- rnd t'rs u'as nor rrre case duri'q trr. scr.cnt.f'r'lr crrrrurr .I4eanu.hile, 'Acem duunq the Ottoman pedr,rd nf-r;.nUr.- rr-rau,-r,'Persian' or, l'c)re br,-,adlr-f 'frireiqn', u, in ,)rr,,rbg);;;,-,h",sc.,ns offcrreig'e rs', or 'toreign' b,ovs'-lalrnort all 'f- ilr"rr.,, ir:c,nicalh-,'\natolian and Balkan-chr-rstians-v:ho vrcre r-.emo".a rro,rr--.t,.i,ta.lnrilfs rn the d,t'sr,ne and taken into otroman sen,ice.i I' the c.aseoI u-ir3t the (Jrtonrzrns knew as 'dre fu'o haqs' ('Irakrytr),

'ol.c-o\-er,tl-ie r'r'ord is used to drf{ercntiate eastern, perscpho ie ',Llok-i :. cr,,(b1t 1s' nr.de'r-da1' Iran) frorn u,esreln,'Arabcp),rc,rr' lr,lok i lLr.ar,.

ll*l ,l:,1 ilr,parr. relcr.: 1o rhe Cenrr.al -\,i:,n'TurLrc 1.,,1.u12pir,11kt'to\\ tt rrr Lnqlsir as I zLrlls. lrr Ccntt..rl _1 si:Ln lrjsr,,rjrqr.,rnjrr atr,lsdlnc'gr:apir)''..tl,g' consr*Llte the pr,rp'ratio' of ,il. .T;ir;;i.ri.r.,

u,fose nomadic Turkish'ess is contosLd rvirh dre persian.ii ..,i,-..()l the ur-btlr dn'clhnq T'ajiks and the sede,nt:rrjz:rti,-,n r_rf thc l-,urlrjspcaking *Salts.' 'rher:cfor-c, rn dris pardc,-rlal i'srrlncc, er-lAi-i .Ar-rl.cxru'.rot relnr fo, <,,r'ar lt'ast cenr-]ot r.,ier sc,icrlt, t., crlrnic- Arrl',:,.

,'l'o ide,'tif' a 'r.re Ils]1 'tca.ius ibr:-er-ifd_j ,Arut,. ,r-. ,..r.r,

rddrcss three rss'es;: /i rhe c,,mnro' .l.r1rerrt Jr'lins r1-rc ed]ectii.csi'cludecl irr tlrc huinLi,lu qlr(ri.d 1rr,er J1ariLc1, ii.i., trrt-c,,r]1ext \,ithiirri'lrjclr ilris passag.

if]Reai1 i'r,r i-,teileq's criri','icre a'd'r lor-rghlr.cr-)rrirlrrl).rfrrn' clir,-,njcJcsr, arij I thc- irrpij,::,it j.,\r7r. ()i (,tJi!:;.,i.

,1 ra L, a n ri .l ru'l s h Co lt ltu t ti/ir,.r

fotrrsrdr. $amh, Halebli, Fagciacli,'Acem, Ozhek


'I'hc adjecrives li:;teci in rl-re br.n'rr,r1drr reter first to rnaior cirjes in thc(,)ttoman -\lab 1',1,-itlitcLsl thcn r(-r 11\(r rrluost unecFLir,ctcallr nc_rn-.iirrrb rthnic groLil'rinqs. $i hom .,r-or,rlcl all these adjectir-cs dcscribte-i)r. Il.)rc apprc,priatclt', r\.'h:rt qrolrp tr',tui.1 thcr. ciescliltei In thec()ntert of the t,rder. suich a qr(lllp r,vould have to c,rnsist of soldiers,r.rr at lezrst porcnti.,rl solcliers. In the cese ctf Cairo. Damascus, Aleppo,rncl Baghdad, the reterence cotrlcl be to Jarussaries, regardless ofc'thnicitrr or pro\renance, stzrri()ned iir thcsc provincial crries andpcrheps .,perxting or seeking to operzrte in Cairo as frecr agents. Thee-\iirmpie of the sLlrril llter'Jl1,v 'slLddler'). r mcrcenan' soidier -,r.hct

riso. rt lcrsr in onnrnan Lr:1 pr. seemed ro perfornr thr scn-iccs of :r

securifi- guard rir u'atclrman, suggesrs that this krnd of free agencvuras fhirll- common in the seventeenth- and eighteenth-cenrunr( )11n1111n of'rt'iltcrs. In F.', nt d,,ri .o rh- srvr'nleenrh :rnrl eiohlggnll-)cenrurics, :rn indir idrr;LI srrrrrj cc,uld evrdentlt negotirre hrs sen'ice tor particulrr granrlte prtr(ln. In liqht tri rhis clnsider;ruon,'Accrland C)zbek might pcrhaps ret-er to soldiets in the Safar.id ('Persian')anrl Shavbamd (L)zbek) arrnies u'ho soughr similar tree agencyfhrough desertion. Indee d, thc- Sathr-id argument is espe ciallycompelhng in r.ierv of the Safar.rd Shah:\bbas I's (r. 1588-1629)attempts to displace the itzrlb;rs, t1-re

-fr:rkoman tribesmen rvho had1r1-ns.'i11 rhe Safrri,lq rr) nr,\\-er rnd t,r''med tlrr brckbune oi rheir*5'" '

armies. Likeu'ise, the movenrent and upl-reavais among the Tr-rrliicand N{onsol popr-riauons of Central Asia in the eady seventeenrhcenftlflr u'ould har,'e made it more liLely rhat members c.'f thesegroups cor-rid have spun off into Ottoman sewice.o

EvlAd-i'Arab in the Chronicles

It, hr-,lvevet. $'e e\'rluate Al-Haltaq's passage in hght of tts positionurrthin the cl.rronicle , u'e must talie into eccount the imp|cit()[)p()siti()n befurcen erllid-i 'r\rab and Rum opiam. For u'liener,'errhe cr,-lad-i '.\rab irre menti()ned. rhev appear to be conrrasred,inrplicitll. or cxpLicitlr', u,'ith RtLm oilanr. In the passage cited above,.\li Bel', the governor of Jirja and ellv of- the firmor.rs fudvan Bev al-Faqad, proposes replacing tire e.'iAd-i 'Arab u'ith Run-r c,qlrrusckbans, or n-Iercenaries. From sr-rcceecling narrated e\-ents, hourever,ir is clear rhrr rlrc erpulsi.'n ,,I'cvlirtl-i '.irrb rnd rheir rcplaccmenrrtjth (flLi,ttt) .rrl.l,ntts (r)rt(li1 Lttg p:rrt ,i rhc rriunrph c,f Rtdr rn end -\ltBevs over their cncmics, Qansuh and lvlemi tW:Lme11 Bels: s-hjle thelrLttcr eLrrplole..l evlid-i 'Arab, the tbrmer patronized Rfrmi sekbans."

Some ten foljos r,ind ten years latel, al-Hallirq reports th:rt dLrringthe rgrrrrclnorate of I{apr-Lr1an i\,Iustaiir Pasha (1066-7 /1655,61. tbq

2()6 Frunticr: of Cltonan 5'nrdir

Cairene and tortl- Darrascene evlad-j 'Alab v,ete erpelled from thereqlments and their sala6' rtghts sr-,icl (.'tui6d-i ''4ral: t',t-trut ktr/:, Mt.rtr'/r

t,L'krk San/' itiiliiklt'rrlen q/<.aruf, 'ulilftierinl salthrdtlar'5.'"'fhis ir-rcident is

presented sin:rplr'as one of dre e\ents oiMustata Pasha's tenure. Butin "n o,',,,,nvm{)u\ chr.rrjclc er idgnr\ .corll.oqpd.in the I68t t: arrd

1rc,,r'irrq rhc urlc Ivtalt-, T,uitil,-t\lii-[x1,;,1, i)ffi'"11o.,n,r l'ar;.^ rhtepis.-,d? unfolds in a much broader context:

106(r mai-r-i Zllk/de zuhfr iden zorJra-i Mustahfizandan Bat'r:anl

nanr kitnesne basbug r.e kendul'c bir alav adam r-rvarup. alcl-lharbivc pur-siJah dJianc gtku1r, 'tlbct o'1id-i 'At"ab 'ulfr1'clcr:i

kat'. r'erlerine varak adamlar tahrir cilunsun' (t-. 67r').

In Zilkade 1{itr6/nrr*rrst l(r55, st)meone named Bal'r-am ftotr-t

the rebels of the N{uitahfizar-r flanissaries) pr:ocJaimed hirnselflcr-rmmander, raliied a trooP of men to hinself, and v'ent up totire governol's cc)uncil ioaded u'ith u'errpons of u'ar' [Itedeclared,l 'The stipends of the er4Ad-i 'Arab absolutell' 111tt1 1r.

cut ofi and useful r-nen appoirtted in their places''

Tlrev managcd to fiare theJanissart' aga deposed,aiter v'hicir:

\le ziinre-i er-lad-i 'Arabtn 'uhifeleri kat( olunup, zutl-rre-;

zc,rbadan gok kirnest-te 'uI'ife sahibi oldu' Ol siin Qavuslararzuha] idup, 'Aramtzda oLan. er4ad ve qb1 r;E $arni r-e }{alabiolanlar:tlt 'ui.rfeleri refoiuna' (f. (r"v-(r[ir;. Gr b*r'

And the eang of er-iid-i 'Arab's salaries v:ere cut oi! and lllan\rpe,rplc fiom thc gang of p',rl,as acquited salades. Ti-rat dat', the

Qn.'n; regirnent sFnL a petitlon [saringl], 'The salaries of tlrcevlAcl' an.i C.rpt#and d,,tnarc.rttt'ottT Aleppines an-)ong us

shciuld be suspended.' * <o^lcL a-l ;a b. '\ 31y-stes'v

Soldrcrs called 7orl,a rtr sonte -u'ariation tl-icrcotl aPPeal in a nuuberof cl-rrc,nicles oi Eglpt as TIOOPS fiorrl tlrc imperiai centfe v'ho u'teak-

havoc in Cairo during the 1(r6[)s."In s.r'eral cluc,tricles, as rn the anon-\'1n(,)Lts clironicle just citetl, thc

chie f- p:ltrc,n of ti-resc zofbas is X{ehtliecl ller, thc matr-rluk oi Alj llcru.lro slrcceeded his patlon as go\.et:n()r c,f -Jir-]a on tllc lattcr's deatli.\1.,hnrcd Bt r \rcflt tarrhrr ilran lrjs ln;l:1cr in attcrtrl'rtinr i( ' tul'n Ji1i,l.

ir-rto a fiefdc,rl i-tf his o\r'rt; cLrnseqr.lenth', thc C)ttot-nafl go\-e li11r r1. rrt

Eqqri c.,r-.tletecl an e>rpeclirion a!{airist hirl, u.[ich dcfeated anc] trrilled

iiiiti'in 1(,59.'-r Wl'rat ieents t,,, l-ri occr-rrring in tlrcst' accolrnts, then, is

an intcnse struqs]c tot positit,ns in ilre l csill-le1lts, u'ith thcitattenda[t salaries-,Lenrreetr',{natt,,]ian and Bal}'ar-r lxerccnafie S, (lI} the

,1ral; anclJeu.'ith Conrutrnitiu't 2{'\1

one hancl, and er{id-i 'Arrb' on t}re .other' A parallel struggle rs

ola'ed out among ;'g;:i";'' ttpit^Liy bevs' *'i-tt' Pa'T9r1:e these

'diti.r.,tt sroups .f ;il;;;;;' ffrt identrn. of the ivlad-i-'Arab in

il-re chronicles seems-ratiret cliff115s: in one Passage' ine term appears

tc) encomP"r, P.,"^"1-^"a Ci"utlis; in antftl'terit seems to include

Coptic Christrans' i1" S9"1"f' dre ^term

seerns commonh' to be

ass.ciared vrlrh specific Arab Pro'incia-l capitals' t" 3l^l]":lTces' the

ei-ldd_i ,Arab stand']" ..*rlaistincrion io Anatoiian and Balkan

populauons' 1^ r : (A-^L ^^nanrc in eq eatkt a soufce as.The erpresston evlAd-i 'Arab apPears in as eatly a so

N{ustafa Ali's famo,,t isqg Descnptii of Cairo' Here' the oPPoslflon

berween this populi;;; ;"J ti't"i or tu;n rs oniy impircit' although

the imphcauon t'-;;;;takable since Mustafa Ah consantly

corrlpares conc[tfons i" Cui'o to those of R[m' almost exclusively to

the tenefit of the ln""' Discussing Egipt's militan' classes' he

mendons a pop.rt"tiJ oirotai.r, ..rnier ,E'Jn^*. er-lad-i 'Arab u'ho

have the ugtiest fr;;;;;:i'r,rh,r, a*u no*,n1n ki nrkin-i sami'il't3

Tire u'ording tmplies that he is not completelv sure what' kind of

people these are; h; #;i";ot'tirt"' 'itL' "t' cal-led e'lid-i 'Arab'

For- bedouin tribes, in contrast' ne .npicaUt' "Tllo-'u?^*t pt"td

'rtrbiln.to The singular'Arab, on the-other hand' seems to refer to a

sub-Saharan ,q.fri.^n.it Xo#l*"'"nding' h'rs wording imphes that the

erlid-i 'Arab are'itigr'ii-'i"i^ritta' "hnt

,i'' tft'i,^|,",1""s to the

cstablished Cairene population and. thus qua[I)' ^5


Muhammad 'nui'ini";a al-Ishaqi' trtt n-q1'u^" :ry"3tltr who

conrposed hl, ufl"ifriai-apiia, al-tJwal ,n i623, notes that Hasan

pastra al-i{had.im ('The Eunuch" 988-91 lI5B0-2).1t911:t"ttd fthe

;;;r,r'r;i.1".-;"**i#::::i'"'.,ry*;:u?l;:'f:f;.{"itefse account, unrr

to whom he refers; hence, there is -9 o'nl' t" it:tt?ltj^)'::might connore i"' ani.-i"rtance. The chronicler later mentlons a

mititan, rebeltron d;i;g ;;;;;t. of Uveys Pash.a (995-911586-91)

that resultea i" tn.*t"'f?i-i 'A'ub being ptottiUi"d from loirung the

ottoman sc,ldien ;'";;;ti";^;;;'v d?i'" \'[Llt'afa Ali -^y Y1g"'iY'

refer to this incident when Le notes that 'if one of the notables of

Cairo dress", f,i' fl'tut-""'u"' "' u n"-i' they [the cundis' or soldiersl

forbid him to do so'"'

'Arabvs. Rum

The tension berr'veerr evlAd-i'Arab and Rr'rm oflanr.t^ttTt at least in

part. of course' it- tf" clisparate meanings'"of 'Arab and Rum'

Before rtr" -n.,..ri,h ;;;'Arab.v'as tt'p"tull-v "::1-:? designate

the nomadi. b"d;;';ltt;t broadl1" "omuds in gelgral' including

those rvho migili "ot Ut Arabic-speakit'g ot ethCcally Arab't':' \ile

2L)8 Fruntiu:r of Ottrtruan S tudiu

have alleady noted X{ustafa Ali's tendencl' to use tl:re- v'ord toclesiqnate a iub-Saharan African. v'hich, indeed, seenls tr,, hale been

v'idJspread am ong Turcopl-ione Ottomans.t'Ruin, on the dther hind, derives from 'Ro1l-]e,' and in the pre-

ottoman period \r.,as rrlore or less svnonvmous vritir 'B\-zantine,'

insofar ^r

ih. Byzantine, or Eastern Roman, Empire was the eastern

successor of the Roman Empire that had don-rin.ated the

X{edrterranean during the earlv centuries of the Common Ilra Llscd

more broa6lly, the -word denoted th6se u,ho spoke Greeh and

follou,ed the Orthodox Christianin, that became the BYzantine statc

re)rgror-r follou'ing the Council of Chalcedon in 451 C.E.r' Therc is

also''a geo$aphi;al connotarion to Rum ir-r rhe pre-_Ottoman-period:

it refeil tJ Asia l4inor, as opposed to rhe Greek 'heartland' of t1're

Peloponnese, u.hich usuaLh- gbes b1' \-unan ('Ionia';.23 In tl-re.Ottoman

.ru, 'hoo,.r,.r, the rneatting of Rum becomes someu'hat more

,-6i*o.rr. It can st-ill mean 'Greek' in the broadest sense, \'et itsteuit;rial meaning has shifted from Asra N{inor as a u'hole to ti-re

central Oroman Grritotl., centred on Istanbul but also includrn-q rhc

Ortoman Balkan ten:iiodes that comprised Rurnelia. ThLs is

unouestionabl-v the ser-rse in q'hich N4ustat-a A]i uses the wc-ird.:'a

Lik'eu,rse, the Ottomans ate not infrequcntlr- tern-red Rr.lmis bi'Arabophone -and Turcophone clrronjclers a[ke, and their su]tart

-ru/tan ar-Rirt.ttIn contrasring 'Arab and Rum, I u'ould afgue, A-l-Hallaq is tapping

into a dichotorir-r, that is primarrlr' geographical. R-'ln-r denotes the

\r/estefn Ottoman terrjtories: the Balkani and u'estefn Anatolia,

rncludine Istanbul. In contr-ast, the placc nsnlcs and ethmc ,glouPs

associatJd in the abor.e-cited pnss"g.s u.ith er-lAd-i 'Arab all refer to

regions in the Asiatic pror.inces of ihe emPire, us T't! as bevond the

.uit"tr, bc,rders of the empire, in Iran and Central Asia'

This dit-ference betu'een urestern, European populauons ln

C)ttoman senrice and eastefn, Asratrc populauons would have

resonated in L646, vriren the order v'as is-sued' As l4eun I{unt has

pOin1ed or,rt, dte tenSiOn betr,t,een 'eastern' and 'v'eSteln' ethniC'orr,,n5, \\.as parucularlr acutr in tlrr sc\ entcenrl.r ceniun-, aL,c,r-. all

i-.,.*=.n soldjc.ri and palrc,-. lunctjonalj. s ,,f Balkrn r,rirtn.atrd rlrosc

i-* ,r-,. Caucasus x4ountains, notabh, Citcassians and Abkhazians.t'

There \\ras, n-tc)t:eo\-eI, a feason for *riS tcnsiOn in thtr Sc\-c]]tc{:1ltl-l

centul-\' that urerit beriond u.l-rat modcr-n-dar- ncu-s meclia lil;e tc-, call

*.i.,it ctlrnic harr.d.'. Rall;,,rr ,,nd u.rrclu \rrar,'1i.rrr Cltr-,stjrrr

populations had 1-ristortcalli' supplled-the der-sit"n-re, the.lev-r' of village

t,ri,, *1.o \\rere re1rl.-)\'ecl fiom'tireir farnilies, Con\-r,rted to Islam, aldtlained either as.Janissaries r--)f t1s palace Pagcs. Ir.r'ctl as fl-re dcvsit'r-uc

began to iali ini.t disuse. thc /:ti//,tr-thaiis, the 'sultatr's serniz.llts,'

coilpr.i:,ing -] anissaries, pal:,ce sc,l,Jrerl', and p:rlace futrclior-rar:tes--

7 n r h d u d .[ Ltt'i-rli (.r, rt n t rti i itt.r lf),1

rr,',:rc ,,f or-cr:wlrelminglir '11-LqlaLll' origin u'cil ittto llle Scventectith

ccntlrly. \\'tth tlte .o,iqlt.st of the Ai':rb Llncls, h1ttt'evcr, rtnd .as e

te surit rtf conrinu(iLrs ivlufef e agalnst thc Safavicls in It:tn, an.r1lcr-niltir-r s(-tlLtce' of [lanpr-)\r'cr (end women pou/er] prescnterl itseli:

tlre r-rilirlus i-.(lplcs ,.rf the L.lrtrcesus and tar eastern -{naloLia, rviro

iui,l ic,ng ire,.n explc,itecl bi thc Nlarn]r,rk sr-rltanrte ancl lvho u'erc

lrccrnni;; to cl,rmjnate the Saf'"u,-id almies anci aclrriinistration- Sincc

e1#r,st ill .i these P,tPr.rlations Livecl r-rutside of the C)ttc'man

c{<-,mains, tl-icv had t,, b. i-p.,rted through the.slar.'e trade, althotLgh

sgrne offereci themsc]r: es aS mefceltafies and lthers \,-ere captllred in.Jv-affare, perttcuiarlv \\,artafe against tlie Safhvrds.

-fhus, thcse nerv

populzrti,rns reptesentcd u-hat w'e might call a mamluk aiternatir-c t,,

ihe .lc.-pit-e iecruits. It is irlportant to note, ho$ieyef, that the

System of recrr-titment \taS ttc, greut difterentiator Lrefr,veen rhe turcr

pools .f potenrial recruLits. The onl,v real difference between a

mamluk ^t,d ^

l-lsv;irme recruit rr,'as that the former \r''2s imPofted

from or-rtsjde C)ttr-,man tefritorlr u'hile the iatter rvas an ottgmanChristian subject. Othenr..ise, the personal statr-rs of tl-re two tvPes

aftet recrr-ritment rvas vittuallv iclentical; indeed, C)ttc''man chroniclers

not infieqr-rentl\' refer to cier'9irme recrui[s as marrrluks and tci

mamluks as k,,li..t The term kul, in anv case, applies to all of them.The cr,mnetirir,n benvern thcse ruo pools ot'kuls teps into a

deep-seatecl anrbiv2le1ce, iI not antagoniirn, befureen, the- Ottc'rman

lrmpire's ru'o principal s<-rurces o-f manpor'r'ef at the tar north-uresiern and far

'orth-eastern edges of the enlprre. I he rvars

berween the Ottoman Empire and the Nlamluk sultanate jn the late

fifteenth centurv,rs 6o11611,.d by Sultan SeLim 1's collciuest of the

N{amluk dcimains tn 1516-7 , prr,f ided the flrst opportun.iq'_ fc,r

sustained contact benveen Balkan and C--ar-rcasran populailons' It is

thir to say that the Ottoman soldiers, n-IOStlv ot- Balkan and Anatolian

oritin, u,,,ete predisposed to regard the N,Iamluk armics v-ith dis.gr-rst.

if not .or.t.-pt, otr,'ing to the tenor of Ottoman- propag'rnda as

rcflectecl rn fttbnarues, S=elirunantts, and earlrr chroni9l.es.5rf, C)ttoman

f .gr,pt. ln such woffis, the h{arnluks are habituallv lb:llel Cerikist-i

,');i.itt i"loathsonre Circassiar-rs'); therr sultans are .lericled :rs slaves

Irn,-l sgns r-,f slayes, i1 c(-)nt1ast to Selim, 'sultan, s6n of sultan, SOn ofs u l11n.'l '

It is difflcLrit todat' to imaqine the shock of the rniti:rl encounter

between the Rhmi kLrllar ,rnd the vafious Car,rcasian mamhrks rr''ho

bcgan to entef C)ttoman palace ancl prot'itlciai sen-ice in signitLcant

,-,.r'-b.tr during the sevinteenth cantLrrl,. flndeed, the C)ttc,mtLn

Empire rtself p-rovided a clegree ot- r-rnitv emong these dis.parete

p,,,p,-,l^tions.) Although the l-rrinelands and, in scime cases, religjons

i,t'the Belkans and tl't. C,lucastrs shalerd ke \' [earr.rres, the lantuLages

end customs c,if the fivo rcgions chffereci racircallr'. S'hile the Balkan

21.() F ru u t ier.r af O /1.0 nt a n -\' n.t ti i t s

populaticrns, u'ith the keY excePticJn of the Bosniatrs, \rrere

t'i^r1.,.l,,.'ingly Cirristran aird ..'cr. c,tgouized in 'illages,

the basjc

economjc umt'of u'hich \\'as the qifti,ant, or famjlv farfi1,'" nunlerous

Caucasran populattons \\rere snil 'Pagan'' or animist,- and still

functioned as iribes. \/rsitors to the Caucast s, n()t least the f-arr-ious

seventeenth-ce fltuflr c)tton-ran traYeller l}'liIa c-eleilj, gir-r an

imnressign cif peoples u'ho ulef e still sr]mctr'1-rat 'v'ild' 21cl

un'predictable. ii-r,ri, Er.lj_r-a dcscribes thc Nfrnslelians 'r'rlAljkhazians aS 'u,al:l-ike' ancl ;riott'rus' peoplcs u'lro steal cach rltircl's

chilclren for the slave trade.rlAitlic'ueh Llriiya i"rinrscll

Abkhazian on his morher's side, his carefuf rc;,r'ductio' of sam'Je :

of r.arious caucasian languages excrtes cul:losltY PreclselJ' .Decat-lsctitese languages are so viq'-different_from C)tton-ran 'Iurkisi-r or'

i,.de.d, f,-i,-itv language wrth u'hich Ottotnan subjects u'ould have

been fan-ri,har, includriig ihe langoaqes of the Balkans'i:

To a rernarkable .t"t"r-t,, fr-,r.-theJmore, the Caucasian populations

te tained their distincrl.ene ss, never assimilating f'ul]t' v.ith the

i"Ji!""""r populations of the r.'arious C)tt.mat territories, for all

tl-rut -u.rv of ,i't"n-t u,oul,l become the sultan's Sef\/al-lts. Through 1is

oo,n puri.,tt, N'{elek Airmed Pasha, Er'liva -becatlre acquainted rvith

,l.l. ttrrurriu., and Abkhazian custom knou'n as tire ala/iqatr'

.;h.r.by a l,oung bo1- u,as senr au'e.r' tc, be raised bv 'strangers' so as

to pre.-ent i-ris being raised a v,e akling bl, the \r:onten of the fan-iih'

t-ro.lr"ltr"ta.,, As an-Abkhazian born in Ottonran terlitory, the t'oung

l\lelek AhnTed irad been sellt llack to bis ancestral homeland for suclr

zrn upbrirrging. Rcferrinq to this custom jn his dc-scriPtion <lf the

lil,to.U^I'lir. o1- I.'a,rir.. ErIta nolcs'-'Arrtoirg thes'- pcoplc of

f*,rir, the chrldren of the Abaza are sent fi6n Istanbul and (,atrr). ''

Gir-en the scale on u'fiicl] mamiuks v,ere itrpol'ted into the enrpire

frolr the Caucasus, thiS arrangement mLlst sr.rtelV fiaye resulted frclt't-l

somc sort of ag;rcemer-rt benieen the Ottorrran administra.tion and

rlrc p.'r,pJt ,,f tlri regit 'n in qrresuon.

Et'IAd and Oglan

I:rt-n rf 'Arab does not refcr to caucastiln pr-rpulatiorls sPccificalh'

therc jS clcarlr. a pr:evailirrr^ terLsion trertrvce'n fll(r 'c:es1e l:il' froPul'ition:'*,-hor.t.r it d,,es d.-i-iotc in L)ttr-,ttran usagc'and tht'Rhm, or ure:rtcrllcj-s

$;li-,,,. thcn, dr,., the c6r-,r'ir:lcrs spea-k o1' RInL oglant.and c'la.]-t,Alab7 \\Ihr not sinr'lv Ruru anil 'Arab? Cc,uld this ircr siinplt",rt

str,listic cler,icer 'S,,n'of in urany languaqrs carl llc :rtl .intctltitlrralh-Jrq'e;i'g rt,rr;. ]fr-r'lL \.;hr:1r usccl *,jih 16,: tatrtt'<,,i tlc Jcgil.inratc

i"t'i.i.r.,r-t-,r(irircr. ir cau imp,l1 a dir-ninutir-,rr of statuic t'cletir'e tr-r the

1,nr"nt.,, Jn atr (l)ttotlar-r cotrte:t, uscd urtil I ge'ncraLized- collccttvc

s1rcl', ,ns Ri-tnt ttr 'At-eb, jt calls to rrlinil thc rhctoric c'f tltt rlntt-

,-1ral; tnd .Lt'rutt.slt C'autntanitit'r 21 I

1tr11nil,-rk tethnatrres: tlre latLclirtr-rrr; 'slrltan. son c,i st1itrrn' vcrstls tirc

.1"r,-ro^r,,rr'sllL!e, son of slavc'.,\t the same tinle' tile '\rebic,.rr.i!ri.q:rr.r,laci al-'r\rab is rcminiscenr.t- n.thing sc) mr-Lch as the

..f,'rt"r,i.," arvlacl al-nas (Ltertlh', 'sons r'rf thc people') , in the

1,,[,rrir1r,Lk slLltauate . f Lre auLid al-nas u'cre the sr'''ns .i mamiulis v'ho'

,.f.,r.li,rg to the miLitan, culture o}:sctrrcd b1- th1 N'lamluks*ltrrnate,

were forii4clcn to i.rn the sultrrnate's armed fcrrces."'t Here, the

ertrernell, \'aque term rzzi.r (people)- rr''ould seem to-ilpply to tlee

marniuLs rhcirselves rather tlian to the ptrpLrlatlon oi.Egl'pt or Cajro

llt Llrge.'Ihe phrase, then, ser\7es to Llnderilne rhe contrasunq

SratuSeS r-,f the fwo CenefaLions altholiqh it als'l C.OnnOtes the

'lcicalisation' of the seconcl gelletation: thev are no lonqet iiteral

outsiders bttt 'c,f the Pe oPle'.B' the s"me tc,kJn, .\-laa-i 'Arab and Rum oglaru could sicnifv

o"";.*o"ui Jjfi-"r.r-t... Thus, the eviacl-i 'Arab may not.necessaril-v

B; A;.^b, rh.*r.I"., br-rt the children of Arabs, rvith all that this

rmpiies. If u.'e take 'Arab here to mean a nomadic or semi-nomadic

o,,f"i.u,.,n tl'om the Asiatic provinces "f the Ql1rr6an Empire' 'rrit;; ,1* Empire's Asiatic peiipl.teries, then pcrhaps :he


is thar oi b.ing ,nlr a generadc'n rgm6rr ed from rlre 'barhlrous'

,ro-uar, s,rch is the rvili Circassians who leap.into the Ottoman

5lips-61. for that matter, the Arab bedouin. Bv thls reasoning, Rum

;ql:;, "rria-pcrh,rps implr a f.pu6uc,n ,,n1r a {cn-ererj,n 1e11r,ved

f;"- ,fr" tLri,rirni .ri ri',e Ilalkens ;nd .\natt,lia. Sem'rnticaLl ' this

Construction makes a certa-in alnount ttf sense, fot it u'as the 1'or-Lng

vns of these establ,ishcd pr rpulations rvho would be uprooted from

their birth cr,rltures anll'tf;nsfrrrmed tnto the stlltan's soldiers-absorbed into state mittarY sen'ice just as the sons rlf the Nlamluks

ltad hecn clebrrrred trcrrn ir.

Kulvs. [Jmer6'

i\ flnal consideration rhat is not rmmediately apPalent 1-ras to do u'ith

political circr-rtnstances in the Ottc)man Empiic at f9 drne at u'hich

ir,i, -""i-"s

against the e'lAd-i 'Arab minifestcd itselt-. It is no

c,inciclence , 1 'be[e'e, that an orcler to expe I the er-]ad-i 'Arab f]om

Lqrpr'r l.fgillcnrs u:,rs issuctl in rhe i6{r rs. \t rhis pciilt, thc Empire

o,ii'onlv iu.ttfi, years ptlst the tegicide of Sultan C)sman II ('G91e

C)srnan'), who tn'1622ias mLtrdei'ed bvl.anissaries and pilltt kuliar

r.r,-ho teaied hjs scheme of clisplacins the ,Janissaries \rrlth troops

recruitcd [rr-,n'r the Empire's -\siattc -ptclvinccs, u'hile mrlving

-the.tf;t',i ,. \sj;t.'-'l'hc (ienc (.)sm:rtt 'Ltfrir p'rinrtg up

1-'.1:t:t betore

thl rensi.rn bet\r/een thetlitLll:rr of Balkin and r'r'esle'r -\natolian

.,riqirr, rrlro clc,nrinrtrJ p:rlat'c scn'ice':rnd tlte mcrccrtaries' or

;l#r. recrnited from Loth European and Asian tcrritorl', u'ho

212 Fruaticr: c-i Otloanu 5'utdic-;

se1-r.,cd tire governots of the Omoman plovinces. Clenc Osman'snurder prc,r'ed a victofl' for ti-re kullar, but ir fuelled a rebelliou-.streak amc)nq liei- pr-or-rncial eovcrnors (iuuerti';. '\bma \'[elrmedPasha, the governor of ErzuFum rn northeastern Anatolia, marchedtou'ard Istanbul v'ith an armt' of sekbans, intent, he clain-red, onar-ensjng C)sman II's rnurder and carrt'-ing titlouqh his scheme ofdisernpou'edr-rg the kullar. Hjs cause v'as evidentlr iciined b1' tlregoverl-]or of the southeastern Anatol-ian plor.incc of Dii'arbaktr."The tact tl-rat \fe}rmed Pasha himself v-as Al:aza, or .,\blihazlAn. 1r

1ot insieruf-1cant in this contert. \X'rit large, his rcbelliln carl bc rc:icl

as the rer-olt,-rf the Asiatic ei'lAd-i 'Arab, patrtxrzed b.r'prrlvincialumefa', against the hegemr-rnv of the Rurl oilant.

-\ sinrilar scenc u'ould plat r,ul sultte tltl'ce dscades larer'' u-lrelr

,\baza Hasan Pasha, the sovernor oi Alcppo, rebelled asainst thccentrailzing pohcies of the A-lbaman gtand :'izier l{oprnln NlehmedPasha in 1658-9. lntent on queliinq the rer.olt at all costs, I{opnilusent N4elek Ahmed Pasba, the patron of Er.liva Qelebr, u'ith a

punitive expedition to Aleppo. J-lou'er-er, he u'as sensitive to theetlrno-reeional tensjons and repoltedlt' asked Nlelek Ahnred if he

u'ere u'il,Lng t{l undeutake the command, gilen t}rat the rebel vras a

fellou' Abkhazian.r''The central-pror.incial/east-west antagonism that inforned the

Genq C)srnan affau and its aftermath celtainll contributed to the

miLieu u'itl'rin u'hicl'r the expulsions of evldd-i 'Arab occulred.\-onetl-ieiess, the expulsions secm to have resulted not from a

con{hct of interests betq,een S.nmi) kullar and (Asiatic) sekbans butfrom conpeliuon betu'een trvo confljcting etl-rnlc poclls of sekbans:

Rurnis and er'lAd-j 'Arab. T1-re Rurrli sekbans mai' u-ell, have i.ncluded

former kullar in theil ranks sit-ice, as I har,e uoted elsev'here, the

boundar:r' hefu"e cn J anissarl and ntcl'ce r)ar) drrring t his clrac,tic

pcriod u;as quitc bJ.urrl'.'" I u'ould tend to doubt, l-)o$'et-er, that thc-

ir.iad-i 'Arab jr-rcluded Caucasjan mamluks. TIre term's usage in thevari<tus conte xts that u.e har-e' exantine d impJres localised, ervet-t

intcgrated, elements; indeed, as urtted abot'e, this is a key imPlicatiortof &taa. Hence, t1-rc erpresstun is pfobabll' restr:icted to Asiaticsekbans of rrarious linds.


It appears ll,tur tlris discussictn that the tctrls Ruut t,rgl'.rirl ald eyiid-r'-{.r'ib u.ct'.,. pcrhaps deljbr:ratelr', \']ztglle; thcl' rcplest-1ltcd rot s'.)

rluch sp.cific er1'rno-gc.',grap5tc c1,-'srglatior-rs as b1oad e tlt11o-

qc,rcrapliic c2ucgclrics -iha] l.,uld irrci'ude dilferenr varicties <,'f

p.orit.i. l'hcir rispccrive rneanings dcljr.cd in iarge part fir()nr 1hc

tonirast Lretv'crt:r-t tite' ru.o ql.ruptr thcl rc-prcsented: Rfrrl oilanl \l'erel

,4ralt antJ ieu,islt Conmttirtittc-r 213

,$,estern'. 'European" Ballian, Rumehan, urhereas evlid-i 'Arab rvete

'eestern'. Aslatic, crf the \rab pror-inces. In most of the contexts 1n

rrr-'rcn we have obsen'ed it, moreover, er-lCd-i 'Arab is' at least

;.-.1.ficidr. a nc-iorau\ e icr.m inrpl'ins lnfcriorin :o. thc contra\dnq

llri- "ef"*.'.,1.. thougle the Rurn igtot, are implcid)' associated

ri iih re t,eis ( iarlula).l v,ould hesitate'to asseft that Rum oqlaru and evlad-i'Atab are

simplv brrvords for the Balkan-Caucasian divide polnled 9"1 bl.

\lein I(unt or the kul-um etd' antagonism examined b,v GabrielprrcrberU. The rwo phrases might .nlo-pass bt,th these rir-alries.

trrt th"rY s.em brouh and flexibl. ettoogh to go 'r'e11 bel'ond the

ooo.rl^ao.tt considered bv the aforementtoned f\r/o scholars'ttr;i-fi;;te, the generarional element implied bv oglan, and eviAd

,".-, sisni.ficant, liven Mostafa Ali's refeiences to 'locals' and the

repeared'as socia'oiis in larer chronicles with speci fi c -\rab pror''incial

.ii.r. Evfad-i 'Arab ma), indeed be the ofrtpring of-nomadic tribal

ler.ies of various kinds, or mamluks o, -ercettaries of various Asiatrc

Dfovenances. who seitled in the iarge provincial cities, perhaps'married loci Arabophone (or Persophone or Turcophone) women'

,nJ purt.a their prifession on to dreir sons. In this sense. evlAd-i;{*d -iglrt have similar negati'e o'ertones to the expression 'first

n-r..r"uo? off the farm' rn t6e modern United States: these are the

Eirlar"tr of bedouin or Turkic nomads, ot Caucasian mamluks, or

f,erilpt er.en. iong-established locals, settled in iarge .cities with

btto*un garrisons-and worming their wa,v.-'o ll.t:t garrisons' In so

J*g, thJv have usurped the *place

of the chjldren of the long-

estabished Balkan ani Anatoliu.t p.us"tt population, u'ho have

historicallv formed the backbone of the Ortoman armles'

In this context, a much later occurrence of the- expression is

notable: rn the infamor-,s 1711 incident in which a'Rumi'mosquepreu.her (v6'iz) incrted a band of ottoman soldiers to attack cairo's

i;il, ;t'sotai"t, insult the Cairene ulema by-calling them e'lAd-i(Arab-perhaps an evolution of the term to refer to descendants ofAsiatic nomads or, more specifically, bedoutn' regardiess ofprofession. The soid-iers themseh'es, however, are not labelled Rr:mi

Lut are instead condemned b)'the chronicler' Ahmed Qelebi, as atin

iins al-atrak alladina laru lafriqu'bEtna mlm u''a-nun ('of the race of Turks

*+r" Ja ,rot d,isurrg*ih'b.*'.in miru and nztn'), an allusion to the

s exual di s s olutene s s"o f Anatolian'h-illbillie s''a I

Rapid demograpkuc change of.the sort that the ent-ire Ottoman

Empi're experiEnied in th; earlv seventeenth centur,v,- u'ith itsu..J-p"nyi.tg conflicts of interesi, cannot-helP but.b.reed. negative

;i.;.;i"." ^id d.rognron labels. The challenge to historians is to

,rrt.ror.i rhese labelsTn rh'e context of the times in whicir thev were

i;..;;C urrJ .rt.d, rather than anachronistically assigning modern

naij,rnaList tletanittqs t,:, tl'ifnt. .\ jth,rLiglr jt rtrtrlrjnc unc.leat jLtSt \1lL)

tlie ei{acl r'Alat-,.i,"le--otrd per'1raPs thlrt was palt of .t.hc poirlt o1-

tlris I aque lal,rel-it 1s cleat-tl-rai th,,ri: -,t,ere: rrrt/ siruplt -\lairs.

214 ItnttliL:r.r oI ( ),1rtntari '\'itrtiiL'.r


I Tlrc cLrffert ..lsjlr r-rf tlie prptcr- llet.reilrs fr,l.t: lht cr)lll1llcl]1'r ()l |'t1'1lcl|'llrr rl

tht r:,,nii..ncr 'Chronjclc's Te-rr. RrLrt;l's \rt'lcc,' L ti-tlt:rsttt ol l-':ttlt tr' l-tltii I

\ t,t lretlrrt-rd s. .l ln Lrati' 2( )('t2.i'\fi,:bacl \\'intct. E-qrptia;r S.ciet', t.Llldcr L)ttt)lll:Lll RLrlc' 15llI .\rrr Yorf., 11)!)J1, 55; sce als,r 54. 5(,.l' \1.1ln.,.,1 6. \'usuf .\1 f1alla9. 7-ijril''i ][t''r " J"j/riii, ]strr'5ul

'l 7t-t$ il-on6],rn ril lt I

1'ntvelsjn LiltL.tt'',,9':


f .\-. 62b.I

L,Lr.rr $'ateful t,r Er:il; lan Z[rcheL ic'r tirls insitllrt't t-n.,'i:t,1,n"ara,-,f Isji',1- lrrd etl.. sr"'.\diamr C)Sf rlill. ll':r.'li I]il):'','Sr.lrrS,-rucck, -A Hrst1l,r.rf lnner,\sia i(-;rntbr-ltltt, a()(t{ tr. rl 4. lUrr' _-

i.,...'Hrtt],,t ar, Thc P.hrics .f FJ.uscit,Ll's itl-(')tr'r'''nlrLlr -r;11'pr: T'he Rise t'f thc

,i..J,,i'. i..,,'rii 'ri,1-,,.'l (,rr-. -(,trt,l t, i''r-:rr,.l rr'll:l( r'i 1n1{ 11 {-1

'it;, ,',. .,.,.,r,1r'. ,.,i d.*.'a(,r, lr..rlr, ltrL ( )r1,,'r.r'r t,, tlrr )rr:rri,l .Lrtrrr 'it lt 't 'ttt

,'.rrn,,.--.". ..lltitraA iii.h\'rL '-AzcbaLl rr'l-l)anrirfrl;r':]i, '1i-L)trtt't 'tl-tittt'lt:'t.li '11 l't 't' '";'

Kirriil,i,Bt:jrish Ltl-,ren.I4S (-rr. lfiri-.i [)]4,5t,-7. L)rr Shah .\bbtL:1, sec lsl::Ltldar

14u;rs1ir, T'1, Hi.rlan,'oi Jl',tlt '--1blta.r tltt t1ra.1, trrttrs. .\1,.-qcr l\I- Sarott'. 3 r'ols'

,3,,ria"r i,C-1, ttftSi il,r rl,. Shiltanids,5e; $oucel.:. Hirlart ,,l lttttrr .4''tn-119-6("1A- l'i fi 'i-t.ff,q 'l-,irjl.,-i trft.rt.r R,ilr)rt. l. l5o\'- ]-;i\-; scc ';rlso ln(,lr\'lllolrs, l"t/:ii'-i T'irilt i,rtr,

-, i;ei,i,, lH,ti,ti 1-1n.riu::L't,1,,4 i.t,-', 1('it.,{ ,,'16E31, Si-r}trttiatrit't l-ihr:a'rr. \1S Hlci

I,jalur.iud Etcndi 4f;-r, f. 5-r..-5',)r.;" \J-l-{rr1.lrc1, Itiil''t)4t:ti (,iiriri'. i-' i5lir '

l, ^r-,a,,-r,.

11rc,,-r.. -1/:.l,itit tl itltt'1':ilt r;it; ltl'ltrl ..'1,' '(-illitt,li, tt'lt" l''it" ti/ttt) l't tltt)t/t(t li''

.,tr.t.i,. \..".. A.r' . f "1'1, 1'' l',1:r' t l-rl'r;rr" \1 : l-la;irr' lr'''i i l"' tl : l\'l"lt'l

Ce]cl.'ril..-{l.'dei-G]rani'-1,,,tnl,t:i.j's'l:,,ii.,jii,iii|]|,'|L|l)ilio'\||i'rrl|Qii|.,li.o'til)tt'tt,..ll't.t:7rtrli'il rt'i-L,j;1t,,;i, erl. .\.-'\. 'Abtl al Rahjr,lr i(-':iir'r, l('':ilr' I6l ''{btlirll'rnrr r l'.{bili:r'raLr:rari,'fertlr't Mlsrr, Sul.:rn)x111\'e l,ibfar\'. \45 HcLitrlr,3ly \Lr p"i1n ?1r5'

I -8r:r.l,il.-;

\l,Halliq. T,ifl',i lI'.,,', 1,,:il,irr. i.l3!t--1{ i*'lrcrc rrr: l.Lbrl is ai'p1red tr'

al,. ,,-,1.1t"r.t. 5.. 2]:',., llr'11-r.lu',l';, Ir"jrtic-' "f Ht:r-Lselrold:' ('f aricl | 41

-\l IJ:alJ:ic1, T,,iiit-l \l"tt li"li";'' " f' I i-'tl\ ii'

, \lrr:]t.airL ,A,I:, .Htii,:ii ,7, (1f it.ir,,' 1,/,,it. r,i:n!l!1i ,tl-'tiLiti. SLrlel'rll;tllt''r l,jlrrrlr, I15 Frilll

5l:r 14.:1. l"r: ItS Usl,tl Eie,rr,ii 24p,. r-.'l zlr'. sce ,r1rc,.\,i,li:c'rt'fi':i:z.. ttl 'l-',.'J

lJirns.. .lr.l.,i.r,*,r/,r 1l;1, l l, glri,trtn, tti (.,;'iL, ,,i 1 ,;1'11 lItcrtll:r, ii]-'ir, 4tr :rrl'l Pl ii': \]"J\-

l\4f. H,Lcr Si:lrlrr'='-. f. (',-Ll .

- I:,-,r ;:'irttiiric 'Tit t;:e. r'i , 7\?"''';-''-

-:]t.,.I [i,rtl. L'l;rr.: tr-\\'111. -\]r'\ll '\1S

cirttuillr l.af it:. r','l ri ' r-r'llccl i:1t't 'i 'rt',1 :1s1,. \'1S lraril,.l'1:l-,'ll, i :,ilr

)i: ., '[ )i.,it.,:,,, i,,, . P].,,. Il,\ I i\Ii' 1 l;Lii ].'l ,r. '

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rl',, citcl',1 1lr,' .ll-'r1lr,irf 1l',11 1.fr i:: clr::';r:L.il-rrtl rLr

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-ll'!,it it 11,' "1',1f.i,;1",',' "

ill r':-

" \{5 F,,r'jf, :.11'i.1-1. j,',. i4r 1''i1' : '1",1

1,,,,i:i,ir']]lr'>ai'r:llll fl-otll ilrr, "'i';-' ; 41'tl' ).

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,lrab and Ieu,ish Cannttnities lt5

ilin ,u"ittilt ,tl-rirtn'rl (l1ul:rci, l3{)4' It,8r,;, 75(t: 'ntt-r,i,ltrtii ii-itd ;i trtriitir' ;VIlsr tttiti ,tn'l,id

,il:,4ral,.''" tbid. l5?.t' 'Tt.rze, e,J.. Xluslaln .{li'.r f),':,rt,ntiott t,.l Ctlro, Plete Xl-iII i,\IS Hacj SeIim, f rt)r'):

'.4 1in i lIutr'rian itiii li,,luli ,tlttt iLtiittttlkirine Rtinti liit,z.r t1t'tiirse' tttinttrahr.'1" Reinl"rart L)ozt', SihDl{nrfli nil): riirtionnatrc:.s nruhes,2 vr-tls. fl-eiden, 1!t27).tt' 'I'hi, nreaning, orl'the mote general 'Negro,' ts elso adduced in Srr Jan-res \\''Rcclhouse, ed.,,,1 Ttrkislt tnri Erlglisl' Le:,'l,,ott, rth eci. ilstanbul, 19;8), 1292':r See. fr,, ex:rmnle.,.rbrjellah Muh:Lmmad b. Ibrilhim b. Bafuta, NhLzIbtt Batila,

intro. br.Karam al-llustanr (Beirut, 1964), 190, 356; see also -144-5, rvhere he reters

to Turks lnd R,:mi Christrans in the same lr,rcale .

- F()f (\lmDlc. tfild. -UJ.r'' See . tor &ample , Tietze. ed., )[rc14/d '4/i''r De'trzfriori af Cairo,32, -]5' 36, 39 44,

-!,, J-. Ja.5-{.5r.tt .S".,

fbr exernple, 5iibeyli Efindi, TeuariTt-i Mdry/ 'rsirl

il/-K1dln, Sulel'mantve

Librarr', l\iS Fatih '4229

. L. -.12v. For an intriguine discussion oi the evoludon of the

t.r- ^.r,o.rg

Portugurese rvarriors and statesmen in tbe sixteenth cenrutv, see SaIl-l

Ozbaran, 'd)tto-.i', as "Rhmes" in Pornrguese Sources in the Sixteenth (-entrrn".

Portrgttest Studies 11 (2001): 64'14.2(' Ib"rahim Metin Kunt. 'Ethnic-Regional (Cins) SoLidariry in the Seventeenth-

Cenrun- Otroman Establishment',Intinrational .[ournal ('l\4iddle Ea$ Shdie.t 5 (1974):

233-9, esp. 237-8.t' S... fot eranple. Al-Halliq, T,ir;lt'i ,\4tu K'ilLirr, {. I58v2s Carl petq,-, f),;tlgltt of )In"iis4: ^fl,e Reigns of tln hlatn/ik Suhans a/-Ashral p4ttb,4t

and Q.nnstih a/-Ghau'i in Egpl (Seatde, 1993), 88-103.t" Fi, .tn-ple, Kegfi Nl*e-hmed Celebi, Selinnante, Siilevmanive Libraq',.1\'{S Esad

Etendi 21,+i, f .69r, 78v; RrdYan Pagazade, Tiih-i LIntr. SiileymaniYe Lib1ary'', N{fFatilr 436?_, f. 128v1 see;Llso L t)4r, 134r, wh.ich rmpLicitlv conrast the Mamluk

sultan Barquq',s (1382-1399) slave starus with the leneth1, genealogv of the

Otterman dynastv.i,' Halil inaicrk, Part 1 of jnalcrk, u'ith Donald Quataert, ed.,,4n Etononic and SaialIli:tory af tlte Oltanan E ntpirc (Cantbridge, i 99'1), chapter 6.t' Ej-.'" Ceiebi, Et'ti1,a'Qekii Selaltaiiarnesi, ed. -\hmed Celdet, vol II (stanbu1,

1314 A.H.j, 98.-102-i. See dsoiean de Chardin (1(r43-1713), The Tmtrls of 5tr [ohn

Cbarrlin itito Pr,l.,io and the East7ndies..., published simultaneously in French and

Enelrsh, E:rrlr' F,nslish Books, L641-li00 (London, 1691)' vo1. I, 76-8'' Er'lrra C.lcbi, Jil,tlntnntue, vol. Il. ltto-19.I EI:, ,.". ,C"rtar, (Chnrles Quelqueja,r.); s.v. 'Cerkes: Ottoman Peric,d' (Hal-ii

inelcrk); Geolge Leighton Ditson, Circassia, or a Tarr to lhe Carcasa.r iNelv \"ork end

l.ondon. 1850).416.t' Frrliva (,cleLi, J4'itl1o7,rorrtr, vol. 1I, 104.', !-.,.,., rn'thc BooL c.ri Is:riah in tire Hebrew Bible , F,rng Pekah of Isreel is referred

to as 's<.rn of Remaliah' so as rhetoricalll' to diminish his stature (lsaiah 7:4; see rlso

l5omusl l{l:11).r" Dar-id A),alon,'stuclies on rhe Structure of the N{amluk Arm\", Pzrt2, rcprintedtn Stt.rdus on the l[nnlrrks aJ"Eg'pt (1250-1517) l1-ondon, 1977).i,1 Gabriel piterbere, ""Ih-e-

,{11eged Rebellion of Abaza Nlehmed Pasi-ra:

Historic,graphy und ihe C)ttoman State in the Seventeenth C.til'l', 11 JTt'Hathawi, Ld..

^,toti,,y atrd flehe/lian in ilt Ottontan Entpire (NIe.dison, Iilil, 2a02'1. 11-

i'" tbi.l. 18-9; BaH Tezc,rn, 'The 1622 lfilitarv Rebellir-'n rn lstanbul: AHistoriographical Journerl', in FllLthau,ev, ed., ),Ia/irg, attd Rtbe//tt,n in tlLt Ottoman









216 Frvnliu"s of Oftoruan 5'ntdie.,

t,nrPrre, .)J.'' l..unr. 'Ethnic-Regicrnal (Cins) Solid:Llrn.', 23!); P.X4. I1c,lL. Eg,pt and thc Fedilr(lrt.rcr:lf: ,4 Politi;al Hts;04', 7 ,, / 6-1 922 (ltiraca and London, i 9(r6), 1t)5.o' Hathau,av, P a /i ti r of L'l o r.t.r e Lt a ld.r, 62.u' The expresston refers to iromoerotrcism ancl,ror besua[n', ] or.ve thisinterpret.atjon tc, Dr. Jan Schrr-rjdt of the L.lniversifi ,,f Lr;derr I-jbr-ar:r'. For theincidint, see AJ-Hallaq, TArTlt-i fuInr-t KaLtirt. f. 2'rt,r.-311r; .{bm.d Celcll, ,i\r,d:Lh.2-51-5. See also Barbara Flemminc. 'Die Vonvahhabiusche Frtr-ra inr osmanisclrenKairo, 1717', in Ismai/ ITakkr LiVrttLar:tlt.'1,4 ,lrn,tsatt (An1;ara, lt)r(1;; Rucli)plrPeters, 'The Battered Den'ishes of Bnb Zus'ar'la: A RcLi$r-rus fuot in }:ightccnrh-Cenr,-rr1 (-air','. in \ebtrnir Lettzt,rn anJ -lohn f) Vul]. rd... Li:',: '11'r'(.,ttt:'1Rettcl.,al and Rt'linn tn I.rlant (.Syracuse, 1987;.